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Annals of the 
Smithsonian Institution 

1995 




Smithsonian Institution Ptess 
Washington, D.C. 









Annals of the 
Smithsonian Institution 

1995 



Smithsonian Institution Press 
Washington, D.C. 



Contents 



Statement by the Secretary 5 

Report of the Board of Regents 7 

Chronology 9 

Reports of the Bureaus and Offices of the 
Smithsonian Institution for Fiscal Year 1995 

37 

Members of Smithsonian Councils, Boards, and 
Commissions, September 30, 1995 96 

Visits to the Smithsonian Institution Museums and 
Galleries in Fiscal Year 1995 104 

Academic, Research Training, and Internship 
Appointments and Research Associates in Fiscal 
Year 1995 105 



Award Activity at the Smithsonian Institution in 
Fiscal Year 1995 145 

Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 
in Fiscal Year 1995 154 

Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian 
Institution and Its Subsidiaries in Fiscal Year 
1995 158 

The Smithsonian Institution and Its Subsidiaries, 
September 30, 1995 226 

Donors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal 
Year 1995 251 

Contributing Members of the Smithsonian 
Institution in Fiscal Year 1995 298 

Financial Report 312 



Note: The contents of Annals were produced from electronic files provided by the bureaus and offices. 



Smithsonian 
Institution 



Archives of American Art 

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery /Freer Gallery of Art 

Center for Museum Studies 

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Institutional Studies Office 

National Air and Space Museum 

National Museum of African Art 

National Museum of American Art 

National Museum of American History 

National Museum of the American Indian 

National Portrait Gallery 

Office of Exhibits Central 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 



Educational and Cultural Programs 



Establishment, Board of Regents. Executive Committee, 
and the Secretary 

Office of the Secretary 

Office of the Under Secretary 

Office of the Provost 

Office of Inspector General 

Office of Planning, Management, and Budget 

Office of General Counsel 

Office of Government Relations 

Office of Communications 



Provost 



Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies 

National Science Resources Center 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 



Under Secretary 

Finance and Administration 

Institutional Advancement 

National Campaign for the National Museum of the 

American Indian 
Office of Membership and Development 
Office of Special Events and Conferences 
Smithsonian Women's Committee 



Sciences 



Other Functions 



Conservation Analytical Laboratory 
National Museum of Natural History 
National Zoological Park 
Office of Fellowships and Grants 
Office of International Relations 
Office of Smithsonian Institution Archives 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Arts and Humanities 

Anacostia Museum 
4 



Business Management Office 

Office of the Senior Information Officer 

Office of Telecommunications 

The Smithsonian Associates 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

Smithsonian Magazine 

Air & Space/Smithsonian Magazine 

Affiliated Organizations 

John F. Kennedy for the Performing Arts 

National Gallery of Art 

Reading Is Fundamental 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 



Statement by the 
Secretary 



When I look back at my installation as Smithsonian Secretary, 
in September 1994, it seems simultaneously to have happened 
yesterday and a decade ago. I can hardly remember doing 
anything else; yet I don't know where the year went. 

For me, one of the most exciting events of the year was the 
launching of the Smithsonian's World Wide Web site on May 
8, 1995. The Smithsonian Home Page (http://www.si.edu) is a 
gateway to more than 2,000 electronic pages and thousands of 
images in a fully integrated, cross-referenced presentation of 
the Smithsonian's sites, people, and resources. This was the 
first step toward fulfilling the commitment I made at my 
installation, a promise that the Smithsonian would become 
more than the place to visit in Washington, that we should 
become present throughout the country in new ways, and that 
we would become deeply engaged in this new world of 
information transmission and sharing. As of September 30, 
more than 8.5 million "hits" have been recorded at the site. 

At the heart of the information revolution is something far 
more than an advance in technology. It is the fulfilling of one 
central promise of democracy: to make knowledge available to 
as many citizens as possible, and to allow that access to be 
shaped by their needs. The "Electronic Smithsonian" gives us 
an opportunity to interact with America's homes, schools, 
senior-citizen and youth centers, universities, museums, 
laboratories, and research centers in ways undreamed of a few 
years ago. As we prepare for the celebration of our 150th 
anniversary in 1996, we have continued to enlarge our 
technological capacity and knowledge to extend the reach of 
our historic mission. James Smithson's goal of the "increase 
and diffusion of knowledge" has been reborn for a new century. 

Three ma]or challenges have also punctuated the year. First, 
leadership changed in Congress, and we have had to get to 



know a whole new group of legislators and staff whose actions 
can deeply affect us. Second, the Enola Gay episode exploded, 
raising other issues as well, and disproportionately dominated 
attention internally and externally; we were uncertain 
whether the Smithsonian would continue to be cherished in 
the light of so much negative publicity. However, a public 
opinion survey taken befote the exhibit opened showed 
encouraging results. Seventy-two percent of the people who 
were surveyed said that the Smithsonian was extremely 
important or very important as a major place in which to 
understand American culture and American history. Just 14 
percent said they were somewhat less favorable toward the 
Smithsonian given what had happened. Third, it became 
apparent that Congress was going to take serious action to 
tame the budget deficit, that our budget would have to be 
affected, and that we would have to concentrate on where to 
reduce operations to live within a lower appropriation. 

It appears that we have established a good relationship with 
our oversight and appropriation committees and othets in the 
legislature. This is evidenced by fair treatment in the budget 
process, real participation by our Congressional Regents, both 
old and new, at Institution events, and a showing of great 
interest in various of our activities by the Speaker, other 
legislators, and key Congressional staff. 

The Enola Gay imbroglio was an enormous trial. The 
conflict required us to question anew how both to tespect 
scholarly integrity and to assure our general and specific 
publics when we deal in conttoversial areas that we are not 
using exhibitions to inculcate a patticular viewpoint. This is 
no easy task, and we now have a set of guidelines that set 
forth useful processes tor future exhibitions. However, thete is 
no substitute for good judgment and a disposition to try to be 



objective, no marrer how hard the quest. I do not urge the 
avoidance of all potentially controversial exhibitions. When 
they are done well, they respect both subject and audience and 
promote genuine understanding of tough issues. 

The Smithsonian's budget problems are very real. We have 
received sympathetic treatment in Congress which, at this 
writing, has saved the planned Cultural and Conservation 
Center of the National Museum of the American Indian 
(although completion will also require the expenditure of 
some private funds raised by the museum) and increased our 
repair and renovation budget by 30 percent (a welcome 
enhancement to address serious facility problems). However, 
by not funding mandatory wage and inflationary increases 
Congress has effectively cut our base budget by 4 to 5 percent. 

Since we cannot assume that this base cut is a one-year 
phenomenon, it is clear that change in the management 
structure and style of the Institution is required to prepare the 
Institution for the challenges of the 21st century. We must 
continue to reconfigure ourselves and to make permanent 
reductions and consolidations. To that end, our newly tormed 
Provost's Office (which replaces three Assistant Secretary- 
offices) will emphasize service to the museums, research 
institutes, and other program and support offices; coordinate 
central oversight more efficiently; decentralize 
decision-making; and encourage greater coordination and 
cooperation among the various program units across the 
Institution. 

I end this report on my first year as Secretary with an 
enthusiastic look ahead at our 150th year celebration in 1996. 
We see the 150th anniversary as an opportunity to say "thank 
you" to the American public, which has supported the 



Smithsonian for all these years, by offering many of our best 
exhibits and programming. 

Although there will be special exhibitions and events here 
in the nation's capital, the Institution's home, the most 
ambitious projects for our celebration will bring the national 
museums to millions of people who may not plan to visit 
Washington next year. If they cannot come to us, we will go 
to them. These include a wonderful traveling exhibition, 
"America's Smithsonian," which will take highlights from the 
national collections to people around the country, and 
television programs throughout the year on CBS. And we will 
continue to expand and enhance the role of the "Electronic 
Smithsonian." 

As we end the fiscal year, Discover Card and Intel have 
joined the Smithsonian's Corporate Partner Program, which 
will support the network television programming, the 
traveling exhibition, and a celebration on the National Mall 
in Washington on August 10, 1996, the actual anniversary of 
the Act of Congress that established the Institution. Thanks 
to their cooperation, the Smithsonian will be able to touch the 
lives of Americans nationwide in ways new to all of us. 

I hope that these activities will both reinforce the splendor 
and importance of the Smithsonian in the minds of Americans 
and lead to expanded private support for our undertakings. 
We have entered an era in which the Smithsonian must rely 
more heavily on private support from individuals and 
corporations, and this presents us with both challenges and 
great opportunities. 

/. Michael Heyman 

Secretary 

September 30. ipp5 



Report of the Board 
of Regents 



The Smithsonian's Board of Regents held plenary meetings on 
January 30, May 8, and September 18, 1995, and sponsored 
committee meetings throughout the year. The Executive 
Committee, the Nominating Committee, the Audit and 
Review Committee, the Investment Policy Committee, and 
the Personnel Committee advanced the work of the board 
with increasing effectiveness. 

Membership on the board sustained a fair degree of 
turnover. In the November 1994 elections. House Speaker 
Tom Foley and Senator Jim Sasser were not returned to office 
and left the Board of Regents at the end of the 103rd 
Congress. Senator John Warner resigned to take on additional 
Senate responsibilities. Representative Norman Y. Mineta 
resigned from the Congress and thereby left the board. The 
board designated all four of these former regents as regents 
emeritus. New regents from the Congress were Representative 
Bob Livingston, Representative Sam Johnson, Senator Alan 
K. Simpson, and Senator Thad Cochran. 

There was also turnover among the citizen members, as I. 
Michael Heyman resigned to become secretary of the 
Smithsonian, and the second terms of Jeannine S. Clark and 
Samuel C. Johnson expired. To fill these vacancies, the regents 
nominated Louis V. Gerstner Jr. of Connecticut, Howard H. 
Baker Jr. of the District of Columbia, and Anne d'Harnon- 
court of Pennsylvania. The regents also nominated Regent 
Homer A. Neal for a successive statutory term of six 
years. 

During the fiscal year, the regents met with their 
Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian, received the 
commission's report, and, with the assistance of the new ad 
hoc Committee on Policy and Programs, formulated responses 
to the recommendations. Noting that a number of the 
recommendations required the secretary's response over time, 
they asked for a progress report at least once a year. Working 
with the ad hoc committee and the secretary, the regents 



adopted guidelines to help Smithsonian advisory boards fulfill 
their support functions. 

Secretary Heyman engaged the regents in discussions of 
particularly difficult issues. After extensive deliberations, the 
regents publicly expressed their support for the secretary's 
decision to cancel the long-planned and highly controversial 
exhibition on the Enola Gay and the end of World War II at 
the National Air and Space Museum and replace it with a 
display of the aircraft and related artifacts. After reviewing 
the findings of a National Academy of Public Administration 
study on the organization and management of the museum, 
the boatd adopted guiding principles for recruiting a new 
director and developing a mission statement. 

The Board of Regents reviewed the secretary's plans for 
reorganization of Smithsonian senior management and 
adopted changes in its bylaws to conform to the new 
organization. The regents also approved revised bylaws for the 
Smithsonian National Board and appointed its officers and 
membership. By regents' resolution, the chairman of the 
Smithsonian National Board will remain a nonvoting 
participant in regents' meetings. The regents also adopted 
revisions to the bylaws of the Commission of the National 
Portrait Gallery. 

Several reports to the Board of Regents during the year 
were especially significant with respect to the future of the 
Smithsonian. The board received reports on Latino initiatives, 
plans for the 1996 150th anniversary year and the traveling 
exhibition "America's Smithsonian," the development of the 
150th Anniversary Corporate Partner Program, and the debut 
of the Smithsonian's home page on the World Wide Web. 
The Regents also discussed issues of revenue enhancement, 
development initiatives, and increasing fiscal stringencies. In 
the latter context, the regents authorized the deaccession or 
the Barney Studio House sub]ect to review by the Executive 
Committee. 

In other actions, the Board of Regents approved the 
development of an affinity credit card, endorsed the phased 
planning of the extension ot the National Air and Space 
Museum and reaffirmed its placement at Washington Dulles 
International Airport, and voted to continue soliciting 
voluntary donations in selected Smithsonian museums. The 
board also noted that the Senate has requested a feasibility 
study on collecting admission fees in the museums. 

The regents awarded the Joseph Henry Medal to retiring 
General Counsel Peter G. Powers and to Representative 
Sidney R. Yates, a regent emeritus, in grateful recognition of 
their decades of extraordinary service to the Smithsonian. 

During the year, the regents appointed the following 
individuals to boards and commissions: Manley Alan Begay 
Jr., George L. Cornell, Billy L. Cypress, Dwight Gourneau, 
Gerald R. McMaster, Joann Sebastian Morris, Nancy Clark 
Reynolds, Phyllis Young, James A. Block, Ellsworth H. 
Brown, Catherine Sweeney Fowler, Douglas M. George, Jorge 
Flores Ochoa, Luci Tapahonso, and Bernard Julian Whitebear 
to the Board of Trustees ot the National Museum of the 



American Indian; Kathleen Allaire, Harvey Krueger, Richard 
Smith, Agnes Bourne, Barbara Levin, and Richard Hayden ro 
the Board of Trustees or the Cooper-Hewitr, National Design 
Museum; David C. Driskell, Frances Humphrey Howard, 
Robin B. Marnn, and Robert H. Nooter to the Commission 
of the National Museum of African Art; Nancy Ruth Morin, 
Alan K. Simpson, and Stanley O. Ikenberry to the Board of 
the National Museum of Natural History; Edwin I. Colodny, 
Ann Cousins, Frank K. Ribehn, Wanda M. Corn, Rosa 
Rionda de la Cruz, Paul D. Parkman, and Gerald L. Pearson 
to the Commission of the National Museum of American Art; 
Mrs. Hart Fessenden, Kurt Gitter, Jill Hornor Ma, Aboulala 
Soudavar, and Paul Walter to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 
Visiting Committee; and Roger Covey, Richard Danziger, and 
Cynthia Helms to the Freer Gallery of Art Visiting 
Committee. 

Staff Changes 

Throughout fiscal year 1995, under the new leadership of I. 
Michael Heyman, various reorganizations were undertaken to 
place greater emphasis on the responsibilities of the museums, 
research centers, and offices. The Office of the Provost was 
established under Robert S. Hoffmann, the Smithsonian's 
former assistant secretary for science. On an interim basis, 
former assistant secretaries Tom L. Freudenheim and James C. 
Early and deputy assistant secretary Ross B. Simons became 
assistant provosts. Former Assistant Secretary Thomas E. 
Lovejoy was named counselor to the secretary for biodiversity 



and environmental affairs, former deputy assistant secretary 
Marc J. Pachter became counselor to the secretary for special 
projects and the electronic media, and Miguel A. Bretos 
served as counselor to the secretary for Latino affairs under 
contract. Alice Green Burnette was given the new title of 
assistant secretary for institutional advancement. 

Retiring from the administrative ranks were Peter G. 
Powers, the Smithsonian's first general counsel, former 
Assistant Secretary John F.Jameson, and Contracting Officer 
Robert P. Perkins. Other departures of note included Director 
of Government Relations Mark W. Rodgers, Deputy Assistant 
Secretary Claudine K. Brown, Director of Facilities Services 
Richard L. Siegle, Director of Protection Services Charles A. 
Hines, and National Air and Space Museum Director Martin 
O. Harwit. We were fortunate to have recruited by year's end 
J. Dennis O'Connor to become the Smithsonian's first 
permanent provost on January 1, 1996; John E. Huerta to 
assume the position ot general counsel on November 13, 1995; 
David J. Umansky, who was appointed to the new position of 
director of communications in March 1995; M. John Berry, 
who became director of government relations in April 1995; 
John W. Cobert to assume the directorship of the Contracts 
Office; Edith W. Hedlin, who became director of the Office of 
the Smithsonian Institution Archives in October 1994; and 
Nicole L. Krakora, who was appointed director of special 
events and conferences services in June 1995. 

To these officers and countless others, we owe a debt of 
gratitude for their efforts to bring the Smithsonian to its 
present greatness and envision its possibilities for the future. 



October— September 



Chronology 



■ Acquisitions The National Museum of American Art 
strengthened its collection with some 600 works, in- 
cluding major paintings by American modernists 
Georgia O'Keeffe and Robert Motherwell, a 24-foot- 
wide sculpture by Louise Nevelson, and a collection of 
approximately 300 prime examples of early American 
photography. The Renwick Gallery acquired some 60 
new examples of 20th-century American crafts, made 
possible in large part by The James Renwick Alliance, 
which this year passed the half-million-dollar mark in 
gifts to the Renwick for acquisitions. 



October— September 



Fall 

■ Acquisition At auction, Cooper-Hewitt, National 
Design Museum acquired six lots of rare French wall- 
papers representing the work of some of the premier 
French wallpaper producers of the late 18th and early 
19th centuries. 

Fall 

■ Fellowship Four senior fellows in plant science were 
appointed under the Smithsonian Institution University 
Program in the Studies of Evolution of Terrestrial Eco- 
systems, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. 

Fall 

■ Children's Book In collaboration with Hyperion 
Books for Children (a Disney affiliate), the National 
Museum of American Art published Celebrate America 

in Poetry and Art. More than 20,000 copies of this 
children's book have been sold, and a softcover edition 
is in the works. 



■ Collections Preservation The National Museum of Afri- 
can Art's Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives contin- 
ued work on the Eliot Elisofon Motion Picture Film 
Collection Preservation and Classification Project, 
funded for the second year through a grant from the 
Smithsonian Research Resources Program. 

October— July 

■ Fellowships Fellowships in Museum Practice from 
the Center for Museum Studies brought two museum 
professionals to the Smithsonian. Teresa Morales of the 
Programa de Museos Comunitarios y Ecomuseos, 
Oaxaca, Mexico, conducted research on "Cultural Ap- 
propriation and Community Museums," and D. Lynn 
McRainey of the Chicago Historical Society studied "In- 
terpreting History through Interactive Experiences." 

October— November 

■ Teachers' Program Thousands of teachers across the 
country participated in a nationally broadcast series of 
interactive videos produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian 
Center for Astrophysics Science Education Department to 
demonstrate how student misconceptions may interfere 
with the learning of science. 



Fall 



October— November 



■ Research Seminar Series In a seminar series supported 
by the Educational Outreach Fund and coordinated by 
the Office of Fellowships and Grants, nine Smithsonian 
staff members spoke about Smithsonian research. The 
seminars were held at 16 large U.S. universities with sig- 
nificant numbers of students from underrepresented 
groups. 



■ Research A Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
instrument aboard the Spartan 201 satellite launched 
from the space shuttle discovered extremely hot gas in 
,the atmosphere above the Sun's south pole. This finding 
offers clues to the origin of the solar wind, a phenome- 
non that affects communications and power transmis- 
sion lines on Earth. 



October 



October I 



■ Research The Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center provided instrumentation for nine new auto- 
mated stations for the monitoring and sampling of 
stream discharges. This work is part of the center's 
Chesapeake Bay watershed study. 

October 

■ Public Program The Smithsonian Environmental Re- 
search Center held its annual weekend sale of bird seed, 
bird feeders, natural history books, and T-shirts. Visitors 
also enjoyed hayrides, tours of the buildings, and hikes 
on nature trails. 

October 

■ Publication Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
staff scientist D. Ross Robertson, in collaboration with 
Gerald R. Allen, published Fishes of the Tropical Eastern 
Pacific, the most comprehensive guide ever produced to 
the fish fauna of this region. 

October 

■ Teachers' Publication Beyond the Frame: Using Art 
for Interdisciplinary Learning, a teachers' guide contain- 
ing lessons on eight works of art from five Smithsonian 
art museums, was published by the Office of Elemen- 
tary and Secondary Education. This publication was de- 
signed for middle school and high school educators and 
is the fifth publication in a series sponsored by Brother 
International Corporation. 

October 

■ Latino Outreach Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Mu- 
seum received a $98,000 grant from the Smithsonian to 
support the Institution's efforts to increase its Latino audi- 
ence and expand its coverage of Latino contributions to his- 
tory, art, and science. The museum is using these funds to 
support educational programs, exhibition development, 
and the establishment of a Latino archive. 

October 

■ Publications and Products In conjunction with the 
opening of the George Gustav Heye Center, the Na- 
tional Museum of the American Indian released books 
on each of the three inaugural exhibitions, a music re- 
cording on compact disc and cassette tape, a calendar, a 
postcard book, and T-shirts. 



■ Visitor study The Smithsonian Office of Institutional 
Studies began a one-year survey of visitors to the Arthur 
M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art. Informa- 
tion gained through a year of face-to-face interviewing 
of gallery visitors should provide helpful knowledge for 
the focusing of priorities in exhibitions, research, and 
public programming. 

October 1— April 7 

■ Internships The new Museum Intern Partnership 
Program, sponsored by the Center for Museum Studies, 
offered a dual internship experience at the Smithsonian 
and a smaller, community-focused museum. 

October 1-2 

■ Special Event The Friends of the National Zoo 
launched its first annual ZooArts Festival featuring the 
work of prominent Washington-area artists and photog- 
raphers as well as local high school students and people 
from community groups. 

October 3 

■ Awards The National Zoological Park won three 
major awards at the annual meeting of the American 
Zoo and Aquarium Association: the top Conservation 
Award for NZP's outstanding golden lion tamarin con- 
servation program; the Edwatd H. Bean Award for Ex- 
cellence in Conservation for collaborative work on 
behalf of the endangered tiger (shared with two other 
U.S. zoos); and a Significant Achievement award for 
breeding Matschie's tree kangaroo at the Zoo's Conserva- 
tion and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. 

October 10 

■ Special Event At a signing ceremony hosted by Na- 
tional Geographic Society President Gilbert M. 
Grosvenor, Nissan U.S.A. 's Vice-President of Brand and 
Consumer Marketing Jerry Florence presented a check 
for $950,000 to Smithsonian Secretary I. Michael Hey- 
man to become the national corporate sponsor of the 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service- 
National Geographic Society exhibition, "Earth 2U, Ex- 
ploring Geography." The exhibition, which opened in 
November at the National Geographic Society, intro- 
duces children and their families to the wonders and 
complexities of world geography. 



10 



October 10 



October 20-23 



■ Public Program Nobel Peace Prize recipient Arch- 
bishop Desmond Tutu addressed an audience of more 
than 2,000 Smithsonian Associates and the general pub- 
lic as part or an African American Srudies Forum enti- 
tled "South Africa: After the Elections." 

October JJ 

■ Lecture "Amusing the Emperor: Unique Discoveries 
from a Chinese Imperial Kiln," this year's John A. Pope 
Memorial Lecture at the Freer Gallery of Art, was deliv- 
ered by Liu Xinyuan, director of the Jingdezhen Insti- 
tute of Ceramic Archaeology in China. 

October 14 

■ Major Gift The National Museum of Natural His- 
tory received one of the most significant contributions 
of jewelry and financial support in its history when Gil- 
bert S. Kahn announced a new gift from his mother, 
Janet Annenberg Hooker. Mrs. Hooker's gift included a 
suite of rare fancy yellow starburst diamonds and $2 
million toward the creation of the museum's Hall of 
Geology, Gems, and Minerals, bringing her support for 
the new hall to a total of S5 million. The complex will 
be named in honor of Mrs. Hooker. 

October 15 

■ Honors Glenn O. Tupper was the Smithsonian 
Benefactors' Circle Honoree and Lloyd G. Schermer was 
presented with the Joseph Henry Medal at the 
Smithsonian Benefactors' Circle recognition dinner. 

October l8~December 18 

■ Lecture Series Eight Nobel laureates in physics partic- 
ipated in an unprecedented lecture series sponsored by 
The Smithsonian Associates. The world-renowned phys- 
icists recounted their prizewinning work and discussed 
their current research. 

October ip 

■ Educational Publication The National Postal Museum 
published the Elementary School Postal Pack, an activity 
book and resource guide that integrates letter writing, 
postal history, and stamp collecting into language arts, 
history, geography, and math curnculums. 



■ Meeting The Smithsonian Council, a group of 25 in- 
dividuals active in a variery of fields and disciplines, 
met in Washington, D.C., to assess the Smithsonian's 
anthropological and cultural studies programs as well as 
programs of the Institution's conservation biology com- 
munity and the Conservation Training Council. 

October 20 

■ Lecture The Smithsonian Accessibility Program pre- 
sented "Behind the Desk: Accommodating Volunteers 
with Disabilities" to staff from the Smithsonian and 
Washington, D.C., cultural organizations. The program 
was one of 10 monthly lectures on museum accessibility 
for people with disabilities. 

October 21 

■ Public program A Southeast Asian Film Series spon- 
sored by the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery opened with the 
Vietnamese film, "Abandoned Field," and went on to 
show four other seldom-screened classic films, includ- 
ing two directed by His Majesty Norodom Sihanouk of 
Cambodia. 

October 24 

■ Major Gift The Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation 
made a $10 million contribution to the National Cam- 
paign for the National Museum of the American In- 
dian, at the time the largest contribution to the 
Smithsonian in its 148-year history. 

October 2J 

■ Public program The Bill and Mary Meyer Concert Se- 
ries of six evenings of chamber music opened with the 
first of three appearances by Musicians from Marlboro. 
Other performers this year were The Shanghai Quartet, 
Pamela Frank, and the Takacs Quartet. 

October 27 

■ Visit Leszek Kuznicki, president of the Polish Acad- 
emy of Sciences, visited the Smithsonian. 

October 28— February 26 

■ Exhibition "Free within Ourselves: African- 
American Art from the Museum's Collection" was on 
view at the National Museum ot American Art. Nearly 



11 



200 works in all media by some ioo artists, drawn from 
the nation's most extensive public collection of African 
American art, illustrated the scope of the African Ameri- 
can contribution to the visual arts. Affirmation Today, a 
30-minute video produced in conjunction with the 
exhibition, highlighted the life and work of five African 
American artists. 

October 28-May 12 

■ Education Program The National Zoological Park 
and the Fairfax County Public Schools coproduced four 
"Science Safari" programs for elementary school stu- 
dents and an "Electronic Field Trip" for middle school 
students, both with related curriculum materials. The 
programs were broadcast to schools nationwide via satel- 
lite downlink or cable television. 

October 30 

■ Opening The George Gustav Heye Center of the 
National Museum of the American Indian opened with 
three inaugural exhibitions in New York City. More 
than 60,000 people visited the Heye Center during its 
first month, almost one and one-half times the number 
who had visited the museum in an entire year at its old 
location. 

October 30 

■ Publicity Campaign The Office of Public Affairs or- 
ganized the publicity campaign for the opening of the 
New York facility of the National Museum of the Amer- 
ican Indian. The opening began with a week of special 
previews for the media, donors, members, and other 
guests, culminating in a Native American blessing on 
the steps of the Custom House, the home of the mu- 
seum. Media coverage was extensive, reaching millions 
of Americans through netwotk television, national news 
magazines, and Native American publications. 

October 30 

■ Awards The first five recipients of the National Mu- 
seum of the American Indian's Art and Cultural 
Achievement Award were announced. They were Allan 
Houser (Chiricahua Apache), posthumously; Oren R. 
Lyons (Onondaga); N. Jana Harcharek (Inupiat); Gero- 
nima Cruz Montoya (San Juan Pueblo); and Katherine 
Siva Saubel (Cahuilla). 



October 30 

■ Publications Smithsonian Institution University 
Press served as the principal publication partner at the 
inaugural opening of the National Museum of the 
American Indian exhibit in New York City, through 
publication of the award-winning exhibition catalogues, 
Creation's Journey and All Roads Are Good, both 
copublished with NMAI. 

October 3/ 

■ New Office Secretary I. Michael Heyman combined 
the offices of three assistant secretaries to establish the 
Office of the Provost and appointed former Assistant 
Secretary for the Sciences Robert Hoffmann as acting 
provost. The new office plans, coordinates, facilitates, 
and evaluates the Institution's activities in research, 
collections management, exhibitions, education, and 
cultural programs. 

November 

■ Acquisition The National Museum of African Art 
added three important objects to its collections. Spoon, a 
conceptually complex modern bronze sculpture, was 
created by Amir I.M. Nour (b. 1939), a contemporary 
sculptor who was born in the Republic of Sudan and has 
lived in the United States for most of his adult life. A 
superb and rare carved wooden face mask from the Lele 
peoples of Zaire is decorated with metal applique, 
beads, and cowrie shells. A carved wooden face mask, 
Oloju-foforo. attributed to Yoruba artist Bamgboshe of 
Osi-Ilorin, Nigeria (d. ca. 1920), will be featured in the 
1995—96 exhibition "Three Explorations: Yoruba, 
Temne, and Baga." 

November 

■ Video Release The award-winning Office of Telecom- 
munications film In Open Air: A Portrait of the American 
Impressionists was released as a home video available for 
sale in the Museum Shops and through mail order. 

November 

■ Teachers' Program Teachers' Night at the Smithson- 
ian, sponsored and coordinated by the Office of Elemen- 
tary and Secondary Education, brought more than 1,200 
local teachers together with educators from more than 
30 Smithsonian museums and offices to sample educa- 
tional products and programs. 



12 



November 

■ New Communication Facility A satellite earth station 
was installed at the Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute's Tupper Center to establish more reliable com- 
munication between the Smithsonian Institution in 
Washington and STRI. 

November 3- -January 29 

■ Exhibition and Programs "Bruce Nauman," an inter- 
nationally celebrated retrospective of this American art- 
ist (b. 1941), had its first East Coast showing at the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Organized 
by the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in association 
with the Hirshhorn, the exhibition of high-intensity 
sculpture, photographs, drawings, films, holograms, 
and installations spurred in-depth public programming. 

November 7—13 

■ Benefit Event Visits to museums and private collec- 
tions, private receptions and special dinners, and other 
activities filled the week in Laguna Beach, California, 
for an Archives of American Art fund-raiser. The week 
culminated in a gala evening honoring the 101-year-old 
artist Beatrice Wood. 

November 7— 10 

■ Course Twenty-one participants attended the special- 
ist course "Conservation of Gilt Wood," organized at 
the Conservation Analytical Laboratory. The course is re- 
quired for students in CAL's Furniture Conservation 
Training Program. 

November 14 

■ Consortium The National Zoo's Conservation and Re- 
search Center, Environmental Systems Research Insti- 
tute, Inc., and Hewlett-Packard Company formed The 
Conservation Technology Support Program, a consor- 
tium that will provide computer hardware, software, 
and training to nonprofit conservation organizations in 
the United States and abroad. This program will enable 
biologists to more effectively analyze the environmental 
impact of land and natural resource utilization. 

November 17 

■ Exhibition "Directions — Gary Simmons" opened at 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, featur- 



ing cartoon-derived chalk images on 10 panels and a 10- 
by-37-foot gallery wall created by this New York-based 
artist (b. 1964). Providing subtle commentary on stereo- 
rypes of African Americans, the blackboard-like draw- 
ings showed images and objects gleaned mostly from 
race-specific cartoons of the 1930s and 1940s. 

November 17 

■ Benefit Event The Archives of American Art hosted a 
gala event for 280 guests honoring Agnes Gund, chair- 
man of the board of Trustees of the Museum of Modern 
Art. 

November 18 

■ Family Program The staff and children of the Em- 
bassy or Italy hosted a group of Resident Associate fami- 
lies in celebration of International Children's Day. The 
Italian actor Carlo Cicala delighted participants with 
folktales, original stories, and a group sing-along. 

November 19—20 

■ Special Event In celebration of the opening of the 
George Gustav Heye Center, the National Museum of 
the American Indian Powwow was held at the Jacob K. 
Javits Center in New York City. 

November 20 

■ Exhibition "In Search of Common Ground: Potomac 
Gardens, A Community of Senior Citizens," an exhibi- 
tion focusing on senior residents of a housing complex 
in southeast Washington, D.C., opened at the Anacostia 
Museum. The exhibition explored the effects of migra- 
tion from rural to urban and public housing environ- 
ments. It was cosponsored and funded by the D.C. 
Community Humanities Council and the National En- 
dowment for the Humanities. 

November 20 

■ Exhibition opening "A Basketmaket in Rural Japan" 
at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery celebrated the life's 
work of Hiroshima Kazuo, the last professional itiner- 
ant basketmaker in Hinokage, an agricultural region of 
southern Japan. Most of the works on view were loaned 
by the Department of Anthropology, National Museum 
of Natural History. 



13 



November 28 

m Exhibition "Best Wishes: Holiday Greetings from 
the White House," a temporary exhibition at the Na- 
tional Postal Museum, displayed White House Christ- 
mas cards from the Eisenhower administration to the 
present. 

December 



Publications Design Competition sponsored by the 
American Association of Museums. 

December $—p 

m Workshop The Center for Museum Studies Work- 
shop Series began with "Introduction to Public Pro- 
gramming." Three more workshops in basic museum 
operations were offered during the year. 



■ Latino Outreach The Office of Public Affairs ran the 
first of five advertising campaigns tor the year in three 
local Latino newspapers. OPA staff wrote the text in 
Spanish. The campaigns were geared toward the Christ- 
mas holidays, springtime events, the Festival of Ameri- 
can Folklife, summer events near the time of the Latin 
American festival held in Washington, D.C., and Hispa- 
nic Heritage Month. 



December 6 

■ Award The New York Chapter of the Industrial De- 
signers of America awarded Cooper-Hewitt, National 
Design Museum Director Dianne H. Pilgrim and Assis- 
tant Director for Public Programs Susan Yelavich the 
society's Bronze Apple Award for support, use, and en- 
couragement of good design. 



December 



December 7 



■ Research Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory sci- 
entists and their colleagues completed the most accurate 
test yet of a prediction of Albert Einstein's theory of 
general relativity. 



■ Appreciation Event The Visitor Information and 
Associates' Reception Center hosted the annual apprecia- 
tion event for volunteer information specialists, with re- 
marks by Secretary I. Michael Heyman. 



December 2 



December p 



■ Benefit Event Archives of American Art members 
were invited to the opening gala of ART 94 Los Ange- 
les, the International Contemporary Art Fair. Proceeds 
from the evening benefited the Archives. 



■ Awards The 1994 National Air and Space Museum 
Trophy awards were presenred to Michael H. Carr for life- 
time achievement and to Patty Wagstaff for current 
achievement. 



December 2— May 29 

■ Exhibition "Federal Profiles: Saint-Memin in Amer- 
ica, 1793— 1814" was on view at the National Portrait 
Gallery. French emigre Charles Balthazar Julien Fevret 
de Saint-Memin spent 20 years in the United States 
creating distinctive profile likenesses of the citizens and 
French emigres of the new nation. More than 200 of his 
miniature engravings and drawings were displayed. The 
accompanying catalog, Saint-Memin and the Neoclassical 
Profile Portrait in America, by Ellen G. Miles, curator of 
painting and sculpture at the Portrait Gallery, is a Barra 
Foundation book published by the gallery in association 
with the Smithsonian Institution Press. It was selected 
as best illustrated book in the Washington Book 
Publishers' annual Design and Effectiveness Competi- 
tion and also won second prize for books in the Museum 



December 9— February ip 

■ Exhibition Recent proposals by Western and Rus- 
sian artists for concepts to transform Moscow into a 
showplace of post-totalitarian art were the focus of 
"Monumental Propaganda," an exhibition produced 
by the International Gallery in the Office of the Pro- 
vost. "Collaborating with History," an introductory 
video produced for the exhibition, raised additional 
questions about the past and future of commemora- 
tive monuments in the former Soviet Union. 

December 13-Marcb /j 

■ Exhibition "Katharine Kuh: Interpreting the New" 
was on view in the Archives of American Art's New 
York Regional Center exhibition gallery. As an art histo- 



14 



nan, curator, gallery owner, and critic, Kuh champi- 
oned the cause of modernism throughout her life. 

December 18 

■ Special Event Three hundred fifty donors attended an 
afternoon holiday reception hosted in the Castle by 
Secretary I. Michael Heyman and his wile, Therese 
Heyman. 

December 24 

■ Exhibition opening "Paintings from Shiraz," an exhibi- 
tion selected from the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's 
Vever Collection ot Islamic Arts of the Book featured 
works from Shiraz, the city in southwestern Iran that 
was one of the great centers of Persian painting in the 

14 through 16' century. 

January- March, April— October 

■ Exhibition "Workers at the White House" was on 
exhibit at the Carter Presidential Library in Atlanta, 
Georgia, and at the Reagan Library in Simi Valley, Cali- 
fornia. The exhibition was produced by the Center for 
Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies in cooperation 
with the White House Historical Association and the 
National Archives. 

January 

■ Education Program The National Museum of African 
Art launched an ongoing series for young audiences 
called "Let's Read about Africa." The weekend pro- 
grams introduce young visitors to African culture, 
visual traditions, and the joy of reading. 

January 

■ New Research Facility The Solar Radiation Group of 
the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center moved 
into a newly completed laboratory addition at the 
center's main facility near Edgewater, Maryland. This 
group focuses on the measurement of solar radiation, es- 
pecially ultraviolet radiation, and on the effects of this 
radiation on living things. 



for access on the Internet as part of the Libraries' online 
catalog. Responding to the public's growing interest in 
non-Western art, the index of 52,000 citations was cre- 
ated by Libraries staff to identify source materials in 
this expanding field. 

January 

■ Research A submillimeter telescope developed by a 
consortium of research institutes including the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory was installed 
and operated at the South Pole to study giant molecular 
clouds in the Milky Way. 

January 

■ Curriculum Development The National Science 
Resources Center began nationally field-testing the pre- 
liminary edition of Animal Studies, a fourth-grade unit 
in the Science and Technology tor Children hands-on 
science curriculum program. 

January 

■ Electronic Outreach The Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries online catalog became available on the 
Internet at telnet://siris.si.edu. 

January 

■ Radio Series Jazz Smithsonian, hosted by Lena Home, 
began its third season on the air. It is being broadcast 
by Radio Smithsonian on a record 185 radio stations. 

January 

■ Exhibition The Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service's small-format, free-standing version 
of "Saynday was coming along . . . Silverhorn's Draw- 
ings of the Kiowa Trickster" opened at the Kiowa 
Tribal Museum in Carnegie, Oklahoma. Organized 
with the National Museum of Natural History in collab- 
oration with and with participation ttom the Kiowa 
community, "Saynday" will travel to Native American 
centers and small exhibit centers during the next three 
years. 



January 

■ Grant The Smithsonian Institution Libraries was 
awarded $197,250 from the Getty Grant Program to 
fund an online index and finding guide to the literatute 
of African art and culture. The index is being developed 



January 

■ Teachers' Publication Art to Zoo. the quarterly teaching 
guide for elementary and middle schools published by the 
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, adopted a 
new design, editorial, and distribution strategy. 



Januaiy 



January 2J 



■ Exhibition "Women in Action: Rebels and Reform- 
ers, 1920— 1980" opened at the National Museum of 
American History. The exhibition was sponsored by the 
League of Women Voters to celebrate the 75th anniver- 
sary of woman suffrage. 

Januaiy I 

■ Name Change The Office of Museum Programs 
changed its name to the Center for Museum Studies. 
The new name more accurately reflects the mission and 
work of the office and better accommodates efforts to 
establish networks with college and university museum 
studies programs. 

Januaij 7 

■ New Facility The Visitors Center of the 
Smithsonian's Whipple Observatory in Arizona offic- 
ially opened to the public, presenting exhibits on astron- 
omy, natural science, cultural history (and Smithsonian 
history), and the environment. 

January 12 

■ Research Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory- 
scientists and their colleagues found by far the best 
evidence for the existence of massive black holes. The 
discovery was based on radio observations of swirling 
gas orbiting a very dense concentration of material with 
the mass of about 40 million Suns. 

January 16 

■ Lecture The Office of the Provost sponsored the 
annual Martin Luther King Jr. Lecture with keynote 
speaker Harold Hongju Koh, professor of international 
law and director of the Orville Schell Jr. Center for 
International Human Rights at the Yale University- 
Law School. His lecture was titled "Aliens in our 

Beloved Community'." 

January 20 

■ Award Ceremony The Slovak Academy of Sciences 
presented the Aurel Stodola Golden Plaque to Slovak- 
American physicist Igor Bazovsky in a ceremony at the 
Smithsonian. 



■ Radio Advertising Campaign The first radio advertise- 
ment ran in the Office of Public Affairs' Black History 
Month campaign, one of three annual radio advertising 
campaigns aimed at local African American audiences, 
ages 25 to 45. OPA prepared the ad copy, and three 
local radio stations— WKYS, WPGC, and WHUR— 
produced the ads. The other campaigns were geared to 
spring school-break activities and to summer Festival of 
American Folklife events at the Smithsonian. 

January 24 

■ Members' Event Contributing Members attended a 
private viewing of the exhibition "Contemporary Crafts 
and the Saxe Collection" at the Renwick Gallery of the 
National Museum of American Art. 

Januaiy 28 

■ Conference Prominent musicians and promoters who 
helped shape the local contemporary musical scene dis- 
cussed the history of Latin music in Washington, DC, 
at a conference sponsored by the Anacostia Museum. 

January 28—February 13 

■ Study Tour For the first time, Smithsonian Associ- 
ates journeyed to Vietnam and Cambodia on two inter- 
national study tours sponsored by The Smithsonian 
Associates. 

January 30— February 18 

■ Tour The Archives of American Art sponsored an 
exploration of extraordinary architectural and artistic 
sights, "Temple-Mountains and Dragon Kings." Tour- 
ing on land and sea, this adventure began in Bangkok 
and continued to Cambodia, Vietnam, and Hong Kong. 
Archives Trustee Council member Dr. Helen Jessup was 
the guest lecturer. 

F ebruary—September 

■ Exhibition "Virgil Whyte 'All-Girl' Band," a display 
of photographs, documents, and artifacts, was on view 
at the National Museum of American History. The exhi- 
bition showed how a touring U.S.O. band promoted 
equal job opportunity for women during World War II 
because the band's director, Virgil Whyte, demanded 
that his female musicians receive union pay equal to 
that of male musicians of comparable skills. 



16 



February I— 4 

■ Public Program John Singleton, director of the ac- 
claimed Boyz n the Hood, was among the participants 
at the conference "100 Years of Black Film: Imaging 
African American Life, History, and Culture" at the 
National Museum of American History 1 . 

February 6-p 

■ Course "Exhibit, Storage, and Handling of Furniture 
Collections," a preservation-oriented specialist course 
for caretakers of furniture collections, was organized at 
the Conservation Analytical Laboratory. 

February 8 

■ Television Broadcast Millions of early-morning tele- 
vision viewers had a good look at the National Museum 
of American History when it was the site of a special 
broadcast of Good Morning America on ABC. 

February 10— November ip 

■ Exhibition "Majestic in His Wrath: The Life of Fred- 
erick Douglass," coorganized with the National Park 
Service, was on view at the National Portrait Gallery. 
Commemorating the 100th anniversary of civil rights 
crusader Douglass' death, this exhibition evoked his life 
and legacy. The accompanying catalog, Majestic in His 
Wrath: A Pictorial Life of Frederick Douglass, by Portrait 
Gallery historian Frederick S. Voss, received the Blue 
Pencil Award from the National Association of 
Governmenr Communicators. 

February 10 

■ Public Program In a Cultures in Motion program at 
the National Portrait Gallery entitled "The Painted 
Gourd: Red and Black Voices," Penny Gamble Wil- 
liams (Wampanoag/Chappaquiddick), ZSun-nee 
Matema (Choctaw/African), and Victoria Price 
(Cherokee/African) shared stories, histories, drama, 
and music from their mixed Native American and 
African American heritage of the Southeast. 

February /J 

■ Exhibition First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton 
addressed students, teachers, and several White House 
workers at Shaed Elementary School in northeast Wash- 
ington, D.C., in conjunction with the opening of the 
exhibition "Workers at the White House" at the school. 



The exhibition was produced by the Center for Folklife 
Programs and Cultural Studies in cooperation with the 
White House Historical Association and the National 
Archives. 

February /J 

■ Exhibition "Asbestos: Promise, Problems, Panic, Pru- 
dence" opened ar the National Museum of American 
History as part of the museum's "History in the News" 
series. 

February 17 

■ Exhibition "Impressions of Another Land," an exhibi- 
tion of children's art, opened in the National Zoo's 
Education Building. The artists, fourth graders from 
Sydney, Australia, and Chevy Chase, Maryland, drew a 
remarkable series of pictures of Australian animals — the 
Sydney students from firsthand experience, the Mary- 
landers from photographs and videotapes. 

February 2 3 

■ Television Broadcast Workers at the White House aired 
on Washington public television station WETA as part 
of the commemoration of Black History Month. The 
video was produced by the Center for Folklife Programs 
and Cultural Studies in cooperation with the White 
House Historical Association and the National Archives. 

February 28— March I 

■ Conjerence The National Science Resources Center 
and the Academia de la Investigacion Cientffica, the 
Mexican counterpart of the National Academy of Sci- 
ences, cosponsored Mexico's first Forum on Science Edu- 
cation. The 75 participants, including corporate 
executives and educators, explored how business and 
industry in Mexico could become involved in science 
education reform. 

March 

■ Visit South African Minister of Arts, Culture, 
Science, and Technology Baldwin Ngubane visited the 
Smithsonian. 

March 

■ Exhibition "Full Deck Art Quilts" opened at the 
Renwick Gallery of the National Museum of American 
Art. Developed by Maryland-based artist Sue Pierce and 



r 



the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Ser- 
vice, this exhibition features 54 dramatically colored 
quilts inspired by playing-card images. The exhibi- 
tion is traveling to 11 locations across the country, in- 
cluding regional art centers, university galleries, and 
art museums. 

March 

■ Fellowships At the Smithsonian Tropical Research In- 
stitute, Ulrich Mueller, a researcher from Cornell Uni- 
versity, was selected as the first Earl S. Tupper 
three-year postdoctoral fellow; he will conduct research 
on "The Evolution and Ecology of the Attine-Fungus 
Symbiosis." Eloisa Lasso, a senior botany student at the 
University of Panama, was the first recipient of the Alan 
P. Smith Fellowship. 

March 

■ Visitor Survey The National Museum of Natural His- 
tory completed a comprehensive visitor survey, devoting 
one year to interviewing nearly 5,000 visitors. The sur- 
vey revealed that nearly half of visitors come to the mu- 
seum with children, many are visiting the museum for 
the first time, and most have a relatively focused goal 
for their visit. The results will help the museum de- 
velop the most effective and popular exhibitions and 
public programs. 

March 

m 'Exhibition "Spiders!" — organized by the National 
Museum of Natural History and circulated by the 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service — 
began its national tour at the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History in New York City. Funded by Marvel 
Entertainment, "Spiders!" will rravel to nine more sci- 
ence and natural history museums through 1997, includ- 
ing the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, the Royal 
Ontario Museum in Toronto, and the Field Museum of 
Natural History in Chicago. 

March 

■ New Construction Construction of a new 10,460- 
square-foot office building was begun at the 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. The 
new building will house the administiative and edu- 
cation program staffs as well as the center's central 
computer facilities. 



March 

■ Special Event In a ceremony at the National Museum 
of American History, Hillary Rodham Clinton pre- 
sented the gown she wore to inaugural balls in 1993 to 
the First Ladies Collection. The gown is on exhibit in 
the "Ceremonial Court," which displays many artifacts 
belonging to past presidents and first families and re- 
creates architectural details of the 1902 White House. 

March 6 

■ Benefit Event The Detroit Council of the Archives of 
American Art presented "Celestial Sorcery," its annual 
benefit ball, at the Renaissance Club in Detroit. 

March 8 

■ Awards Program The National Science Resources 
Center cohosted a program for secondary school teachers 
who received the Presidential Awards for Excellence in 
Science and Mathematics Teaching. 

March p 

m Tour The Archives of American Art New York 
Committee visited the studio and home of the re- 
nowned sculptor Donald Judd. William Agee, professor 
of art history at Hunter College and chairman of the 
Archives' New York Advisory Committee, lectured on 
Judd's private collection, which shows the evolution of 
his work and displays the work of artists he admited. 

March 12-14 

■ Conference Smithsonian scholats from many dis- 
ciplines held a three-day conference, "What About In- 
crease? The First Science and Humanities Dialogue." 
The event was supported by the Office of the Provost. 
Focusing on the history and conttibutions of Smithson- 
ian researchers, the meeting brought together scholars 
from the sciences and humanities for the first time in 
many years and fostered a spirit of community, shared 
goals, and cooperative endeavor. 

March 15 

■ Publication Aivard Smithsonian Institution Univer- 
sity Press's publication Eakins and the Photograph: Works 
by Thomas Eakins and His Circle in the Collection of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, by Suan Danly and 
Cheryl Liebold, was selected as the winner of the 



18 



George Wittenborn Memorial Award, given annually 
by the Art Libraries Society or North America. 

March JJ 

■ Exhibition "Directions- — Cindy Sherman: Film 
Stills" opened at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, marking the first complete showing of a forma- 
tive series for this artist (b. 1954), who is known for her 
evocatively staged, self-posed photographs. The exhibi- 
tion inspired programs, including a film-noir festival, a 
high school photography project and exhibition, a lec- 
ture, and a "Young at Art" photo-collage workshop. 

March 16 

■ Dedication The Smithsonian Tropical Research Insti- 
tute dedicated its library to Earl S. Tupper on the open- 
ing of the new annex and the expansion of the original 
library building, which were made possible by a gift 
from the Tupper family. The STRI branch of the 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries has been the premier 
Central American research library for the scientific com- 
munity since 1956. The renovated facilities will help 
staff serve the 18,000 library users who come each year. 

March iy 

■ Special Event To promote understanding of the size 
and scope of the Smithsonian, the Visitor Information 
and Associates' Reception Center cohosted a reception 
with the Washington Area Concierge Association for 
leading international concierges who were in the city to 
attend the annual meeting of Les Clefs d'Or. 

March 18-19 

■ Public Program and Exhibition The National Museum 
of American History presented "What's American 
about American Quilts?" — a conference examining as- 
pects of American and European quilting traditions. 
The forum was produced with support from the Ameri- 
can Quilt Defense Fund. On March 14, the museum 
opened the exhibition "Putting Her Best Quilt For- 
ward: Exhibiting at the Fair," which focused on how 
19th-century fairs gave women quilters an opportunity 
to display their talents and gather new ideas. 

March 22 

■ Public Program The National Air and Space 
Museum's most prestigious space lecture, the Wernher 
von Braun Memorial Lecture, was presented by Dr. 



John H. Gibbons, assisrant to the president for science 
and Technology and director of the White House Office 
of Science and Technology Policy. 

March 23-26 

■ Outreach At the National Science Teachers 
Association's annual convention in Philadelphia, the Na- 
tional Science Resources Center exhibited its programs, 
made presentations, and gave workshops on its Science 
and Technology for Children curriculum units. 

March 23 

■ Milestone Jomu, one of the world's first cheetahs 
produced by artificial insemination, became part of the 
National Zoo's Cheetah Conservation Station. The 21- 
month-old female is a product of new research in as- 
sisted reproduction of endangered cats conducted at the 
Caldwell Zoo in Tyler, Texas, by staff from the Zoo's 
New Opportunities in Animal Health Sciences Center. 

March 24 

■ Major Gift Agnes Bourne, a San Francisco-based fur- 
niture and interior designer, and her husband Dr. James 
Luebbers sold their century-old landmark mansion, 
Stonehouse, and donated $2 million of the proceeds to 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum for the 
museums renovation and accessibility project. 

March 24 

■ Exhibition "The Human Figure Interprered: Mod- 
ern Sculpture from the Hirshhorn Museum" opened 
at the Taipei Fine Arts Museum in Taiwan, launching 
a tour that included museums in Otsu, Tokyo, Iwaki, 
and Takamatsu, Japan. The largest presentation of 
sculpture from the Hirshhorn ever sent overseas, the 
exhibition featured some 60 works by Edgar Degas, 
Henri Matisse, Alexander Archipenko, Alberto 
Giacometti, Henty Moore, Marino Marini, and — in 
Japan only, where the tour was supported by Tokyo's 
Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper chain — Auguste Rodin 
and Jacques Lipchitz. 

March 25- April 7 

■ Study Tour Smithsonian Associates traveled to Syria 
for the first time on an international study tour spon- 
sored by The Smithsonian Associates, visiting the classi- 
cal archaeological sites of Palmyra and Apamea. 



19 



March 2$ 

■ Festival The largest crowd ever — estimated at more 
than 15,000 people — attended The Smithsonian 
Associates' 29th annual Kite Festival on the Washing- 
ton Monument grounds. Kite flyers from all over the 
world entered the handmade-kite flying contest, and 
the sky was filled with stunning kite displays provided 
by contestants and various kite organizations. 

March 26 

■ Public program "A Discussion with Hiroshima 
Kazuo," whose work was featured in the exhibition "A 
Basketmaker in Rural Japan" at the Arthur M. Sackler 
Gallery drew members of the public whose interest had 
been piqued by Mr. Hiroshima's remarkable repertoire 
of utilitarian baskets. 

March 27 

■ Neics Conference The Office of Public Affairs organ- 
ized a news conference to launch the planning and com- 
memoration of the Smithsonian's 150th anniversary in 
1996. Secretary I. Michael Heyman described the 
Institution's plans for the celebration, from the big 
event on the National Mall to the once-in-a-lifetime 
traveling exhibition of treasures from the collections. 

March 31 

■ Facility Design The design of the National Museum 
of the American Indian's Cultural Resources Center in 
Suitland, Maryland, was completed by the award-win- 
ning architectural firm of Polshek and Partners of New 
York City, working with Metcalf Tobey Davis of Res- 
ton, Virginia, in association with the Native American 
Design Collaborative. 

Spring 

■ Awards Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 
received awards from the Art Director's Club and the 
Type Director's Club for the museum's new graphic 
identity program. 

Spring 

■ Publication National Museum of American Art. which 
invites readers to explore a wide range of the museum's 
collections, was published by the museum in collabora- 
tion wMth Bullfinch. Featuring 450 full-color 
illustrations, the book is organized thematically to re- 



flect the variety of concerns and aesthetic visions that 
have shaped American art over the past three centuries. 
It was the Smithsonian's annual gift to almost 80,000 
Contributing Members. 

April 

■ Exhibition A small-format, free-standing version was 
developed of the popular National Museum of Ameri- 
can History-Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service exhibition "Beyond Category: The Musical 
Genius of Duke Ellington." Two copies of this version, a 
collaboration between SITES and the American Library 
Association, opened simultaneously at the Carnegie 
Library of Pittsburgh and the Providence, Rhode Island, 
Public Library. SITES also prepared a third copy, which 
opened at the Broward County Main Library in Fort 
Lauderdale, Florida. The original exhibition was on 
view in California at the San Francisco and Monterey 
Jazz Festivals during the summer of 1995. "Beyond Cate- 
gory" is part of the program America's Jazz Heritage: A 
Partnership of the Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund 
and the Smithsonian Institution. 

April 

m Exhibitions The National Air and Space Museum 
opened two World War II-related exhibitions: "Build- 
ing the Arsenal of Democracy: World War II Photo- 
graphs from the National Air and Space Museum 
Archives" and "Hellcat." 

April 

■ New Laboratory The National Zoo's Department of 
Zoological Research established a biovisualization lab- 
oratory. Orchestrated by Dr. Alfred Rosenberger, this 
state-of-the-art computerized system incorporates dig- 
itized 3-D imaging and animation. These tools will 
allow scientists to display and study biological and 
cultural artifacts, such as animal skulls, in three- 
dimensional digital form with a high degree of 
accuracy. 

April 

■ Research The Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center initiated seasonal sampling of IOO tributaries 
of the Rappahannock and Shenandoah Rivers in Vir- 
ginia for concentrations of nutrients. The sampling 
was part of the center's overall study of the Chesa- 
peake Bay watershed. 



20 



April 

■ Publication The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory published Space for Women, a 20-page booklet en- 
couraging young women to pursue careers in astronomy. 

April 

U Electronic Outreach With the introduction of" its 
World Wide Web home page, the National Museum of 
American Art expanded its effort to offer Internet 
resources. The home page joined the museum's Gopher 
site, which premiered in January. Offerings on the 
award-winning World Wide Web site include an elec- 
tronic tour of the "White House Collection of American 
Crafts" exhibition and pages devoted to each of the 
museum's special exhibitions. 

April 

■ Collections The move of more than 45,000 objects 
from the old location of the National Museum of the 
American Indian in New York City to the Research 
Branch in the Bronx, New York, began. 

April 

■ Conference The Fourth International Conference on 
Space Tether Systems was held at the Smithsonian with 
the joint sponsorship of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, and the Italian Space Agency. 

April 

■ Neic Membership Program The Center for Folklife Pro- 
grams and Cultural Studies initiated Friends of the Fes- 
tival, a group that will develop programs in support of 
the Festival of American Folklife. 

April 

■ Exhibition Videos The Office of Telecommunications 
completed six videos for the new "Exploring Marine 
Ecosystems" exhibition at the National Museum of Nat- 
ural History, giving visitors a close-up look at the work- 
ings of various marine habitats. 

April 

■ Curriculum Development The National Science Re- 
sources Center began nationally field-testing the prelim- 
inary editions of Solids and Liquids and Comparing and 



Measuring, two first-grade units in the Science and 
Technology fot Children hands-on science curriculum 
program. 

April I 

■ Exhibition opening "On the River" opened at the 
Freer Gallery of Art with a selection of 27 Chinese hand- 
scrolls, album leaves, hanging scrolls, and fans from the 
13th through 19th century depicting life along China's 
waterways. 

April 3 

■ Agreement The Smithsonian Institution and Lancit 
Media Productions Ltd. signed an agreement to jointly 
develop a major television series for children ages 8 to 
12 based on Smithsonian resources. 

April 4-July 14 

■ Exhibition "Giorgio Cavallon: A Signal Luminosity" 
was presented at the Archives of American Art New 
York Regional Center Gallery. Cavallon was an Italian- 
born American artist who showed in New York with 
the early abstract expressionists such as Jackson Pollock 
and Willem de Kooning. The show highlighted his 
quiet career of hard work and reticence in the face of the 
explosive art world of his day. 

April 5 

■ Lecture The 1995 Rutherford J. Gettens Memorial 
Lecture on technical studies of art was delivered by- 
Noel Barnard, professor emeritus of East Asian art his- 
tory at the Australian National University. His topic 
was "Centrifugal and Centtipetal Aspects of the Devel- 
opment of Metallurgy in China." 

April 6-8 

■ Meeting The Smithsonian National Boatd held its 
spring meeting in Seattle, Washington. 

April J- August /J 

■ Exhibition "In Pursuit of the Butterfly: Porttaits of 
James McNeill Whistler" was on view at the National 
Portrait Gallery. The more than 80 works in the exhibi- 
tion showed aspects of Whistler's public and private 
lives, from his student days in Paris to his last years in 
turn-of-the-century London. 



:i 



April 7 

■ Lecture Series "First Fridays: Gallery Talks," featuring 
informal talks by staff, was inaugurated by the Educa- 
tion Division of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden with Associate Curator Phyllis Rosenzweig's 
discussion of Louise Bourgeois's 1947-49 sculpture The 
Blind Leading the Blind. 

April 12 

■ Benefit Event Cooper-Hewitt, National Design 
Museum hosted its second annual benefit auction at 
Christie's. More than 500 guests attended the event, 
which raised over $130,000 for the museum's general 
operating expenses. 

April 12 

■ Artist Talk The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden continued its "Collection Reviewed" series of 
artist's talks, sponsored by the Smithsonian's Special 
Exhibition Fund, with a presentation by African Ameri- 
can artist Robert Colescott of New Mexico. On May 17, 
Juliao Sarmento of Lisbon, Portugal, continued the se- 
ries with an appearance that received additional support 
from the Luso- American Development Foundation. 

April 15 

■ Fellowships The Office of Fellowships and Grants 
offered 66 awards under the Smithsonian Fellowship 
Program. Twenry-one percent of the awards wenr to 
people from underrepresented groups. 

April 20 

■ Research An experiment developed by a Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory scientist and European col- 
leagues to map ozone levels in Earth's upper atmosphere 
was launched aboard the European Remote Sensing 
Satellite. 

April 22 

m Exhibition "Ocean Planet," which celebrates the spec- 
tacular biological diversity of the oceans and examines 
the human impact on them, opened at the National 
Museum of Natural History on Earth Day. The $4.1 mil- 
lion, 7,500-square-foot exhibition was made possible by 
a unique combination of foundation and corporate sup- 
porters, including the National Science Foundation, 
Times Mirror Magazines, Inc., and The Pew Charitable 
Trusts. The exhibition was organized by the museum 



and the Smithsonian's Environmental Awareness Pro- 
gram and will be circulated nationally through 1999 
by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service. 

April 22 

■ Special event Among the works of art selected for pur- 
chase at their annual dinner, the Friends of Asian Arts 

at the Freer and Sackler Galleries chose the rare Portrait 
of Yamamoto Kansuke. a hanging scroll by Gion Seitoku 
(1781-1819?) for addition to the collection of the Freer 
Gallery of Art. 

April 23 

■ Workshop The National Science Resources Center 
conducted two science education workshops for more 
than 200 participants at the 123rd annual meeting of the 
National Academy of Sciences. 

April 24 

■ Endowment The Vincent Wilkinson Endowment was 
established in the Center for Museum Studies by Mr. 
and Mrs. Anthony Welters. The fund, named in honor 
of Mrs. Welters' father, supports African American 
undergraduates in the center's Museum Intern Partner- 
ship Program. 

April 26 

■ Appreciation Event The Visitor Information and 
Associates' Reception Centet hosted the annual apprecia- 
tion event for behind-the-scenes volunteers. 

April 27-30 

■ Craft Show Fifteen thousand visitors saw displays of 
120 exhibitors at the Smithsonian Craft Show, held in 
the National Building Museum. This annua! event is 
sponsored by the Smithsonian Women's Committee. 

April 28-September 4 

■ Exhibition and Electronic Outreach The "White 
House Collection of American Crafts" exhibition 
and its complementary Internet tour 
(http://www.nmaa. si. edu//whc/americancrafts) show- 
cased 72 examples of contemporary craft by some of 
America's most innovative artists in glass, ceramics, 
wood, metal, and fiber. The works were originally as- 
sembled for display in the White House in recognition 



22 



of the Year of American Craft in 1993. First Lady Hillary 
Rodham Clinton introduced the exhibition to the press at 
the museum on April 25. As the exhibition tours Ameri- 
can museums through mid-1997, the regularly updated 
Internet tour invites electronic "visitors" to see the objects 
in the White House and visit the artists in their studios. 
The electronic tour was made possible by a gift from MCI. 

April 28 

■ Public Program More than 300 middle school and 
high school students from 18 public schools in the 
Washington, D.C., area participated in a showcase of 
poetry, song, and dance during the Smithsonian's 
Fourth Annual Duke Ellington Youth Festival at the 
National Museum of American History. The students 
also displayed original works of art based on themes in 
Ellington's life and work in a temporary exhibition 
presented in conjunction with the festival. 

April 29 

■ Symposium The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery held a 
one-day symposium, "Saints, Sufis, and Siddhas: Holy 
Men and Women in South Asian Art," exploring the 
broad significance of the holy personage in the artistic 
culture of South Asia. The symposium was generously 
funded by Mrs. Arthur M. Sackler. 

May 

■ Vint During her visit to the Smithsonian, Queen 
Sirikit of Thailand was guest of honor at a luncheon at the 
National Museum of American History and an evening re- 
ception at the National Museum of Natural History. 

May 

■ Exhibition The National Museum of African Art 
opened the traveling exhibition "Ancient Nubia: 
Egypt's Rival in Africa," which presented 300 artifacts 
that document the rise and fall of Nubian kingdoms 
from 3100 B.C. to A.D. 400. In conjunction with the 
exhibition, which was organized by the University of 
Pennsylvania Museum, the National Museum of Afri- 
can Art sponsored extensive programs for the public 
and teachers, including workshops, panel discussions, 
storytelling, and musical performances. 

May 

U Fellowship Dr. Pedro E. Leon Azofeifa of the School 
of Medicine, University of Costa Rica, was awarded the 



second George E. Burch Fellowship, administered by 
the Office of Fellowships and Grants. 

May 

■ Exhibition "VanDerZee, Photographer (1886-1983)," a 
National Portrait Gallery exhibition, began its national 
tour under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service at the African American 
Museum of Fine Arts in San Diego, California. 

May 

■ Publication The Freer Gallery of Art published With 
Kindest Regards, a volume of correspondence between 
James McNeill Whistler and Gallery founder Charles 
Lang Freer, edited by Linda Merrill, associate curatot of 
American art. 

May 1 

■ Internships Thirty-three students were offered awards 
under the Summer Minority Internship Program 
administered by the Office of Fellowships and Grants. 
Thirteen were African American, ten were Latino, seven 
were Asian American, two were Native American, and 
one was physically challenged. 

May 3-6 

■ Members' Event Contributing Members enjoyed three 
and a half days of behind-the-scenes tours in the "Trea- 
sures of the Smithsonian" program. 

May 4 

■ Tour and Reception In celebration of the Archives ot 
American Art's 40th anniversary, the Detroit Council 
sponsored an art tour and reception at Masco Corpora- 
tion in Taylor, Michigan. Archives trustee Richard 
Manoogian and his wife, Jane Manoogian, hosted an eve- 
ning of dining and tours of the Masco Corporate Art 
Collection and the Masco Home Furnishings Showroom. 

May 5 

■ Conference In coordination with the Office of the Pro- 
vost, the Smithsonian Council of Museum Education 
Directors organized an Institution-wide conference on 
"Museums as Partners in School Reform." The confer- 
ence provided an overview of Goals 2000: Educate 
America Act and the national guidelines for disciplin- 
ary standards for education. Participants also learned 



about local, national, and Smithsonian examples of the 
museum community's involvement in school reform. 

May 6 

m Children's Program Children with visual impair- 
ments were encouraged to experience works of art at the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in a "Young 
at Art" family workshop. During the year, eighr "Young 
at Art" programs enthralled more than 160 six-to-eleven 
year olds and their parents. 

May 6 

■ New Research Facility A major field station for ma- 
rine biological research in the Caribbean was opened in 
the Cayos Cochinos Biological Reserve by a consortium 
of private partners in Honduras and Switzerland, the 
Honduras Coral Reef Foundation, and a partnership of 
the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the 
Honduran government. 



May 8 

■ Electronic Outreach The Office of Public Affairs 
helped open the Smithsonian's home page 
(http://www.si.edu), which instantly became one of the 
most popular sites on the World Wide Web. The cere- 
mony to launch the site was held in the office of the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. The opening 
demonstration included the online exhibitions "Ocean 
Planet" and "White House Collection of American 
Crafts"; services such as what to see in the museums and 
what to buy in the shops; information on everything 
from dinosaurs to sculptures; 3,000 images; and a sam- 
pling of recordings from the Smithsonian collection. 

May 8 

■ Electronic Outreach The Smithsonian Institution Trav- 
eling Exhibition Service entered cyberspace on the 
Smithsonian's World Wide Web home page, which 
makes available a list of SITES exhibitions currently 
traveling around the country. 



May 6-7 

m Conference In conjunction with the Anacostia 
Museum's exhibition "Black Mosaic: Community, Race, 
and Ethnicity among Black Immigrants in Washington, 
D.C.," a two-day conference focused on Caribbean 
music in Washington. Promoters, performers, deejays, 
producers, and media personalities participated in panel 
discussions and musical demonstrations. 

May 7 

■ Public program Visitors of all ages to the Arthut M. 
Sackler Gallery had the opportunity to explore the bio- 
logical, literary, musical, artistic, and even culinary asso- 
ciations of bamboo during the first "Spirit of Bamboo" 
family day. The program, presented during the exhibi- 
tion "A Basketmaker in Rural Japan," was repeated 
three times during the month. 

May 7-11 

■ Workshop The National Science Resources Center 
and the New York City Urban Systemic Initiative co- 
sponsored a Science Education Leadership Institute for 
New York City public school teachers. More than 70 
participants representing kindergarten through I2th 
grade attended the week-long institute. 



May 8 

■ Electronic Outreach The National Portrait Gallery 
launched its virtual museum as part of the 
Smithsonian's home page on the World Wide Web and 
the Smithsonian Online educational service on America 
Online. Previews of exhibitions, current events, high- 
lights of the permanent collection, brochures, educa- 
tional programs, and publications are available on both 
services. On the Fourth of July holiday, America Online 
featured an image of Rembrandt Peale's famous "Porr- 
hole" portrait of George Washington; users downloaded 
the image nearly 1,400 times. 

May 8 

■ Electronic Outreach The National Museum of Natural 
History's home page made its debut on the World Wide 
Web. Museum information available to Internet users 
now includes the mission statement, the visitors' guide, 
the quarterly calendar of events, and an online version of 
the "Ocean Planet" exhibition. Information about each 
of the research departments and many specialized publi- 
cations and collections is also provided. 

May 8 

■ Symposium The Smithsonian Corporate Membership 
Program hosted its annual luncheon program, "The 



M 



Power of Learning in an Enlightened Information Age," 
in the Castle Commons. 

May 8-12 

■ Training With the course "Conservation Admin- 
istration," the students in the class of 1996 at the 
Conservation Analytical Laboratory's Furniture 
Conservation Training Program finished their three 
years of course work. They will graduate after com- 
pleting one-year internships. 

May p 

■ Special Event Members of Congress and the adminis- 
tration and their families visited the National Museum 
of Natural History during its first Open House Expedi- 
tion. Adults and children followed special maps to lo- 
cate nearly 50 stations throughout the museum where 
staff members displayed unusual objects from the 
museum's collections, described research projects, and 
answered questions from guests. The event was spon- 
sored by Motorola. 

May II 

■ Public Program The National Air and Space 
Museum's most prestigious aviation lecture, the Charles 
A. Lindbergh Memorial Lecture, was presented by 
World War II fighter pilot Quentin C. Aanenson. 

May 12 

■ Exhibition "Are We There Yet.-' Vacationing in 
America," an exhibition devoted to vacation postcards, 
opened at the National Postal Museum. 

May 14. ipp 1 ; 

■ Exhibition opening "Whistler and Japan," featuring 
two of the best-known collections of the Freer Gallery 
of Art, was one of four exhibitions marking the work of 
the American expatriate artist James McNeill Whistler 
held in Washington, D.C., this year. 

May IJ 

■ Family Packages The Office of Public Affairs released 
its Smithsonian Family Packages, a collection of useful 
information for adults who plan to visit the museums 
with children or young adults, updated for the summer 
of 1995. The free Family Package, issued in English and 
Spanish and intended for both news media and the pub- 



lic, contains a guide to museums with exhibitions and 
activities popular among children and young adults, a 
Smithsonian quiz for kids, and 10 tips for visitors with 
children. 

May 18 

■ Benefit Event The Friends of the National Zoo's 
izth annual fund-taising gala, ZooFari, featured food 
from 100 Washington-area restaurants and attracted 
thousands of guests. The proceeds supported 
National Zoo exhibition, education, conservation, 
and research programs. 

May 18 

■ Public program A performance of "Kakurenbo (hide 
and seek), a dance-drama created as part of the Asian 
Culture Project of The Model Secondary School for the 
Deaf was offered in the Meyer Auditorium of the Freer 
Gallery of Art. The project resulted from collaboration 
among The Model Secondary School for the Deaf, The 
Freer and Arthur M. Sackler galleries, and the Japan 
Infotmation and Culture Center. 

May ip 

■ Exhibition A magnificent display of living marine 
plants and animals went on view in the National Mu- 
seum of Natutal History's new petmanent exhibition 
"Exploring Marine Ecosystems." After entering through 
a simulated undetsea kelp forest, visitors can view mod- 
els of two of Earth's most fascinating natural communi- 
ties: the rocky coast of Maine and a Caribbean coral reef. 
The new exhibition is the second segment of a three- 
phase rejuvenation of the museum's marine hall. 

May 23 

■ Lecture In commemoration of the 50th annivetsary of 
Harry S. Truman's inauguration, Pulitzer Prize-winning 
biographer David McCullough addressed a capacity 
audience as The Smithsonian Associates paid tribute to 
the nation's 33rd president. 

May 24 

■ Design Award The Hirshhorn Museum plaza won a 
1995 Federal Design Achievement Award. The renova- 
tion and landscaping project by James Urban Associates 
of Annapolis, Maryland, introduced trees, accessibility 
features, ateas of lawn, and granite flooring to the plaza. 



25 



May 24 

■ Design Awards Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Mu- 
seum received seven 1995 Federal Design Achievement 
Awards for recent exhibitions and the publication The 
Edge of the Millennium. 

May 2$ 

■ Milestone The first breeding outside the wild of a 
Hawaiian honeycreeper was achieved at the National 
Zoo's Conservation and Research Center. Scientists at 
the center are using several nonendangered types of 
honeycreepers as research surrogates to develop hus- 
bandry and propagation techniques fot Hawaii's highly 
endangered avian species. 

May 26 

■ Special Event To promote the Smithsonian as a primary 
United States travel destination for foreign visitors, the 
Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 
cohosted a reception for major international tour operators 
at the National Air and Space Museum with the Washing- 
ton, D.C., Convention and Visitors Association. 

May 26 

■ Exhibition The Smithsonian Institution Libraries ex- 
hibition "Science and the Artist's Book," cosponsored by 
the Washington Project for the Arts, explored how sci- 
entific ideas can stimulate artistic creation. The year- 
long show, featured in the June 1995 Smithsonian 
magazine, displays original artists' books inspired by 
and displayed with pioneering scientific studies in the 
rare book collections of the Libraries' Dibner Library of 
the History of Science and Technology. 

May 30 

■ Lecture Roald Hoffmann. Cornell University's Nobel 
laureate in chemistry, poet, and author, delivered the 
Dibner Library Lecture, "Chemistry Imagined," which 
explored connections between science and art. The 
lecture was featured in con]unction with the opening of 
the Smithsonian Institution Libraries exhibition 
"Science and the Artist's Book." 



of American History through a $10.4 million gift from 
inventor Jerome Lemelson and his wife, Dorothy. Their 
cash donation is the largest ever given to the Smithson- 
ian Institution by an individual. 

Summer 

■ Teachers' Workshops The National Museum of Ameri- 
can Art hosted three week-long summer workshops for 
teachers from across the country, extending the use of 
the museum's education resource materials. 

Summer 

■ Grant The National Museum of American Art re- 
ceived a five-year grant to continue a New Media Learn- 
ing Environment project in Nebraska that will facilitate 
offering museum art and information online to schools. 
A summer workshop focused on integrating art and 
technology. The museum is also working on an online 
pilot project involving Texas schools. 

June 

■ New Membership Program The National Air and 
Space Society was established as an individual member- 
ship program designed to raise capital funds for the 
building of the National Air and Space Museum's 
Dulles Center as well as to support the museum's 
restoration and preservation projects and educational 
programs. By the end of the fiscal year, the society had 
more than 2,000 contributing members. 

June 

■ New Department The National Museum of American 
Art established a development department and 
launched a quarterly members' newsletter to keep spe- 
cial constituents in closer touch with museum activities 
and behind-the-scenes information. 

June 

■ Internships Intern '95, sponsored by the Office of Ele- 
mentary and Secondary Education, brought its 20th 
class of graduating high school seniors to Washington 
for career-related work experience in the museums. 



May 3/ 



June 



U Major Gift and New Facility The Jerome and ■ Electronic Republishing The Smithsonian Institution 

Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention Libraries launched an electronic republishing program 

and Innovation was established at the National Museum with a pilot project funded by the Atherton Seidell En- 



26 



dowment. The full, searchable text of two volumes in 
the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology series 
of Native American anthropology studies will be avail- 
able on the Libraries' World Wide Web site. 

June 

■ Professional Development The Office of Elementary 
and Secondary Education coordinated 15 for-credit short 
courses for local teachers, ranging from "Insects in the 
Classroom" to "Using Museums to Teach Writing." 

June 

■ Exhibition The Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service donated "Contrasts/Contrastes: Forty 
Years of Continuity and Change in Puerto Rico," an ex- 
hibition of photographs by Jack Delano, to the Ponce 
Museum in Ponce, Puerto Rico. The donation coincided 
with Delano's gift of his collection to the museum. The 
event was celebrated with a variety of public programs. 

June 

■ Publication Radio Smithsonian's igg6Jazz Calendar 
was published for distribution to listeners of the radio 
seriesjazz Smithsonian, showcasing the Smithsonian's 
broad commitment to preserving and celebrating jazz. 

June 

■ Research Consortium The headquarters of the Chesa- 
peake Research Consortium moved to the Smithsonian 
Environmental Research Center. The consortium fosters 
research among its six members: the Smithsonian, 
Johns Hopkins University, the University of Maryland, 
the College of William and Mary, Old Dominion Uni- 
versity, and the Philadelphia Academy of Science. 

June 

■ Promotional Initiative The Visitor Information and 
Associates' Reception Center began providing informa- 
tion about Smithsonian exhibitions and activities to 
Digital Ink, the Washington Post's online service. 

June 

■ Research A novel underwater videotape camera 
provided by the National Geographic Society was em- 
ployed by a team of scientists led by the National Zoo's 
Dr. Daryl Boness to gather the first underwater images 
and data on harbor seal behavior. The team traveled to 



Sable Island in the North Atlantic Ocean to attach cam- 
eras temporarily to the backs of the seals. 

June— July 

■ Publications The Office of Public Affairs issued up- 
dated versions of two of its Institution-wide resource 
brochures: "Native American Resources at the 
Smithsonian" and "Latino Resources at the Smithson- 
ian." These brochures encourage readers to participate 
in cultural activities at the Smithsonian and to take ad- 
vantage of research, employment, internship, and fellow- 
ship opporrunities. Funding for "Latino Resources" was 
provided by the James Smithson Society. Partial fund- 
ing for "Native American Resources" was provided by 
the Phillips Petroleum Foundation, Inc. 

June— July 

■ Exhibition The Center for Folklife Programs and Cul- 
tural Studies mounted an exhibition of the work of 
Cape Verdean photographer Ron Barboza in the Interna- 
tional Center. The exhibition featured portraits of Cape 
Verdeans from most of the islands in the archipelago 
and from communities in Portugal and the United 
States, landscapes, and the work Cape Verdeans do that 
contributes to their own and many of the world's 
communities. 

June I 

■ Tour The Archives of American Art New York 
Committee visited the Hudson River Museum to view 
the highly acclaimed George Inness exhibition. Follow- 
ing the tour, participants were welcomed at the home of 
Archives trustee Frank Martucci and his wife, Katherine 
Martucci, for a tour of their collection, which includes 
works by Inness as well as by Russian, Israeli, and Ital- 
ian contemporary artists. 

June I 

■ Lecture The National Postal Museum hosted 
"Marilyn Monroe: The Myth and the Message," a lec- 
ture by film critics and cinema scholars Molly Haskel 
and Andrew Sarris, held in conjunction with the issu- 
ance of the Marilyn Monroe stamp by the United States 
Postal Service. 

June I 

■ Colloquium The Freer Gallery of Art cosponsored a 
Whistler Scholars' Colloquium with the Centre for 



27 



Whistler Studies, University of Glasgow, and held at the 
Freer. The colloquium also marked the beginning of a col- 
laborative project between the two organizations to pub- 
lish all the letters written by James McNeill Whistler. 

June 2 

■ Public Program "Whistler and His World," a one- 
day segment of a three-day symposium on the life and 
art of James McNeill Whistler, was presented at the 
National Portrait Gallery in conjunction with the exhi- 
bition "In Pursuit of the Butterfly: Portraits of James 
McNeill Whistler." The symposium was jointly spon- 
sored by the National Portrait Gallery, the National 
Gallery of Art, and the Freer Gallery of Art. 

June 5 

■ Members' Event Contributing Members had a special 
after-hours viewing ot the exhibition "Ocean Planet" at 
the National Museum of Natural History. 

June 5 

■ Milestone Griff, the National Zoo's 13-year-old Masai 
giraffe, gave birth to a 114-pound female calf. The new- 
born stood 5 feet, IO inches tall and took its firsr stum- 
bling steps in just 28 minutes. Masai giraffes, although 
not endangered, are not common in North American 
zoos. 

June 8—p 

■ Public Program Cooper-Hewitt, National Design 
Museum presented "Les Journees des Artisans: A Cele- 
bration of Craftsmanship," a two-day festival featuring 
artisans from New York and France demonstrating 
traditional craft techniques in leather, stained glass, 
wrought iron, gold leaf, and other materials. 

June 8 

■ Research Ground was broken for the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory's pioneering array of six 
submillirneter radio telescopes at a site near the summit 
of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. 

June p 

■ Exhibition "Flight Time Barbie: Dolls from the Pop- 
ular Culture Collection of the National Air and Space 
Museum" opened in the museum's Flight and the Arts 
gallery. 



June 12 

m Public Program The National Portrait Gallery pre- 
sented "Friends of Frederick Douglass: Harriet Beecher 
Stowe," a Cultures in Motion lecture and discussion by 
Stowe's biographer Joan Hedrick on the phenomenal 
impact of Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. The presenta- 
tion was accompanied by a staged reading of scenes 
from / Ain't Your Uncle. Robert Alexander's recent play 
based on the novel. 

June 14— September 10 

■ Exhibition "Sean Scully: Twenty Years, 1976-1995" 
launched an international tour at the Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum and Sculpture Garden, accompanied by a public 
dialogue by the artist and organizing curator Ned 
Rifkin, director of the High Museum of Art in Atlanta. 
Organized by that museum, where it traveled after clos- 
ing in Washington, the retrospective charted the evoca- 
tive abstract imagery of this Irish-born American artist 
(b. 1945) with more than 60 paintings and works on 
paper. From Atlanta, the exhibition traveled to Barce- 
lona, Dublin, and Frankfurt. 

June 15 

■ Exhibition "World War II: Sharing Memories," 
which opened at the National Museum of American 
History, used wartime artifacts to evoke the memories 
of visitors, who were encouraged to write their thoughts 
in notebooks. Hundreds of people wrote firsthand ac- 
counts and reminiscences handed down by family mem- 
bers. Many of the notes were posted on a bulletin board 
inside the exhibition for other visitors to read. 

June IJ 

■ Exhibition and Education Programs At the Anacostia 
Museum, students from the Lucy Ellen Moten Elemen- 
tary School exhibited original writings, artwork, photo- 
graphs, and artifacts reflecting the Anacostia 
community. This exhibition, which followed a series of 
history lessons and exhibition-related workshops, was 
developed through the museum's continuing partner- 
ship with the school. It was supported by the 
Smithsonian's Educational Outreach Fund with addi- 
tional funding from the Freddie Mac Foundation. 

June iy 

■ Festival The Anacostia Museum held its annual day- 
long celebration of Juneteenth, the anniversary of the 



z8 



emancipacion of Texas slaves in 1865. The free festivities 
included music, games, demonstrations, food, and fam- 
ily activities on the museum grounds. 

June ip—30 

■ Research Seminar The Center for Museum Studies 
offered "Interpreting Latino Cultures: Research and 
Museums." This 1995 Latino Graduate Training Semi- 
nar in Qualitative Methodology was cosponsored with 
the Inter-University Program for Latino Research and 
the University of Texas at Austin. 

June 20-July II 

■ Lecture and Concert Series This year's free summer 
lecture and concert series at Cooper-Hewitt, National 
Design Museum, "Crosscurrents," focused on contempo- 
rary design and Latino culture. 

June 20 

■ Symposium The National Zoo's Office of Public Af- 
fairs organized the symposium "Forever Changed: Birds 
on the Hawaiian Islands." Smithsonian scientists dis- 
cussed the history and conservation status of Hawaii's 
remarkable bird population and the discovery of 
recently extinct birds that have provided DNA samples. 
As a result of these DNA analyses, scientists have begun 
to rethink the evolutionary relationships between 
Hawaiian avifauna. 

June 23— 2j. June 30— July 4 

■ Festival The Center for Folklife Programs and Cul- 
tural Studies produced the 29th annual Festival of 
American Folklife, featuring "The Cape Verdean Con- 
nection," "The Czech Republic: Tradition and Transfor- 
mation," "Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations Women," 
and "Russian Roots, American Branches: Music in Two 
Worlds." The festival included a visit by the president 
of Cape Verde and salutations from President Clinton. 
Two Smithsonian/Folkways recordings, Heartbeat: Voices 
of First Nations Women and Old Believers: Songs of the 
Nekrasov Cossacks, were released at the festival's opening. 
More than one million people visited the festival. 

June 24—2$ 

■ Special Event The Center for Folklife Programs and 
Cultural Studies presented the sacred and social music, 
traditional poetry, dance, food, and crafts of Washing- 



ton-area African-born immigrants as part of the African 
Immigrant Folklife Study Project. 

June 24 

■ Lecture The Office of the Provost sponsored a lecture 
by Ana Maria Cabral, vice-president of the Amilcar 
Cabral Institute of the Republic of Cape Verde, West 
Africa. The address was delivered on the 20th anniver- 
sary of Cape Verdean independence and held in conjunc- 
tion with the Festival of American Folklife. 

June 25-50 and July 23-28 

■ Conferences The National Science Resources Center 
conducted two Elementary Science Leadership Insti- 
tutes for 36 teams from U.S. school districts and one 
team each from Mexico and South Africa. Most teams 
included a school superintendent ot assistant super- 
intendent, a science coordinator or director of cur- 
riculum and instruction, an experienced teacher, and a 
senior scientist representing a company or academic 
institution. The teams developed strategic plans to 
improve the teaching of science in their elementary 
schools. 

June 26—29 

■ Workshop The American Indian Museum Studies 
Program, part of the Center for Museum Studies, spon- 
sored "Developing and Managing Living History Pro- 
grams," a workshop hosted in Tahlequah , Oklahoma, 
by the Cherokee National Museum. 

June 27-30 

■ Public Program As part of efforts to make its collec- 
tions accessible to Native Americans on reservations 
and in communities around the country, the National 
Museum of the American Indian displayed 24 19th- 
century Navajo wearing blankets at the Ned A. 
Hatathli Museum of the Navajo Community College 
in Tsaile, Arizona. 

June 27 

■ Media Preview The Office of Public Affairs devel- 
oped and carried out the media preview held before the 
opening of the "Enola Gay" exhibition at the National 
Air and Space Museum, which was covered intensely by 
U.S. and foreign news media. More than 200 journal- 
ists, including 85 television crews, attended the preview. 



29 



June 28 

■ Exhibitioyi "Enola Gay," an exhibition about the Boe- 
ing B-29 Superfortress that dropped the first atomic 
bomb and hastened the end of World War II, opened at 
the National Air and Space Museum. 

June 29 

■ Promotional Initiative The Visitor Information and 
Associates' Reception Center expanded its capacity to 
promote Smithsonian programs and initiatives with 
the installation of graphic message capability in the 
Smithsonian Information Center's twin theaters. 

June 30-October 29 

■ Exhibition An in-depth survey of the daguerreotype in 
America was the subject of "Secrets of the Dark Chamber: 
The Art of the American Daguerreotype" at the National 
Museum of American Art. The exhibition catalogue was 
named best photography book of 1995 by the Neir York 
Tunes Book Review. The innovative installation featured 
fiber-optic lights individually illuminating each of the 150 
daguerreotypes without glare in a darkened space. 

June 30 

■ Exhibition "The Collection in Context: Thomas 
Eakins's Portrait of Frank Hamilton Cushing" opened at 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, explor- 
ing the context and creation of an American realist's 
portrayal of a Smithsonian ethnologist famed for his 
research at Zuni Pueblo. Preliminary studies from the 
Hirshhorn's collection accompanied the 1895 oil por- 
trait, which was lent by the Thomas Gilcrease Institute 
of American History and Art in Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

July 

■ Research The Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center expanded its research on the introduction of ex- 
otic plants, animals, and microbes via ship ballast water. 
The new studies focus on the survival of these organisms 
in ballast tanks as ships travel from the port where they 
filled the tanks to the United States harbor where the 
ballast water will be released. 

July 

■ Professional Development The Office of Elementary 
and Secondary Education conducted "Teaching and 



Learning in a Diverse Society," a week-long program for 
30 California teachers that culminated a two-year series 
of seminars about working with primary source material 
to teach from a multicultural perspective. 

J*h 

■ Exhibition The National Museum of Aftican Art 
opened the revised and refurbished exhibition "The 
Ancient West African City of Benin, A.D. 1300- 
1897," featuring the museum's collection from the 
royal court of the capital of the Kingdom of Benin as 
it existed before colonial rule. Most of the works were 
a gift from Joseph H. Hirshhorn to the Smithsonian 
Institution in 1966 and 1979; the objects were trans- 
ferred to the National Museum of African Art in 
1985 by the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden. 

July 

■ Professional Development The Office of Elementary 
and Secondary Education brought to the Smithsonian 
30 teachers from the four communities participating in 
its collaborative project with the National Faculty. The 
teachers worked with Smithsonian staff members and 
university faculty to study material culture and develop 
classroom materials. 

July 

■ Education Program The National Museum of African 
Art Education Department sponsored an interdiscipli- 
nary panel discussion on "The Art and Culture of An- 
cient Nubia" in conjunction with the exhibition 
"Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa." Participants 
in the standing-room-only program included historian 
Ismail Abdallah, College of William and Mary; 
archaeologist David O'Connor, University of Penn- 
sylvania Museum; cultural anthropologist Ann 
Jennings; and archaeologist Nettie K. Adams, Webb 
Museum of Anthropology. 

July 

■ Research Modifications of the existing Multiple Mir- 
ror Telescope building at the Smithsonian's Whipple 
Observatory in Arizona were begun in preparation for 
the conversion of that six-mirror telescope into a single- 
mirror instrument 6.5 meters in diameter. 



30 



July 

■ Major Gift The Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
welcomed a major gift or a microfilm copy oiTrade-a- 
Plane magazine from TAP Publishing Company. Repre- 
senting the company, Jean Durfee presented the girt of 
114 reels of microfilm that preserve the run of the maga- 
zine from its beginning in 1937. The gift includes a 
printing copy, a user copy, and a cabinet to house the 
film. 

July 

■ Exhibition The National Museum of African Art, in 
collaboration with the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
presented "The Ancient Nubian City of Kerma, 2500— 
1500 B.C." This three-year loan exhibition of works 
from the Museum of Fine Arts' permanent collection 
features objects from Kerma, an ancient city that was lo- 
cated on the Nile River. The exhibition was organized 
by rhe Boston museum and its Department of Ancient 
Egyptian, Nubian and Near Eastern Art; all objects are 
from the Harvard University-Museum of Fine Arts, Bos- 
ton, Expedition. 

July 

■ Grant The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
and the Organization for Tropical Studies received a 
three-year grant for $350,000 from the Andrew W. Mel- 
lon Foundation to foster comparative studies among the 
two organizations' sites. 

July 

■ Agreement The Smithsonian and Hot Shots/Cool 
Cuts, Inc., signed an agreement that will open the Of- 
fice of Telecommunications' extensive library of film 
and video footage for licensing by film and television 
production companies. 

July— A ugust 

■ Internships For the second year, the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory Summer Intern Program brought a 
dozen college undergraduates to the observatory headquar- 
ters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to work with Smithson- 
ian scientists on a variety of research projects. 

July 2 

■ Concert The Center for Folklife Programs and Cul- 
tural Studies held a special tribute concert in honor of 



the late festival director Ralph Rinzler, featuring Pete 
and Mike Seeger, Piedmont blues musicians John 
Cephas and Phil Wiggins, and black Appalachian sing- 
ers Ed and Melissa Cabbell. 

July 5-26 

■ Museum Careers Seminar The Center for Museum 
Studies held its annual Museum Careers Seminar 
series for Smithsonian interns. The four-part program 
explored museum practice and functions, museum 
positions, and career planning and guidance. 

July 8 

■ Exhibition "The Graceful Envelope," a temporary ex- 
hibition devoted to calligraphy, opened at the National 
Postal Museum. 

July 10-14 

■ Teachers' Program With the New York City Board of 
Education, Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 
cosponsored the second annual Summer Design 
Institute. More than 100 public school teachers 
attended this year's program, which focused on tech- 
nology and education. 

July 10 

■ Public Program In its Cultures in Motion series, the 
National Portrait Gallery presented "A Woman Bold 
Enough," a new one-woman play by Jane Ross on the 
life of 19th-century artist Harriet Hosmer, America's 
first successful woman sculptor. 

July 10 

■ Presentation National Science Resources Center 
Deputy Director Sally Goetz Shuler gave the keynote 
address, "Lessons Learned about Systemic Reform," at 
the annual convention of the National Science Educa- 
tion Leadership Association. 

July 17-21 

■ Diversity Seminar The Center for Museum Studies 
sponsored "Awards for Museum Leadership," an annual 
five-day program at the Smithsonian that explores cul- 
tural diversity issues in the museum environment. 



31 



July 20 

■ Research The National Museum of Nacural History's 
Research Initiatives program completed a successful 
first year with support totaling $325,100 going to pro- 
jects headed by 35 museum scholars. The five initia- 
tives — Collections as World Resources; Biodiversity: 
Systematics, Evolution, and Ecology; Ecosystem History 
and Global Change; Earth and Planetary Processes; and 
Human Cultural and Biological Diversity — represent 
broad research themes to be emphasized at the museum 
during the next decade. The museum established the 
new competitive process for directing research funds to 
encourage innovative projects that explore new ques- 
tions and integrate various fields of study. 

July 20 

■ Exhibition "Directions — Martin Kippenberger: 
Works on Paper" opened at the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, featuring more than 50 colorful draw- 
ings on hotel stationery and collages by this German 
artist (b. 1954) from the 1980s and 1990s. 

July 21 

■ Television Broadcast The National Portrait Gallery's 
Hall of Presidents doubled as a television studio when 
C-SPAN's Washington Journal broadcast a live program 
on the gallery and its collections. Host Brian Lamb 
interviewed Director Alan Fern as camera crews pro- 
vided glimpses of the permanent collection on display. 
Pretaped segments on the photography collection, the 
Great Hall, and the Frederick Douglass exhibition were 
also included. 

July 22 

m Public Program The Anacostia Museum invited the 
community to a Family Day, offering activities for all 
ages and a chance to see the exhibition "Black Mosaic: 
Community, Race, and Ethnicity Among Black Im- 
migrants in Washington, D.C." Doll making, quilting 
and mask making workshops, steel drum music, and 
storytelling were featured. 

July 23 

■ Exhibition opening "Painted Prayers" at the Arthur 
M. Sackler Gallery celebrated the devotional arr of 
Hindu women and girls all over India through the vi- 
brant photographs by writer and art historian Stephen 
P. Huyler. To further introduce the living tradition of 



painted prayers to gallery visitors, women from the 
Washington area Indian community gave public paint- 
ing demonstrations within the exhibition. 

July 24 

■ Public Program The National Pottrait Gallery pre- 
sented "Blues Woman," a Cultures in Motion perfor- 
mance of music and life stories of Bessie Smith, Ethel 
Waters, and Billie Holiday, as interpreted by vocalist 
Beverly Cosham and narrated by Jewell Robinson. 

August 

■ Publication A profusely illustrated history of the 
Institution's first century and a half, The Smithsonian: 150 
Years of Adventure. Discovery, and Wonder, written by- 
James Conaway, was published by Smithsonian Books 
and Alfred A. Knopf, who will distribute the book to 
the retail trade. 

August 

■ Publication Rare Books and Manuscripts in the 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries, an illustrated review 
of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries' most valuable 
collections, was published with support from The Dib- 
ner Fund. It is available from the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press and in the Museum Shops. 

August 

■ Neiv Facility A new ramp adjacent to the Smithso- 
nian Environmental Research Center boat pier allows 
easier and safer launching and retrieval of the small 
boats that the center uses to conduct much of its 
research on the Chesapeake Bay. 

August 

■ Promotional Initiative InfoTravel, a new interactive 
multimedia promotional system developed by Bell At- 
lantic for Washington, D.C. -area hotels, added a feature 
on the Smithsonian after working with the Visitot Infor- 
mation and Associates' Reception Center. 

August 

■ Grant The Office of Telecommunications received a 
S200.000 grant from the National Endowment for the 
Arts to support its television and radio project, "A 
River of Song," which explores music along the Missis- 
sippi River from Minnesota to New- Orleans. 



V- 



August 

■ Publication The National Museum of African Art 
and the Smithsonian Institution Press copublished the 
anthology African Nomadic Architecture: Space. Place, and 
Gender, edited by architect and architectural historian 
Labelle Prussin. In this handsomely illustrated book, 
Prussin identifies the three elements that distinguish 
nomadic from sedentary architecture: mobility, gender, 
and ritual. 

August 

■ Renovation The Smithsonian Institution Libraries' 
renovation of its rare book and special collections facil- 
ity, the Dibner Library of the History of Science and 
Technology, was completed, with new compact shelving 
to double the stack space, a redesigned staff work area, 
and electrical upgrades to accommodate researchers' 
computing needs. 



tive effort of the Office of the Provost, the Visitor Infor- 
mation and Associates' Reception Center, the Office of 
Exhibits Central, and the National Museum of African 
Art. 

August p—20 

■ Study Tour A new international study tour format, 
"Family Cruises," was developed especially for families 
by The Smithsonian Associates. More than 140 Associ- 
ates and accompanying children enjoyed a voyage in the 
Mediterranean. 

August 10 

■ Educational Publication We Were There: Letters from the 
Battle Front, an activity book and resource guide for sec- 
ondary schools that integrates historic letters into the 
study of American history, was published by the Na- 
tional Postal Museum. 



August 

■ Education Program The Friends of the National Zoo 
introduced the first week-long overnight wildlife con- 
servation camps for children at the National Zoo's Con- 
servation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. 
Campers learned basic conservation biology skills in the 
Blue Ridge foothills. 

August 

■ 150th Anniversary The first official ad promoting the 
Smithsonian's 150th anniversary celebration to tour and 
travel planners appeared in the Washington, D.C., Con- 
vention and Visitors Association Meeting Planners Guide. 

August 4-5 

■ Presentation National Science Resources Center 
Executive Director Douglas Lapp presented a paper 
entitled "Lessons Learned in Past Efforts to Improve 
Science Education" at the 10th Anniversary Conference 
of the Center for the Advancement of Science and 
Mathematics Education, held at the University of 
Natal, South Africa. He also gave a science education 
workshop for 70 South African teachers. 

August 8 

m Exhibition An exhibit promoting the Smithsonian as 
a primary tourist destination opened at Baltimore- 
Washington International Airport. It was a collabora- 



August 12 

■ Public Program At the Anacostia Museum, young 
cultural critics joined in a panel discussion and film 
festival on hip hop, the popular yet controversial con- 
temporary musical form. 

August 18 

■ Collections Management The National Museum ot 
Natural History began using the Transaction Manage- 
ment Subsystem of the planned Collections and Re- 
search Information System in the shipping office and 
several scientific departments. The new subsystem auto- 
mates the processing and tracking of the thousands of 
objects that the museum acquires, exchanges, lends, 
borrows, or relinquishes each year. All departments are 
scheduled to be using the new subsystem by the end of 
1996. 

August 2 y 

■ Exhibition opening "Goyo: Japanese Prints," opened 
at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery featuring all 16 of the 
color woodblock prints produced by Hashiguch; Goyo 
(Japanese 1880— 1921). The prints were the gift of H. Ed 
Robison in memory of Ulrike Pietzner-Robison. 

September 

■ Award The Office of Telecommunications' inter- 
active video program Meet the Ellington Orchestra, created 



33 



for the Smithsonian traveling exhibition "Beyond Cate- 
gory: The Musical Genius of Duke Ellington," received 
the New York International Multimedia Festival's Silver 
Award for second place among more than 200 entries. 

September 

■ Video Release The JVC/Smithsonian Folkways Video An- 
thology of Music and Dana of the Americas was produced 

in collaboration with the Center for Folklife Programs 
and Cultural Studies' Smithsonian/Folkways Record- 
ings, JVC, and Multicultural Media. The six videotapes 
feature 158 examples of music and dance from many tra- 
ditions throughout the Americas, with accompanying 
texts. 

September 

■ Publication Award Smithsonian Institution Univer- 
sity Press's publication The Ecology and Conservation of 
Neotropical Migrant Landbtrds. edited by John Hagan 
and David Johnston, was awarded the Wildlife Societies 
Publication Award for Best Edited Volume. 

September 

m Workshop The Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service hosted a workshop in Washington, 
D.C., to introduce representatives of humanities coun- 
cils in Arizona, California, Indiana, and Nebraska to the 
successful SITES-National Museum of American His- 
tory exhibition "Produce for Victory: Posters on the 
American Home Front, 1941-1945." The exhibition, cre- 
ated with rural areas in mind, completed its first tour to 
five states through those states' humanities councils. 
This partnership between SITES and state humanities 
councils is making the Smithsonian's offerings accessi- 
ble in underserved areas of the nation, one of SITES - 
primary goals. 

September 

■ Radio Series Folk Masters from the Barns of Wolf Trap. 
hosted by Nick Spitzer, entered its fifth broadcast sea- 
son on public radio nationwide and abroad. 

September 

U New Construction The Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center began construction of a visitor orienta- 
tion center that will include classrooms, a teacher 
resource room, and exhibit space. Public educational ac- 
tivities such as the Java History Trail, Estuary Chesa- 



peake, and the Discovery Trail will be offered from this 
facility. 

September 

■ Exhibition "An Ocean Apart: Contemporary 
Vietnamese Art from the United States and Vietnam" 
opened at the Ellipse Arts Center in Arlington, Vir- 
ginia. This exhibition, organized by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, is the first 
major U.S. exhibition of contemporary artworks by 
Vietnamese and Vietnamese American artists. 

September 

■ Multimedia Projects Under the auspices of the Office 
of Telecommunications, the Smithsonian launched a re- 
lationship with Voyager Software to create multimedia 
programs, beginning with Insect World, and contracts 
with Macmillan Digital, a division of Simon and Schus- 
ter, for distribution of the 150th anniversary America's 
Smithsonian CD-ROM. 

September- 

■ Electronic Outreach Smithsonian Online, coordi- 
nated by the Office of Elementary and Secondary 
Education, hosted a real-time chat with Michael 
Robinson, the first in a three-month series featuring 
Smithsonian experts. 

September I 

■ Video Release At the annual meeting of the Society of 
American Archivists, the Conservation Analytical Labo- 
ratory announced the completion and availability of the 
videotape Rescuing Records — Recognizing Values and Prob- 
lems. Intended for collection managers of paper-based 
research collections in museums, archives, and libraries, 
the video identifies problems associated with such 
documents and provides recommendations for their 
preservation. 

September I 

■ New Facilities On Barro Colorado Island off the 
coast of Panama, the Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute dedicated new laboratories, living quarters 
for workers, housing units for scientific visitors, and a 
pier, completing significant improvements to the 
island's living and working environment that were 
begun in 1987. 



34 



September 6 



September 17 



m Internationa/ Meeting Meeting in Washington, 
Panama's President Ernesto Perez Balladares presented a 
letter to Secretary I. Michael Heyman and Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute Director Ira Rubinoft 
expressing his government's intention to continue 
supporting STRI beyond the year 2000. 

September 7 

■ Lecture "Case Studies in Preservation and Access to 
Photographs at the Smithsonian Institution," by Con- 
servation Analytical Laboratory postgraduate fellow 
Andrew Robb, concluded this year's presentations for 
the Research Libraries and Archives Collections Con- 
servation Task Force. This three-year-old program, 
coordinated and organized by the CAL paper conserva- 
tion laboratory, combines educational presentations and 
demonstrations with practical assistance to Smithsonian 
research collections. 

September jf 

m Research Grants At the National Museum of Natural 
History, efforts to identify and describe the world's or- 
ganisms were strengthened by three grants from the Na- 
tional Science Foundation's Partnerships tor Enhancing 
Expertise in Taxonomy program. These multiyear 
grants support research projects that document poorly- 
known groups of organisms and help train young re- 
searchers to continue this important work in the future. 

September 16— January 2 

■ Exhibition Oversized, colorful fiberglass sculptures 
and powerful graphics made the exhibition "Luis 
Jimenez: Man on Fire" a popular hit during its run at 
the National Museum of American Art. Based on an 
exhibition organized by the Albuquerque Museum, it 
emphasized the museum's strong holdings of Jimenez' 
work, including Vaquero. This Mexican cowboy on a 
rearing horse stands on the steps of the museum and has 
become its unofficial symbol. 

September 16 

■ Benefit Event The Young Benefactors, a membership 
group of The Smithsonian Associates, held its sixth an- 
nual Blast-Off Black Tie Gala and presented the Institu- 
tion with a check for $100,000, representing funds 
raised during fiscal year 1995. 



■ Performance The National Postal Museum was the 
setting for "Return to Sender," a musical program of 
mail songs performed by Cindy Hutchins, Michael 
Tilford, and Howard Breitbart of the American Song 
Company. 

September 18 

■ Facility Improvement After eight and one-half months 
ot construction on the ventilation systems in half of its 
laboratories, the Conservation Analytical Laboratory 
reopened the labs and became fully operational. 

September ip 

m Panel Discussion The Hispanic Herirage Planning 
Committee, in conjunction with the Wider Audience 
Development Program in the Office of the Provost, 
celebrated Hispanic Heritage Month with "Nueva 
Ola/New Wave: Emerging Latino Voices in U.S. Litera- 
ture." The discussion featured writers Norma Cantu, 
Judith Ortiz Coter, Gustavo Perez Firmat, and Rosario 
Ferre. Held at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, the event received support from the Educa- 
tional Outreach Fund. 

September 22—25 

■ Film and Video Festival Seventy-five films, videos, 
and radio programs by Native American directors and 
other independent mediamakers were showcased at the 
Ninth Native American Film and Video Festival at the 
George Gustav Heye Center of the National Museum of 
the American Indian. 



September 24 

■ Exhibition opening 



"The Power ot the Pen: Islamic 
ch , 



Calligraphy in the 14 Century" at the Arthur M. 
Sackler Gallery presented a selection from the Vever 
Collection of Islamic Arts of the Book, with emphasis 
on the use of calligraphy to transcribe verses from the 
Koran. 

September 25 

■ Educational Publication The National Postal Museum 
published Pen Friends, an intergenerational letter- 
writing guide and resource booklet for middle school 
and high school students working with older adults. 



35 



September 25 



September 27 



■ Distinguished visitor Milo Beach, director of the Freer 
Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, was 
host of a reception in honor of the visit of the Dalai 
Larna to the Freer. His holiness toured the Buddhist 
galleries and addressed guests about the importance of 
preserving the cultural heritage of Tibet. 



■ Lecture Sir David Attenborough addressed members 
of The Smithsonian Associates with a slide-illustrated 
lecture, giving a lively account of how plants work as 
living organisms. He also described his travels to re- 
mote parts of the world in search of rare, spectacular 
flowers. 



September 26 

■ Publication "Take Metrorail to the Smithsonian Mu- 
seums," a pamphlet designed by the Visitor Information 
and Associares' Reception Center, was updated and re- 
printed by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit 
Authority to promote the use of public transportation 
to reach Smithsonian museums. 

September 26-27 

■ Meeting The 15-member National Postal Museum 
Advisory Commission held its fourth annual meeting. 
The commission includes corporate executives, scholars, 
educators, government officials, and representatives of 
the business mailing community. 

September 26 

■ New Advisory Committee The new external advisory 
committee for the Conservation Analytical Laboratory vis- 
ited CAL for a program review. Committee members 
heard program and management presentations, inspected 
the facilities, and met with staff and outside collaborators. 



September 28 

■ Film Series Dennis Potter's Midnight Movie 
launched the free film series for 1995—96 at the Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden. In the previous 
year, more than 22,000 people attended these free 
programs, which feature cutting-edge international 
independent cinema, documentaries on contemporary 
artists, and family-oriented animation. 

September 30 

■ Public Program Visitors of all ages gatheted in the 
rotunda of the National Museum of Natural History 
for BugFest '95. Staff members from the Department 
of Entomology and Office of Education displayed 
specimens and answered questions about katydids, 
flies, ants, bees, wasps, beetles, moths, butterflies, 
spiders, and many other kinds of insects. Visitors 
could also sample insect-based foods, try their hand 
at drawing insects, or watch a tarantula feeding at the 
museum's O. Orkin Insect Zoo. Many materials dis- 
tributed at the event were available in both Spanish 
and English. 



36 



Reports of the Bureaus 
and Offices of 
the Smithsonian 
Institution for Fiscal 
Year 1995 

The Provost 

Office of the Provost 

Robert S. Hoffmann. Acting Provost 

On October 31, 1994, Secretary Heyman combined the offices 
of three assistant secretaries to establish the Office of the Pro- 
vost and appointed former Assistant Secretary for the Sciences 
Robert Hoffmann as acting provost. The creation of this office 
marked a major step in the strategic planning of a more effi- 
cient and effective Institution. The Office of the Provost 
plans, coordinates, facilitates, and evaluates the Institution's 
activities in research, collections management, exhibitions, ed- 
ucation, and cultural programs. 

During the year, the Office of the Provost initiated activi- 
ties to commemorate the Smithsonian's 150th anniversary 
year. Major programs include a lecture series to accompany 
the traveling exhibition, "America's Smithsonian"; "The Un- 
seen Smithsonian," a photographic exhibition illustrating the 
diversity and breadth of research interests pursued by 
Smithsonian scholars; an endowed chair in museum studies at 
George Washington University; lectures and panel discus- 
sions at scholarly and professional organization meetings 
across the United States; and behind-the-scene tours of pro- 
gram units that help staff and volunteers appreciate and un- 
derstand institutional activities. 

The 25-member Smithsonian Council assessed the 
Smithsonian's anthropological and cultural studies pro- 
grams, as well as programs of the Smithsonian's conserva- 
tion biology community and the Conservation Training 
Council. » 



Through James Smithson Trust funds — the Research 
Opportunities Fund, Restricted Endowment Funds, Scholarly 
Studies Program, Special Exhibition Fund, Collections-Based 
Research Fund, and Educational Outreach Fund — the office 
distributed awards to museums, research institutes, labora- 
tories, and other offices. The awards support innovative scien- 
tific endeavors', exhibitions that broaden public 
understanding of Smithsonian collections; and education, cul- 
tural interpretation, and audience development programs. 

The office initiated Institution-wide discussions and work- 
shops focusing on recent exhibitions and research that re- 
sulted in new guidelines and improved procedures for 
exhibition planning. 

The Council of Museum Education Directors organized a 
Smithsonian-wide conference that reviewed national educa- 
tion reform goals and guidelines and presented local, national, 
and Smithsonian examples of the museum community's in- 
volvement in education reform. 

Smithsonian scholars from the sciences and the humanities 
gathered at a conference focusing on the history and contribu- 
tions of Smithsonian researchers. "What about Increase? The 
First Science and Humanities Dialogue" fostered a spirit of 
community, shared goals, and cooperative endeavor. 

The office continued support for the Material Culture 
Forum and the History Roundtable, which hold regular dis- 
cussions on topics that cross disciplines, thereby encouraging 
communication and collegial work among research staff. 

The Wider Audience Development Program coordinated 
nearly 30 lectures, films, performances, and other educational 
programs to explore different facets ot America's multicultu- 
ral heritage. 

The office supported several Smithsonian units in organiz- 
ing programs for Asian and Asian American communities. 

The Accessibility Lecture Series offered 10 programs to staff 
from the Smithsonian and from cultural organizations in the 
Washington, DC, area on topics such as universal design and 
audio description for performances. 

"Ocean Planet," a traveling exhibition on ocean conserva- 
tion organized by the Environmental Awareness Program, 
opened at the National Museum of Natural History. 



Sciences 

Conservation Analytical Laboratory 



Lambertus van Zelst. Director 

Several events early in the year had ma]or effects on CAL's pro- 
grams and activities during this past year. First, the year 
started with the implementation of che new management 
structure, which is matrix oriented rather than based on the 
traditional disciplinary departments. In the new structure, ac- 



37 



tiviues take place in three program areas, research and devel- 
opment, education and training, and support and collabora- 
tion, each with a Program Coordinator overseeing and 
coordinating the work in their specific area. Staff, however, 
can and often does participate in several projects at a time, 
which can fall into more than one of these program areas; for 
each project the corresponding coordinator oversees the work 
done on it. 

The second event, which resulted in a major challenge to 
CAL staff, was the year long construction project at MSC to 
retrofit the ventilation system. In contrast to earlier planning, 
this project resulted in a ma|or disruption, since halt of the 
CAL facilities were closed down between January and August. 
Thanks to the gratefully acknowledged help from the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History, temporary spaces could be 
identified within MSC to keep most of the programs going. 
However, the education program especially was seriously dis- 
rupted, and some ma|or equipment, that could not be moved 
to temporary quarters, was shut down for several months. 
That the overall work progressed quite satisfactorily is testi- 
mony to the outstanding efforts made by the CAL staff to 
overcome these difficulties. 

In the research program on mechanical properties of materi- 
als, a major milestone has been passed. The quantitative rela- 
tionships between mechanical properties and environmental 
conditions (temperature and relative humidity) have been 
worked out for a large number of material types and this, in 
turn has enabled the researchers to formulate safe ranges for 
these environmental conditions inside which fluctuations pose 
no danger to the objects in storage or on display. The possible 
variations from the general set points of 50% RH and 68 de- 
gree F. are indeed much larger than has generally been as- 
sumed in the conservation literature; as a result substantial 
savings in energy costs may be realized in operating the cli- 
mate control systems in museums. A number of special sym- 
posiums has already been organized at various locations to 
disseminate these results to the museum community. Several 
museums nationwide that were planning new construction 
and/or climate control systems have asked for detailed infor- 
mation to include these data in their planning. At the 
Smithsonian, this work may lead to significant savings in the 
control system acquisition and operation at the planned Dul- 
les Airport facility of NASM. Moreover, in order to assess the 
possibility of savings in other facilities, the main investigators 
have been assigned on a special detail to a planning group at 
ODC charged with the drafting of Institutional guidelines for 
environmental control standards. 

The program of research into the pteservation of photo- 
graphic materials successfully developed a packing technique 
which provides sufficient humidity control allows inside the 
package to allow the use of commercially available freezer 
technology for the long term storage of photographic materi- 
als. The advantage of freezer storage are in lower temperature, 
hence longer life expectancy, and in greater energy efficiency. 
Moreover, using commercial technology makes the equipment 



scalable to the size of the collection, from a household size 
freezer, through supermarket freezers, to walk-in freezer 
vaults. This will make cold storage a feasible and affordable 
preservation strategy for small and large collections alike. At 
CAL, a pilot demonstration project has been started. 

In the modern materials preservation research, attention 
centered on the preservation of magnetic storage media, espe- 
cially videotape. It appears that the determining factor in the 
loss of use of the information is the chemical breakdown of 
the adhesive binder holding the magnetic particles. Hence, 
the research focussed on the development of a technique to as- 
sess, non destructively, the degree to which this chemical dete- 
rioration process is progressing, in order to make informed 
decisions as to when to copy the information. Based on prelim- 
inary results, the use of attenuated total reflection Fourier 
transform infra red spectrometry appears to holds good prom- 
ise, and this work will be continued. Research on the chemi- 
cal ageing of paper under natural and accelerated conditions, 
and the relationship between chemical and physical deteriora- 
tion, progressed on schedule; since under not overly exagger- 
ated conditions these processes are rather slow this is a multi 
year project. 

The conservation of the neolithic plaster statues from Ain- 
Ghazal, Jordan, entered its final phase, the reassembly and re- 
construction. An agreement has been reached with the Sackler 
Gallery and the Jordanian government, for a temporary ex- 
hibit at the Sackler gallery of these unique objects after the 
completion of their conservation, in late 1996. 

Work on the trace element characterization of archaeologi- 
cal ceramics was seriously hampered by a prolonged shutdown 
of the nuclear reactor at the National Institute for Standards 
and Technology (NIST), where CAL operates a facility for neu- 
tron activation analysis. This provided one more argument for 
the need to develop alternative trace element analysis facili- 
ties, and a request has been submitted tor the FY96 research 
equipment pool for funding to acquire a inductively coupled 
plasma optical emission spectroscopy instrument, later to be 
augmented by ICP mass spectrometry. On the other hand, 
good progress was made in the stable lead isotope ratio charac- 
terization of archaeological metal sources. Collaborative work 
on the early bronze age "Great Orme" tin mine in the UK was 
brought to conclusion, and the proiect on Nigerian (Benin 
and Ife and Igbo-Ukwu) bronzes produced a first series of 
promising data. 

In the biogeochemistry program, work continued on the de- 
velopment of molecular dissection techniques for light ele- 
ment (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) isotopes, and, in 
collaboration with the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie 
Institution, on the comparison of isotopic compositions of pro- 
teins from fossil, Cambrian and contemporary, Hawaiian 
shells of the brachiopod Lingula. In collaboration with the an- 
thropology department of NMNH, and with funding from 
the James Smithson society, a vacuum line sample preparation 
facility for light element mass spectrometry (and accelerator 
mass specrrometry radiocarbon dating) was constructed at 



38 



MSC. Work also continued on rhe assessment of preservation, 
and recovery, of DNA and other biomolecules from the fossil 
record. A mechanism by which DNA is stabilized in the fossil 
record through cross-linking to collagen was identified. 

Although the earlier mentioned construction work greatly 
impeded the organization of courses, the Furniture Conserva- 
tion Training Program was still able to conduct the last four 
courses for the class of 1996; the students in that class will 
spend FY96, their last year in the program, in internships. 
Other educational activities proceeded successfully. Two stu- 
dents worked, as interns in the atchaeological conservation 
training program, at sites in Pakistan (Harappa) and Hondu- 
ras (Copan). At the latter site, Harvard University established 
this year an archaeological field school and collaboration with 
the latter program enabled CAL to expand its activities to 
teaching of conservation principles to archaeologists in that 
school. Again, local archaeologists and museum professionals 
at both sites benefitted from the CAL presence through for- 
mal and informal instruction. The Research Library and Ar- 
chives Conservation Training (RELACT) program continued 
its educational activities for managers and users of paper 
based research collections in the Smithsonian museums and re- 
search institutions. Four research collections received practical 
preservation assistance within the context of this program, 
while professionals who have received instruction were again 
provided with access to the CAL based resource center. 

CAL proceeded with the production of instructional video- 
tapes: in addition to the first one on Furniture Care and Mainte- 
nance, a second one on Rescuing Records — Recognizing Values 
and Problems, intended for an audience of managers of paper 
based research collections in museums, libraries and archives, was 
produced. Both videotapes will be available shortly, after the ac- 
companying documentation has been prepared. 

Preparations with the faculty of the local Suitland High 
School, for a collaborative program aimed at the development 
and testing of high school curriculum enrichment materials, 
led to the formulation of a pilot program which saw its in- 
ception shortly before the end of the reporting period. During 
the first semester of the academic year 1995-96, a class of stu- 
dents will receive instruction at the laboratory on the proper- 
ties of materials in art. This instruction will also be integrated 
in other courses taught at the school by the faculty. This proj- 
ect is considered a first step in a long-term program of educa- 
tional outreach on the secondary education level. 

With an increased emphasis on production of special CAL 
publications, an in-house desk-top publishing facility was in- 
stalled. Its first production was a newly designed Annual Re- 
port for FY94. Another major addition to the Support and 
Collaboration group was the image storage and analysis equip- 
ment for microscopical images; in combination with the new 
optical research microscope, and able to receive images from 
the electron microscope, this addition has brought CAL to 
house a state-of-the-art microscopy facility, which will greatly 
help the laboratory to reach its stated goal of establishing a 
center of excellence in research microscopy. 



Close before the end of the year, the newly established ex- 
ternal Advisory Board paid a two day review visit to CAL. Pre- 
pared with advance documentation, the Committee heard 
presentations by CAL management and by leaders of various 
programs and projects, met with the Provost and Assistant 
Provost for the Sciences, inspected the laboratory facilities, 
had individual meetings with all staff members, and met over 
lunch with a group of external collaborators. While the Com- 
mittee had not yet submitted its report at the time of this 
writing, preliminary reactions were highly favorable and 
encouraging. 



National Museum of Natural History 



Dr. Donald J. Ortner, Acting Director 

In keeping with its mission^to understand the natural world 
and the place of humans in it — the National Museum of Nat- 
ural History continued its tradition of excellence in scientific 
research, public outreach, and collections acquisition and man- 
agement in 1995. As one of the world's largest research muse- 
ums, NMNH maintains more than 120 million cultural 
artifacts and specimens of plants, animals, fossils, rocks, and 
minerals. Through its educational programs, scholarly and 
popular publications, and numerous public exhibits — which 
on a yearly basis attract more than 6 million visitors — 
NMNH is at the forefront of natural history museums world- 
wide in disseminating knowledge about the natural and 
cultural diversity of the Earth. 

What follows are highlights from each of the Museum's 
many areas of accomplishment and expertise. 

General Information 

The Research Initiatives Program completed a successful first 
year with a total of $325,100 awarded competitively to 27 pro- 
posals involving 35 NMNH Principle Investigators (26 cura- 
tors and 9 support staff). The awards helped to foster exciting 
research and collections wotk within the Museum, as well as 
supporting new directions in research.. 

In 1995, NMNH staff obtained substantial outside research 
and collections grants totaling over $6 million. For example. 
Dr. Brian Kensley of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology 
(IZ) spearheaded an agreement between the National Science 
Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution concerning the 
Biological Collections from Polar Regions. This agreement, 
worth $1,250,000, is to be awarded over the span of 5 years 
and designates Invertebrate Zoology as a "Centet for Excel- 
lence in Antarctic Research." 

Two new scientists have been added to the Museum staff 
this year and will be joining the Department of Entomology. 
They are: Dr. Ted Schultz, a specialist in the systematics and 
ecology of ants, and Dr. Daniel Polhemus, an expert in flies. 



39 



wirh additional interest in the conservation and biota of Ha- 
waii. These researchers have filled positions vacated through 
retirements and will strengthen scientific and public pro- 
grams in both the Department and the Museum. 

On October 14, 1994, Museum board member Gilbert S. 
Kahn announced a gift of $2 million from his mother, Janet 
Annenberg Hooker, to the Campaign for the Hall of Geology, 
Gems and Minerals. The donation also included a four-piece 
jewelry suite of rare fancy yellow diamonds. Mrs. Hooker had 
contributed $3 million to the campaign in 1992, and the new 
hall will be named in her honor when it opens in 1996. 

The Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port in eastern 
Florida this year benefited from two generous supporters. The 
John D. and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation agreed to a 
discounted sale of eight acres of land in Fort Pierce, Florida, 
which will provide a permanent site for the facility. In addi- 
tion, the station received a 1995 Ford Explorer from Ford 
Motor Company, a sponsor of the Museum's "Ocean Planet" 
exhibition. 

The Museum expanded its outreach significantly this year 
via the information superhighway. Online services now avail- 
able include an NMNH "home page" on the World Wide 
Web, an electronic version of the "Ocean Planet" exhibition, 
scientific and general-interest publications, collection informa- 
tion, specialized bibliographies, comprehensive species list for 
some groups of organisms, and discussion centers that link re- 
searchers around the world. 

The Fall meeting of the NMNH Board took place in An- 
chorage, Alaska, in early September. This venue was chosen to 
provide Board members a first-hand look at the NMNH Arc- 
tic Studies Center. 

Department of Anthropology 

The Asian Cultural History Program celebrated its 10th anni- 
versary (1985-95) with several publications and new pro|ects, 
including Chung-su Houchins' monograph, "Artifacts of Di- 
plomacy: Smithsonian Collections from Commodore Matthew 
Perry's Japan Expedition (1853-1854)," (Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions to Anthropology, volume 37), and Dr. Paul Michael 
Taylor's edited volume, "Fragile Traditions: Indonesian Art in 
Jeopardy," (Honolulu: The University of Hawaii Press, 1994). 

Under the leadership of Dr. William Fitzhugh, The Arctic 
Studies Center was particularly active in outreach activities in 
1995. The exhibition "Crossroads: Alaska" toured 15 small vil- 
lages throughout Alaska this past year. The objects from na- 
tive cultures of the Bering Straits region have special meaning 
for many of those who live in rural Alaska. The materials 
were made all the more accessible by means of the accompany- 
ing library of videos, educational materials, and related out- 
reach programs. 

After two years of planning. Dr. Dennis Stanford began ex- 
cavations and archival research in the Toluca Valley of centtal 
Mexico. This project, designed to study the processes of 
human-induced landscape change, found evidence of massive 
erosion and deforestation coinciding with the Spanish con- 



quest of the Aztec empire almost 500 years ago. As a result of 
this discovery, new research collaborations were established 
with the Mexican National Institute for Anthropology and 
History, the National Autonomous University in Mexico City, 
Mexico's National Museum of Anthropology, and the govern- 
ment of the State of Mexico. 

Drs. Douglas Owsley and Douglas Ubelaker collaborated in 
the development of "Standards for Data Collection from 
Human Skeletal Remains," the published proceedings of a 
seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History. Drs. Owsley 
and Ubelaker were also instrumental in providing anthropo- 
logical contributions to the investigation of the events at the 
Branch Davidian Compound near Waco, Texas, in early 1993, 
and, as a result of these investigations, published a paper de- 
scribing the role of forensic anthropology in the recovery and 
identification of the Compound victims. 

During Fiscal Year 1995, the Department ot Anthropology's 
Collections staff — working in conjunction with the Museum's 
MOVE staff — cleaned, rehoused, packed, bar coded and relo- 
cated approximately 56,000 catalogue records, equivalent to 
more than 100,000 objects, to the Smithsonian's Museum Sup- 
port Center in Suitland, Maryland. These objects are represen- 
tative of cultures throughout the world. In addition, the 
Department captured digitized images of its catalogue records 
for the ethnology, archaeology, and physical anthropology col- 
lections. This documentation system, which will be made 
available on CD ROM, will facilitate collections access and re- 
search for both scholars and the general public. 

Department of Botany 

Drs. Warren Wagner and Vicki Funk, Department of Botany, 
were the editors of a book, "Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolu- 
tion on a Hot Spot Archipelago" (Smithsonian Institution 
Press, Washington, D.C., 1995). This volume represents the 
first detailed biogeographic study of Hawaiian organisms and 
brings together the work of a majority of the contemporary bi- 
ological researchers on the terrestrial Hawaiian biota. In col- 
lecting and synthesizing the available data, the publication 
offers not only a new understanding of the biogeography of 
the archipelago, but is certain to kindle new ideas concerning 
evolution on islands. 

As published in "Science, " Drs. Mark and Diane Littler, 
Department of Botany, discovered a new bacterial pathogen of 
calcareous coralline algae that occurs in South Pacific reefs and 
spans a geographic range of at least 6,000 kilometers. Because 
of the important role played by coralline algae in reef build- 
ing, this pathogen has the potential to greatly influence coral 
reef ecology and related processes. 

On June 9, 1995, "Science" magazine featured an article en- 
titled "Multiple Origins of the Lichen Symbioses in Fungi 
Suggested by SSU rDNA Phylogeny" ("Science" 268: 1492- 
x 495> '995)- The article was co-authored by Drs. Andrea Gar- 
gas and Paula DePnest, members of the Department of 
Botany, NMNH, in collaboration with Martin Grube and An- 
ders Tehler. The piece provided a phylogenetic placement 



40 



based on molecular data for a diversity of lichen-forming 
fungi that demonstrated at least five independent origins of 
this type of symbiotic association. The research , which was 
conducted in the laboratories of the Department of Botany 
with assistance from the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics, 
was funded by Research Initiative Awards, a Scholarly Studies 
Gtant, and departmental funds. 

Additionally, Dr. DePnest was the 1994 winner of the 
Tuckerman award for the best lichen paper in Volume 97 of 
"The Bryologist." The paper, "Variation in the Cladoma 
chlorphaea Complex II: Ribosomal DNA Variation in a South- 
ern Appalachian Population," described extensive genetic vari- 
ation within an interbreeding population ot pixie cup lichens. 

Department of Botany curator Dr. Pedro Acevedo's manu- 
script, "Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands," has been ac- 
cepted for publication by the New York Botanical Garden. 
The work treats the 747 native and naturalized species of vas- 
cular plants occurring on St. John, the strategic geographical 
position of which will ensure the volume's value as a tool for 
students of the Caribbean flora in general. 

Department of Entomology 

The Department of Entomology teceived the donation of the 
Kawabe Lepidoptera collection, totaling approximately 
50,000 specimens. This collection contains the finest represen- 
tation of Asiatic moths of the superfamily Totricoidea ever as- 
sembled. Included in this group of moths are several of the 
most serious pests of fruit and forest trees known. 

Butterfly curator Dr. Robert K. Robbins published an arti- 
cle with Paul A. Oppler (National Biological Survey) in a new 
book ("Biodiversity II") that for the first time documents but- 
terfly diversity in each state and in each of the world's major 
biogeographic realms. The authors show that butterflies dis- 
play a greater proportion of their diversity in the tropics than 
either birds or mammals. This result further emphasizes the 
importance of conserving tropical ecosystems, particularly if 
the diversity of other terrestrial arthopods mirrors that of 
butterflies. 

The Department of Entomology prototype GOPHER went 
on-line in October 1994. It contains information about staff, 
resources available to visitors, newsletters maintained by staff 
members and information about the collections. It also con- 
tains information about, and from, various associated organiza- 
tions located at the National Museum of Natural History, 
including the USDA Systematic Entomology Laboratory, the 
Walter Reed Biosystematic Unit, and the Maryland Center 
for Systematic Entomology at the University of Maryland. 
The Department's World List of Systematic Entomologists is 
particularly popular and its lists of type holdings are currently 
being expanded. 

The Department of Entomology was one of two depart- 
ments that participated in the testing of the CRIS Transaction 
Management computer system. The CRIS system facilitates 
our management of loans and exchanges. The state-of-the-art 
system will provide network access to individual curators and 



technicians as well as a crucial link to the NMNH Registrar's 
Office. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology curator Dr. Steven Cairns 
published "The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Scleractinia," 
(Cnidaria: Anthozoa). The volume is a major contribution to 
the knowledge of the world's deep sea corals . 

The proceedings of the Cephalopod International Advisory 
Council Conference, held in Washington, D.C. in 1988, were 
edited by Dr. Clyde Roper, Dr. Mike Vecchione, and Michael 
Sweeney and are in press with Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology . Five papers in the volume are authored by Depart- 
ment of Invertebtate Zoology staff. 

Dr. Robert Hershler was elected President of the American 
Malacological Society for 1998, at the annual meeting in Hilo, 
Hawaii, in June 1995. 

The World List of marine and aquatic isopods, comprising 
about 5,000 species and prepared by Dr. Brian Kensley and 
Marilyn Schotte, was placed on the SI Gopher server, along 
with an authority file bibliography. The list, which provides 
original author, type locality, and some indication of depth of 
capture, will be invaluable to isopod systematists. 

Dr. Klaus Ruetzler and Kate Smith completed develop- 
ment of a multimedia taxonomic key and database for Carib- 
bean mangrove sponges supported by an award from the 
Smithson Society. The first results of this pilot study were pre- 
sented and discussed with other experts at the Xth Interna- 
tional Sponge Taxonomy Workshop - Biodiversity Database 
and Identification Systems - in Brussels in April 1995. 

Department of Mineral Sciences 

Drs. Tom Simkin (Department of Minetal Sciences) and Lee 
Siebert published "Volcanoes of the World: A Regional Direc- 
tory, Gazetteer, and Chronology of Volcanism During the Last 
10,000 Years," (Geoscience Press, Tucson). This book is a com- 
pilation of all known worldwide volcanic activity for the past 
10,000 years, with statistics and diagrams showing frequen- 
cies and patterns of eruptions. 

Department of Mineral Sciences curator Dr. Glenn Mac- 
Pherson and colleagues published an invited paper on the evi- 
dence for the presence of the tadioactive isotope of aluminum 
in the solar system at the time of the latter's formation. The 
isotope has a very short half life, 700,000 years, and may have 
been one of the major sources of the heat that caused whole- 
sale melting of planets to form cores early in their existence. 

Department staff completed a major project in collabora- 
tion with the staff of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to 
evaluate several new methods of identification, characteriza- 
tion, and tracing of soil samples taken from crime scenes. 

In Septembet 1995, the Department hosted an international 
conference, the Meteontical Society Annual Meeting, at the 
Ripley Center. Over 200 talks and poster presentations cov- 
ered all aspects of research on the solar system: its fotmation 



4! 



and evolution, and its component planets, asteroids, 
meteonds, and comets. 

Department of Paleobiology 

This year, research scientists in the Department of Paleo- 
biology published important papers, arising from several on- 
going research programs. Most notable among these are three 
publications based on Dr. Alan Cheetham's long-term study, 
in conjunction with his colleagues Dr. Jeremy Jackson (STRI) 
and Dr. Lee-Ann Hayek (NMNH), of the evolutionary dynam- 
ics of bryozoans, a group of marine invertebrates. Their work 
provides the most compelling evidence gathered to date in 
support of the punctuated equilibrium model of evolution, 
which argues that speciation takes place in short bursts, fol- 
lowed by long intervals of stasis, rather than as a long series of 
small changes. These papers were published in "Evolution" 
(49:290-296); "Environmental and Biological Change in Tropi- 
cal America" (University of Chicago Press, 1995); and "New 
Approaches to Speciation in the Fossil Record" (Columbia 
University Press, 1995). 

Dr. Richard Benson and his colleagues, published a paper that 
extends the use of time tesolution into the past using sedimen- 
tary patterns created by the Earth's natural rhythms. This paper is 
part of an ongoing study of the geological history of the Mediter- 
ranean region. ("Paleoceanography" 10:5-20). 

The illustrated "Fossils of the Burgess Shale," (Smithsonian 
Press, 1995) was released. This book is the result of collabora- 
tive work among Drs. D.E. Briggs, F. Collier, and Douglas 
Erwin (NMNH). This volume brings the history and current 
knowledge of the Burgess Shale to the scientific community 
and the layman. The Burgess Shale remains among the most 
important collections at the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory It was collected by then Secretary Charles D. Walcott in 
the early 1900s. The collection has been pivotal in out under- 
standing of the diversification of animal life and the develop- 
ment of evolutionary theory. 

The Department ot Paleobiology has made progress in the 
conservation of the vertebrate paleontology collections. Many 
specimens of Cenozoic mammals have been repaired and fitted 
with special jackets that offer both incteased protection and 
accessibility to scientists interested in their study Ma|or re- 
organization of collections has also been initiated. Large num- 
bers of specimens have been moved to new cases at the 
Museum Support Center, and collections have been reorgan- 
ized in virtually all areas of the Department's holdings. 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 

The Department of Vertebrate Zoology's Dr. Lynne Parenti 
was invited to attend the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Work- 
shop on "Conservation, Sustainable Use and Management of 
Wild Animals" and presented lectures on systematics relating 
to biodiversity. Dr. Parenti helped to establish ties with Chi- 
nese colleagues and to assure continued cooperation and ex- 
change of scientists, books, and specimens. 



Twenty years of effort, including the detailed examination 
of over 9,000 specimens and the recording and analysis ot an 
enormous amount of data, resulted in the 1995 publication by 
Drs. Victor G. Springer and Jeffrey T. Williams of "The Indo- 
West Pacific Blennnd Fish Genus htiblennius Reappraised: A 
Revision oi Istiblennius. Blenmella. and Paralticus. New Genus," 
(Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Volume 565). This 
illustrated paper offers a systematic revision of three Indo- 
Pacific genera of common marine fishes, and describes a new 
genus and two new species. 

In 1995 the Department of Vertebrate Zoology entered the 
"information highways" with the development of a World 
Wide Web page on Internet (Fishes). Mammal collection data 
were made available over Internet via the Natural History Go- 
pher Server. This file encompasses information consolidated 
from over 477,000 specimen records into over 17,000 taxo- 
nomic-geographic records. 

The new Osteo-Prep/Manne Mammal Necropsy Labora- 
tory is virtually complete. The Lab is situated in Suitland, 
Maryland, adjacent to the Museum Support Center, and 
takes the place of the old East Court Laboratory. Like its 
predecessor, the new Marine Mammal Lab will allow mam- 
malogists to examine the remains of dolphins, porpoises, 
and whales that have beached themselves or drowned in 
fishing nets. The Osteo-Prep facilities will make possible 
the preparation of skeletal remains for addition to the 
Museum's research collections. To inaugurate the site, 
Museum researchers hosted a workshop for some 20 por- 
poise researchers. 



Laboratory of Molecular Systematics 

Dr. Elizabeth A. Zimmer, Laboratory of Molecular System- 
atics Botanist, continued her National Science Foundation 
Visiting Professorship for Women at the California Insti- 
tute for Technology. While there she gained training in 
molecular developmental microscopy techniques applica- 
ble to systematics. Dr. Zimmer was named a Research 
Fellow at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden in 
Claremont, California, where she organized their annual 
symposium on the topic of "The New Morphology: 
Integrative Approaches to Plant Systematics." 

*Laboratory of Molecular Systematics investigators Dr. 
Paul Lewis and Dr. David Swofford have recently discov- 
ered a very general way to estimate genetic distances. This 
year, they presented their newly devised method, which 
vastly expands the number of possible models that can be 
applied in arriving at estimates, at the joint meetings of 
the Society for the Study of Evolution and the Society of 
Systematic Biologists. 

The Laboratory of Molecular Systematics renovated 1,700 
square feet of laboratory space at the Museum Support Centet 
in Suitland, Maryland, to house frozen tissue collections. The 
space will also be used as a facility for recovering ancient 
DNA from Museum specimens. 



42 



Office of Biodiversity Programs 

December 1994 saw the publication ot "The National 
Biodiversity Infotmation Center: A Consensus Paper Prepared 
by the National Biodiversity Information Center Advisory 
Planning Board." 

A major symposium, "Measuring and Monitoring Forest 
Biodiversity: The International Network of Biodiversity 
Plots" was held at the Smithsonian in May 1995. 

In 1995, a number of courses were organized by the Office 
of Biodiversity Programs, among these "Ecology of Amazon- 
ian Rain Forests;" "Museum Techniques in Botany;" and a 
workshop devoted to an initial survey of Pelican Cays in 
Belize. 

The Office began the establishment ot surveys and inven- 
tor)' programs in Burma, China, and Cuba. 

Dr. George Zug from the Division of Reptiles and Amphib- 
ians, with a colleague, Dr. Robert Reynolds, NBS, taught at 
the Department of the Interior Wildlife Inspector Basic Train- 
ing Program for newly appointed Wildlife Inspectors with 
the Division of Law Enforcement. 

Museum Exhibits in 1995 

Special exhibits were a highlight of 1995 at the Museum. "Spi- 
ders!" completed it successful debut at the Museum in Janu- 
ary and began a North American tour that will continue until 
1998. In April, "Ocean Planet" opened with the generous sup- 
port of Times Mirror Magazines, the National Science Founda- 
tion, The Pew Charitable Trusts, Ford Motor Co, and 
Motorola. A new permanent exhibition, "Exploring Marine 
Ecosystems," opened in May, followed by the traveling show 
"Royal Tombs of Sipan" in June. Later in the year, the 
Museum's first outdoor exhibition — a butterfly garden began 
attracting butterflies. 

"Ocean Planet" — This exhibition, organized by the SI Of- 
fice of Environmental Awareness, opened to the public on 
April 22nd and continued through January I, 1996. At that 
time it began national circulation by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Traveling Exhibition Service. The exhibition was pro- 
duced with the intention of promoting celebration, 
understanding, and conservation of the world's oceans. In as- 
sociation with the show, Times Mirror Magazines, Inc., devel- 
oped a CD-ROM titled "Ocean Planet Explorer" for children. 
The Discovery Channel also produced a CD-ROM for general 
audiences. 

Scientists at the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration helped develop an on-line version of the exhibition, 
which became available in May over the Internet. Because of 
these and other partnerships, "Ocean Planet" is considered the 
most widely distributed exhibition and education effort cre- 
ated by the Smithsonian to date. 

"Exploring Marine Ecosystems" — Upon its opening on 
May 19th, "Exploring Marine Ecosystems," a completely reno- 
vated exhibition, will introduce visitors of all ages to the com- 
plexity and importance of natural ecosystems. The exhibition 



features living models of two of the many ecosystems con- 
tained within the Earth's oceans: a tropical coral reef and a 
temperate rocky shore. A life-sized blue whale in her entirety 
is also on display as a permanent feature. 

"The Royal Tombs of Sipan" — This special exhibition 
was organized by the Fowler Museum of Cultural 
History at the University of California at Los Angeles and 
Bruning Archaeological Museum under the auspices of the 
National Institute of Culture, Peru. It opened to the pub- 
lic on June 2, revealing the riches excavated from the 1,700- 
year old burials in a Moche pyramid in Peru. Displaying 
more than 100 artifacts in gold, silver, and other precious 
materials, the exhibition introduced visitors to the Moche's 
remarkable jewelry, weaponry, regalia, and sacred ceremo- 
nies. The exhibition closed September 4, 1995 and returned 
to Peru. 

Smithsonian Butterfly Garden — The Museum's first out- 
door exhibition is located on the Ninth Street side of the Nat- 
ural History Building. Four distinct habitats — wetland, 
meadow, woods' edge, and urban garden — encourage visitors 
to observe the partnerships between plants and butterflies. 
The garden is a joint venture of the Horticulture Services Di- 
vision and the Museum, with partial funding from the 
Smithsonian Women's Committee. The garden, on view at all 
times, serves as a valuable complement to the O. Orkin Insect 
Zoo on the second floor of the Museum. 

"Seminole Interpretations" is an expanded exhibit on the 
Seminole Tribe of Florida on view in the Native American 
halls. Additions to the previously existing display include a 
two-sided kiosk presenting Seminole culture in the 1990s. 
The Museum also collaborated with the Seminole's Ah-Tha- 
Thi-Ki Museum in Florida to develop an interactive com- 
puter program from which visitors can learn about facets of 
tribal life such as crafts, language and architecture. 

Education, Public Programs, and Outreach 

The National Museum of Natural History, in association with 
the National Zoological Park, NASA's John C. Stennis Space 
Center, and Mississippi State University have agreed to work 
together to create a multimedia information system to give 
teachers and students greater access to the vast scientific edu- 
cational resources of the Smithsonian and the NMNH in par- 
ticular. The initiative will focus on teaching, research, and 
technology, with an emphasis on inquiry-based classroom re- 
search and interactive multimedia designed in accordance 
with the ongoing research within the participating organiza- 
tions. Referred to as the "Natural Partners Program," this 
project expects to encourage, as one of its many goals, respon- 
sible decision-making about the conservation and the use of fi- 
nite natural resources, while presenting NMNH scientists 
and their research in relevant ways to encourage students to 
become future scientists. 

The Museum's premier program for national and inter- 
national undergraduates, the Research Training Program 
(RTP), had another successful year. Since its inception in 



•+; 



1980, RTP has developed into a highly competitive program, 
awarding stipends to approximately 25 of 500 applicants 
each summer. Funding for the program has come from the 
Smithsonian Institution and from various external sources, 
including the National Science Foundation and The Pew 
Charitable Trusts. In 1995, Motorola, a supporter of the 
Museum's "Ocean Planet" exhibition, donated funds to 
support an intern in 1995 and 1996. One of the recipients, 
Glenn Almany, a student of marine biology at San Fran- 
cisco State University, began work this year with Dts. G. 
David Johnson and Carole Baldwin, Department of Verte- 
brate Zoology. 

The Museum's Naturalist Center closed temporarily 
on April 2, 1995, while NMNH undergoes extensive 
renovation. In cooperation with Loudoun County, Vir- 
ginia, the Center reopened in September on the campus 
of the Xerox Document University near Leesburg. 
The Naturalist Center will return to the Museum in 
1998. Magda Schremp, Head of the Docent Program at 
NMNH, was successfully involved in recruiting docents 
for the relocated Center. Due to excellent press in the 
Loudoun County newspapers, a number of very qualified 
volunteers will work with county teachers and museum 
staff. 

NMNH Docent Anne Marie LaPorte gave a highlight tour 
of the Museum for the creative staff of Lancit Media, who are 
working to develop a weekly Smithsonian TV program for 
children between 8-12 years of age. 

The Museum's Fossil Preparation Laboratory reopened dur- 
ing the summer and is once again staffed with preparators. 
Visitors to the Laboratory can see how remains of dinosaurs 
and other ancient creatures are extracted from surrounding 
rock and preserved for study and display. 

"Bug Fest 1995, a day-long Museum presentation 
dedicated solely to insects, was held in late September. 
Various display tables were set up throughout the build- 
ing, including: insects as food, insect identification tables, 
collecting and preserving tables, canopy collecting, 
scientific illustration demonstrations, and fossil insects. 
Curators, technicians, illustrators, and educators from the 
Museum, the Department of Agriculture, and the Depart- 
ment of the Army shared their knowledge of arthropods 
with hundreds of visitors of all ages. 

NMNH Department of Education staff participated in the 
Ocean Planet Teacher's Night at the Museum, an event organ- 
ized by the Si's Office of Environmental Awareness. Approxi- 
mately 150 teachers participated. 

In April, the Museum hosted its first Open House 
"Expedition" for members of Congress and the Admin- 
istration and their families. This successful event was 
organized by the NMNH's Office of Development and 
Public Affairs with the cooperation of its Senate of 
Scientist. A major objective was to make a direct link 
between the research staff at the Museum and the con- 
gressional community. 



National Zoological Park 



Michael H. Robinson, Director 

The National Zoological Park (NZP) continues its transforma- 
tion into a biological park that emphasizes the diversity and 
interdependence of plants and animals. New exhibits on its 
163-acre Rock Creek facility in Washington, D.C., such as 
Amazonia, Invertebrate Exhibit, Wetlands, and Cheetah Con- 
servation Station, do away with the unnatural separation of 
plants and animals that charactetize most zoos. These exhibits 
broaden appreciation for the ecological relationships among 
living organisms. 

Scientific studies conducted at Rock Creek, the 3,150-acre 
Conservation & Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia, and 
at various locations nationally and overseas, furthered both the 
NZP's effort to advance the understanding of biological and 
veterinary science and its effort to pteserve disappearing spe- 
cies and habitats worldwide. 

Jomu, a history-making cheetah, became a part of the Na- 
tional Zoo's Cheetah Conservation Station. The twenty-one 
month old female was one of the world's first cheetahs pro- 
duced by artificial insemination. Jomu was a product of new 
research in assisted reproduction of endangered cats conducted 
at the Caldwell Zoo in Tyler, Texas, by staff from the NZP's 
New Opportunities in Animal Health Sciences (NOAHS) 
Center. 

Griff, The National Zoo's 13-year-old Masai giraffe, gave 
birth to a 114 pound female calf on June 5, 1995. The 510" tall 
calf was Griff's fourth and 16-year old Lionel's ninth. The 
baby giraffe dropped to the ground at 2:26 p.m., amid cheers 
from onlookers. The newborn stood and took its first stum- 
bling steps in just 28 minutes. Masai giraffes, although not en- 
dangered, are not common in North American zoos. 

Kuman, the National Zoo's female elephant calf, collapsed 
and died on April 26, 1995. She was 16 months old. Kuman 
was the first elephant born at the Zoo. She died of a type of 
herpes virus that is not found in humans. The Zoo's pathology 
department has launched a full scale investigation into the ori- 
gin and prevalence of this pathogen. The pathologists are 
studying the possible negative impact of this virus on the 
breeding of elephants in zoos. Efforts to increase zoo elephant 
populations are critical since their numbers in the wild are 
declining. 

The Department of Zoological Research established a 
BioVisualization Laboratory. Orchestrated by Dr. Alfred 
Rosenberger, this state-of-the art computerized system incor- 
porates digitized 3-D imaging and animation. These tools 
will allow biological and cultural artifacts, such as animal 
skulls, to be rendered as three dimensional digital specimens. 
Objects available in a digital catalog can be studied in virtual 
reality. The accuracy is so great that scientific research will be 
conducted on the images, which are digitized using a laser 
beam input device. 



44 



The Office of Public Affairs organized "Forever Changed: 
Birds on che Hawaiian Islands" — an all-Smithsonian sympo- 
sium thar featured scientists Helen James and Storrs Olson 
from the National Museum of Natural History' and Rob 
Fleischer and Scott Derrickson from the NZP. These four dis- 
cussed the history and conservation status of Hawaii's remark- 
able bird radiation and the discovery of recently extinct birds 
that provided DNA samples for analyses that forced scientists 
to rethink evolutionary relationships between Hawaiian avi- 
fauna. 

The Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ) began FY '95 by 
initiating its first annual ZooArts Festival featuring a number 
of prominent Washington area artists and photographers as 
well as the works of local high school students and commu- 
nity groups. In the spring of '95, FONZ constructed and 
opened a modern gift and food service facility at Panda Plaza 
and celebrated its twelfth annual gala fund-raiser, ZooFari, 
which netted a record $240,000 for NZP exhibition, educa- 
tion, conservation and research programs. In the summer, 
FONZ also launched its first series of week-long overnight 
wildlife conservation camps for children at the NZP Conserva- 
tion & Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. FONZ vol- 
unteers also contributed over 100,000 hours of assistance that 
supported a variety of projects. 

The NZP won three major awards at the annual meeting of 
the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA): the top 
Conservation Award for the NZP's outstanding Golden Lion 
Tamarin Conservation Program (in FY '95 NZP marked its 
first decade of success in reintroducing golden lion tamarin 
monkeys back to Brazil); shared with two other U.S. zoos the 
Edward H. Bean Award for Excellence in Conservation for col- 
laborative work on behalf of the endangered tiger; and a Sig- 
nificant Achievement award for breeding Matschie's tree 
kangaroo (at the Conservation &. Research Center). 

The Conservation & Research Center, Environmental Sys- 
tems Research Institute, Inc. and Hewlett-Packard Company 
collaborated in forming a consortium, The Conservation Tech- 
nology Support Program, to provide computer hardware, soft- 
ware and training to non-profit conservation organizations in 
the U.S. and abroad. This program will make it possible for 
biologists to more effectively analyze the environmental im- 
pact of land and natural resource utilization. 

NZP and the Fairfax County Public Schools' Office of 
Media Services co-produced four separate "Science Safari" 
programs that targeted elementary school students, and an 
"Electronic Field Trip" that was aimed at middle school 
students. Related curriculum materials were created and 
distributed to participating schools. The programs were 
broadcast to schools nationally via satellite downlink or 
cable TV systems. 

A novel underwater videotape camera provided by the Na- 
tional Geographic Society was employed by a team of scien- 
tists led by NZP's Dr. Daryl Boness to gather 
never-seen-before underwater images of and data on harbor 
seal behavior. The team traveled to Sable Island in the North 



Atlantic Ocean to temporarily attach cameras to the backs of 
the seals. 

The first breeding outside of the wild of a Hawaiian 
honeycreeper was achieved at the Conservation & Research 
Center in 1995. This unusual bird, an i'iwi (Vestiaria 
coccinea)(pronounced ee'eevee), was hatched on 25 May, and 
was subsequently raised to independence by its parents. 
Several non-endangered types of honeycreepers, including 
the i'iwi, are being used at the Center as "research surro- 
gates" in order to develop husbandry and propagation tech- 
niques for a number of Hawaii's highly-endangered avian 
species. 

The lobby of the Education Building was the location for 
"Impressions of Another Land," an exhibition of children's 
art. The artists were grade 4 students from Sydney, Australia, 
and Chevy Chase, Maryland. The children drew a remarkable 
series of pictures ot Australian animals — the Sydney students 
from their own personal experience; the Marylanders from 
photos and videotapes. 



Office of Fellowships and Grants 



Roberta W. Rubinoff, Director 

The Office of Fellowships and Grants supports and enhances 
research at the Institution, throughout the nation, and over- 
seas by linking the Smithsonian with students and scholars 
from universities, museums, and research organizations. 
Through fellowships, internships, and other visiting academic 
appointments, the Smithsonian maximizes the use of its vast 
and unusual resources and provides an important complement 
to more formal modes of education. The office manages cen- 
tralized fellowship and internship programs and all other sti- 
pend appointments, some of which are designed to increase 
minority participation in Smithsonian research activities and 
disciplines. Two competitive grant programs providing schol- 
arly support for Smithsonian professional staff also are admin- 
istered by the office. 

Approximately 900 students, scientists, and scholars from 
the United States and abroad received appointments to use 
the Institution's facilities and collections. These awards in- 
cluded stipends for visiting scholars and students, internships, 
and short-term travel grants. Of the 66 awards made under 
the Smithsonian Fellowship Program, 21 percent went to stu- 
dents and scholars from underrepresented groups. 

With suppott from the Educational Outreach Fund, the 
office coordinated a seminar series given by nine Smithsonian 
research staff members at 16 large U.S. universities with a sig- 
nificant number of students from underrepresented groups. 
Students and faculty learned about some of the research being 
conducted at the Smithsonian and about the opportunities 
available to them here. 



45 



Dr. Pedro E. Leon Azofeifa from rhe School of Medicine at 
the University of Costa Rica received the second George E. 
Burch Fellowship to study the evolution of regulatory gene 
clusters in vertebrates. 

In the Smithsonian-wide Scholarly Studies Program, 22 
grants wete awarded to provide up to two years of research 
support in Smithsonian disciplines. 



Office of International Relations 



Franc ine C. Berkouitz, Director 

Since its inception, the Smithsonian has been an international 
organization. To limit the scope of the Smithsonian "to one 
city, or even to one country," argued the Institution's first Sec- 
retary, Joseph Henry, "would be an invidious restriction" of 
the terms of founder James Smithson's bequest. Over the 
course of the last 150 years, then, Smithsonian researchers have 
ranged the globe, conducting research, assembling museum 
collections, and participating in cooperative museum pro- 
grams in almost every country of the world. 

Thirty years ago this year, the Smithsonian first established 
an international office, in order to provide diplomatic support 
for its increasingly complex programs abroad and to assist 
with the technical details of the international exchanges of 
museum collections and personnel. The Office of Interna- 
tional Relations (OIR) today serves as the point of contact and 
channel of communications for the Smithsonian with foreign 
institutions or individuals, with international organizations, 
and with government agencies. The OIR provides coordina- 
tion for the various interests abroad of the different parts of 
the Institution, and maintains the Smithsonian's central refer- 
ence source for information on the international activities un- 
dertaken by its museums, research institutes, and program 
offices. Grants for research in a limited number of countries 
abroad are provided through the Smithsonian Foreign Cur- 
rency Program, which is administered by rhe OIR. 

During 1995, OIR obtained nearly 200 foreign visas for 
Smithsonian travelers, and provided U.S. visa documentation 
for almost 190 foreign researchers and interns working at 
Smithsonian and at other kindred institutions in this country. 

The office handled arrangements tor more than 90 official 
government visits to the Smithsonian during the past year, in- 
cluding those of the Queen ofThailand, the President of Cape 
Verde, the President of the Polish Academy ot Sciences, and 
the South African Minister of Arts, Culture, Science, and Tech- 
nology. During 1995, OIR assisted in the drafting of several in- 
ternational agreements and arranged for research and 
specimen export permits in a number of foreign countries 
where Smithsonian staff conducted research. 

Staff of the OIR represented the Institution at international 
meetings and conferences in South Africa, Ghana, India, Mo- 



rocco, and Norway. The OIR served as host at the Smithso- 
nian for events honoring a U.S. -Slovak physicist, a Danish- 
American photographer, an Indian poet, and a Cape Verdean 
artist. 

The December 1994 opening of the Cape Coast Castle Mu- 
seum in a former slave-trade fortress in the West African na- 
tion of Ghana marked a milestone in international 
cooperation tor the Institution. With assistance from several 
Smithsonian divisions, and funding support from USAID, the 
OIR coordinated an effort to train Ghanaian staff in museum 
techniques, and assist in the development of the opening exhi- 
bition there on the African diaspora. Work is currently under- 
way further down the coast ot Ghana on the restoration and 
exhibition development at another World Heritage site, 
Elmina Castle. 



Office of Smithsonian Institution Archives 



Edie Hedlin. Director 

The Office of Smithsonian Institution Archives spent this year 
preparing for the Smithsonian's 150th anniversary. The Institu- 
tional History Division developed research tools, programs, 
publications, and presentations on the history of the Smithson- 
ian and its workers. The Archives Division made substantial 
progress on its enlarged and revised Guide to the Smithsonian In- 
stitution Archives and received a grant from the Atherton 
Seidell Endowment Fund to publish the new edition during 
the anniversary year. The National Collections Program ex- 
panded its annual Collection Statistics report and plans a special 
issue for 1996. 

The Archives Division opened a cold storage facility for spe- 
cial media on the grounds of the National Zoological Park's 
Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. 
The facility provides a steady, cool, and dry environment for 
the long-term storage of microfilm, motion picture film, 
audiotape, and videotape. 

The Archives Division, on behalf of the Archives and Spe- 
cial Collections Council and with support from the James 
Smithson Society, published an updated and expanded bro- 
chure, Archival. Manuscript, and Special Collection Resources. 
which outlines the many documentary collections maintained 
throughout the Smithsonian. 

The Institutional History Division produced two 
databases — a bibliography and a chronology — that support re- 
search into Smithsonian history. Beth databases are available 
online through the Smithsonian Institution Research Informa- 
tion System and are accessible on the Internet. Staff members 
are working on other databases, including a historical photo- 
graph database expected to come online in 1996, and organiz- 
ing several exhibits for the 150th anniversary year. During 
1995, rhe Joseph Henry Papers Project staff completed text ed- 



46 



icing of volume 8 of the papers of the Smithsonian's first 
secretary. 

With the Center tor Museum Studies, the National Collec- 
tions Program cosponsored an introductory workshop on man- 
aging museum collections tor staff in small, emerging, 
minority, and rural museums. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 



Iruin I. Shapiro, Director 

Summary - 

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is dedi- 
cated to the "increase of knowledge" through the discovery 
and explanation of those physical processes that determine the 
nature and evolution of the universe, and to its "diffusion" 
through the dissemination of research results to the scientific 
community, the creation of educational materials for teachers 
and students, the training of teachers, and educational out- 
reach to the general public. 

Headquarrered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, SAO is 
joined with the Harvard College Observatory in the Center 
for Astrophysics (CfA), which has more than 250 professional 
staff engaged in a broad program of research in astronomy, as- 
trophysics, and earth and space sciences organized by divi- 
sions: atomic and molecular physics, high-energy 
astrophysics, optical and infrared astronomy, planetary sci- 
ences, radio and geoastronomy, solar and stellar physics, and 
theoretical astrophysics. Observational data are gathered by 
instruments aboard rockets, balloons, and spacecraft, as well 
as by ground-based telescopes at SAO's Fred Lawrence Whip- 
ple Observatory in Arizona and Oak Ridge Observatory in 
Massachusetts, and at a millimeter-wave radio installation in 
Cambridge. 

Current initiatives include the completion of an array of 
telescopes operating at submillimeter wavelengths, to be 
placed at a site near the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii; the 
conversion of the Multiple Mirror Telescope to a single-mirror 
instrument 6.5 meters in diameter; and preparation for the 
launch of space experiment in x-ray, submillimeter, and solar 
astronomy as well as the flight of a hydrogen maser clock 
aboard a joint US-Russian mission. 

Atomic and Molecular Physics Division 
Kate Kirby, Associate Director 

The Atomic and Molecular Physics Division carries out re- 
search in a broad range of theory, experiment, and observa- 
tions intended in large part to understand those atomic and 
molecular processes applicable to astrophysical environments 
and the terrestrial atmosphere. To help interpret astronomical 
data and to provide more accurate data for astrophysical diag- 



nostics, the AMP laboratory conducrs experiments to measure 
dielectronic recombination coefficients, electron-impact exci- 
tation cross sections, radiative transition probabilities and 
photoabsorption cross sections. Other experimentalists con- 
duct research in stratospheric chemistry via balloon-borne and 
satellite-borne instruments. Division staff also administer and 
participate in the Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molec- 
ular Physics (ITAMP). Over the last seven years, the Institute 
has been extremely successful in attracting leading theorists 
in the field to visit and collaborate wirh each other, and in 
supporting a number of graduate students and postdocs to 
conduct independent research in forefront areas of theoretical 
atomic, molecular and optical physics. Funding for ITAMP 
comes from the National Science Foundation. 

High Energy Astrophysics Division 
Stephen Murray, Associate Director 

Research in high-energy astrophysics concentrates on some of 
the most energetic objects and processes in the universe. 
Studying their x-ray emission is essential for understanding 
their formation, evolution, and ultimate fate. Because x-rays 
are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, observations must be 
made from balloons, rockets, and satellites. Thus, approxi- 
mately 90 percent of the support for programs in this division 
is provided by NASA contracts and grants. For example, rhe 
Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will represent 
the highest resolution, most sensitive x-ray telescope ever to 
be flown; and, in preparation for launch in 1998, SAO has 
been involved in the fabrication and testing of its special op- 
tics and the design and construction of its High Resolution 
Camera. In addition, SAO is the site for the AXAF Science 
Center (ASC) which will receive, analyze, and archive AXAF 
data and function as a central clearinghouse of information 
and support for astronomers using the facility. During the 
construction of AXAF, the ASC will provide support for test- 
ing and verification of the ground system, for mirror and in- 
strument calibration, and tor planning orbital operations 
which relate to science data. 

Optical and Infrared Astronomy 
John Huchra, Associate Director 

Optical and infrared data are fundamental to astronomy, and 
research in this division includes observational cosmology, 
searches for extrasolar planets, infrared observations of star- 
forming regions of the galaxy, atmospheric chemistry, optical 
interferometry, and gamma-ray astronomy. This division is 
also charged with the operation of — and the development of 
instrumentation for — the ground-based facilities operated by 
CfA: the Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO), the Multiple 
Mirror Telescope (MMT), and the Oak Ridge Observatory 
(ORO). Users of these telescope facilities come from almost 
every division at the CfA and also include scientists from 
many other national and international institutions. 



4- 



Planetary Sciences Division 
Brian Marsden, Associate Director 

Research in Planetary Sciences is carried out along observa- 
tional, laboratory, computation, and theoretical lines by scien- 
tists with training either in geology or in 
astronomy/astrophysics. Traditionally, this division has been 
concerned with the small bodies of the solar system, including 
meteors, with particular interest in the positional observation 
and orbital determination of comets and minor planets. This 
division also serves as headquarters for the International Astro- 
nomical Union's Minor Planet Center and Central Bureau for 
Astronomical Telegrams. Among specific projects is a 
study of the long-term effects of Jupiter and Saturn on the 
population of the outer part of the asteroid belt. Another 
effort seeks to increase significantly the rate of discovery 
and appropriate followup of near-Earth asteroids (or com- 
ets). Geological research mainly involves the petrology of 
extraterrestrial materials, in particular meteorites and lunar 
samples. Other research involves the early conditions in the 
primitive solar nebula. 

Radio and Geoastronomy 
Mark Reid, Associate Director 

Research in the Radio and Geoastronomy Division covers a 
wide range of topics in radio astronomy, including the study 
of the formation of stars, evolved stars, supernovae, the struc- 
ture of the Milky Way, and extragalactic radio sources. Obser- 
vations ot continuum and spectral line sources are conducted 
with a wide variety of instruments ranging from single anten- 
nas to interferometers such as the Very Large Array (VLA). 
The Division is currently in the process of building a major as- 
tronomical facility: a 6-elernent submillimeter wavelength 
telescope array (SMA) to be located near the summit of Mauna 
Kea, Hawaii. The SMA is intended to make observations with 
unprecedented tesolunon in the still largely unexplored sub- 
millimetet band between radio and infrared wavelengths. 
Other research in the division includes the application of 
radio astronomy techniques to the study of geophysical prob- 
lems, tests of general relativity, and the development ot 
atomic clocks. Also, designs for satellite-borne optical inter- 
ferometers and space-based applications of tethered satellites 
are being developed. 

Solar and Stellar Physics 

John Raymond, Associate Director 

Scientists in the Solat and Stellar Physics Division carry out a 
wide range of research projects using data from x-ray and 
ultraviolet satellite observatories and telescopes on the 
ground. Major themes include the study of stellar coronae 
based on ultraviolet emission, investigation of the formation 
and early development of stars, and analysis of the surface lay- 
ers of the Sun. 



The atmosphere of the Sun, our nearest star, contains complex 
magnetic structures which influence both solar radiation and the 
solar wind — the stream of energetic particles ejected at high 
speeds that bathe the bodies of the solar system, including Earth, 
with profound impacts on life. By designing and building in- 
creasingly sophisticated experiments to study the Sun's hot outer 
atmosphere, SAO scientists were the among first to identity the 
dominance of magnetic fields. In addition, the SAO-inspired 
interdisciplinary study of the Sun and stars has applied detailed 
knowledge of the solar corona to understand those processes 
which govern the coronae of distant stars. SAO also continues to 
study cycles and activity in stars like the Sun, with the goal of 
identifying and predicting the behavior of our own star. 

Theoretical Astrophysics 

A.G.W. Cameron, Associate Director 

An underlying goal of astrophysical research is to understand 
as much of the universe as possible within the current state of 
technological development. Data come from astronomical ob- 
servations carried out with equipment collectively sensitive to 
the entite range ot the electromagnetic spectrum — from long- 
wavelength radio waves to very short-wavelength gamma 
rays. In the last three decades, access to space and the techno- 
logical development of sensitive new detectors and fast com- 
puters has revolutionized the gathering of data about the 
universe. Transforming that data into information and under- 
standing is the role of theory. The increasing use ot super- 
computers to construct analytical models of objects, or 
simulations, has transformed the theoretical approach to such 
an extent that computational astrophysics is now considered 
on par with observational and theoretical astrophysics. Com- 
putational astrophysics requires that the simulation programs 
incorporate enough detailed physics for the results to bear a 
close resemblance to reality. This division attempts to apply 
such an analytical and computational approach to understand- 
ing the universe. 

SAO Highlights of 1995 
Research 

An experiment to probe the fundamental laws of physics by 
searching for evidence of a permanent electric dipole moment 
in an atom led to development of an innovative technique for 
the laser magnetization of xenon gas. In a cooperative pro- 
gram with doctors at Harvard Medical School, the laser-gener- 
ated xenon is being applied to the enhancement of magnetic 
resonance imaging (MRI) to allow imaging of parts of the 
body, such as the brain, which cannot be imaged well with 
current techniques. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory scientists and their 
colleagues found by far the bset evidence for the existence of 
massive black holes. The discover)' was based on radio observa- 
tions of swirling gas orbiting a very dense concentration of 
material with the mass of about 40 million Suns. 



48 



Analysis of data from SAO's Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrome- 
ter that flew aboard the Spartan 201-2 satellite in September 
1994, revealed the presence of a remarkably hot gas in the at- 
mosphere above the Sun's south pole, a finding that offers 
clues to the origin and nature of the solar wind. 

An SAO scientist was a member of the team that used the 
Hubble Space Telescope to gather evidence showing the 
clouds or hydrogen gas found between galaxies at distances of 
billions of light-years from Earth are at least 1 million light- 
years in diameter, or about 10 times larger than previously 
thought, and may have unexpected sheet-like structure. 

Hubble Space Telescope observations by SAO astronomers 
of faint stars deep inside a globular cluster provided strong ev- 
idence for the existence of cataclysmic variables, violently 
interacting double-star systems that may hold clues to the evo- 
lution of the clusters, which contain some of the oldest stars 
in the Universe. 

A large international team of radio astronomers, including 
SAO scientists, used the high-resolution capability of Very 
Long Baseline Interferometry to obtain the closest — and earli- 
est — view of the expanding shell of gas and dust of a recently 
exploded supernova, which maintained remarkably precise cir- 
cular symmetry. 

The analysis of VLBI measurements of the time delay in 
the arrival of radio signals from distant quasars passing near 
the Sun made by a team led by SAO scientists produced the 
most accurate measurement yet for the deflection of radiation 
by gravity predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. 

SAO scientists participated in radio observations of the 
Earth-crossing asteroid Toutatis that revealed the object has a 
highly irregular shape and a complex "tumbling" rotation, 
making it one of the strangest objects in the Solar System. 

Instrumentation 

An instrument designed to monitor ozone levels in the Earth's 
atmosphere was launched from French Guiana April 20 
aboard ESA's second European Remote Sensing Satellite 
(ERS-2). The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, or 
GOME, was developed at SAO in cooperation with European 
scientists and is designed to generate a complete world ozone 
map every three days. 

Ground was broken June 8 for an array of submillimeter- 
wave radio telescopes near the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. 

An SAO submillimeter telescope (AST/RO) was installed 
at the South Pole in January to study giant molecular clouds 
in the Milky Way. 

Modifications of the existing MMT building were begun in 
July in a major step toward the conversion of that six-mirror tele- 
scope into a single-mirror instrument 6.5 meters in diameter. 

Preparations for the launch in 1998 of the Advanced X-Ray 
Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) continued apace at SAO. The 
telescope's unusual cylindrical mirrors were completed for 
coating, with surfaces far exceeding the minimum require- 
ments; and the High Resolution Camera being constructed at 
SAO passed its Critical Design Review. 



Environmental testing of the SAO-designed Ultraviolet 
Coronagraph Spectrometer, one of the major instruments 
aboard the international Solar and Heliospheric Observatory 
(SOHO), was completed in July and the instrument was 
shipped to the Kennedy Space Flight Center in preparation 
for launch. 

As the US Data Center for the Spectrum-X-Gamma (SXG) 
mission, an international collaborative space x-ray observatory 
led by the High Energy Division of the Institute for Space Re- 
search in Moscow, SAO will collect and archive data from the 
mission and make the information available worldwide 
through the Internet. Computers allowing Russian scientists 
easy accessibility to the data were shipped from SAO to the In- 
stitute June 26, in time for a meeting between U.S. Vice Presi- 
dent Al Gore and Russian Premier Viktor Chernomyrdin. 
The SXG mission will conduct multiple experiments in a 
broad wavelength range — from ultraviolet through x rays to 
gamma rays. 

The Fourth International Conference on Space Tether Sys- 
tems was held at the Institution in April with the joint spon- 
sorship of SAO, NASA, and the Italian Space Agency. 

Public Education and Outreach 

In autumn 1994, thousands of teachers across the country par- 
ticipated in a nationally broadcast series of interactive videos 
produced by the Science Education Department and designed 
to demonstrate how student misconceptions interfere with the 
learning of science and mathematics. 

In spring 1995, SAO published "Space for Women," a 20- 
page booklet designed to encourage young women to pursue 
careers in asrronomy. 

The Whipple Observatory's Visitor Center in Arizona offic- 
ially opened on January 6. The Center features exhibits on as- 
tronomy, natural science, cultural (and Smithsonian) history, 
and the environment. 

For the second year, the SAO Summer Intern Program 
brought a dozen college undergraduates to Cambridge to 
work with SAO scientists on a variety of research projects. 



Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center 



David L. Correll. Director 

The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) 
maintained its research and education programs with a focus 
on the interactions of plants and animals with their environ- 
ment. Construction of a new office and education buildings 
was initiated. A design package was completed for the fourth 
phase of the Charles Mathias Laboratory Building. A new 
boat launching ramp and small buildings for storing boat ac- 
cessories and dispensing boat fuel were completed. 



4-' 



This year SERC scientists published 35 research papers as a 
result of a series of ongoing atmospheric, terrestrial, and 
aquatic studies. Measurements were made of incident and 
undersea spectral irradiance, especially of ultraviolet B wave- 
lengths, over the Weddell-Scotia confluence in Antarctica dur- 
ing the austral spring in October, 1993, during the transit of a 
low ozone "hole". The intensity of the shortest wavelengths, 
such as 304 nm, increased significantly. Such increased doses 
of ultraviolet radiation were simulated on an oceanographic 
research ship and natural phytoplankton, especially diatoms, 
were exposed to test whether they were able to synthesize 
ultraviolet-absorbing compounds as a defense mechanism. 
Pigments such as mycosporine-like amino acids increased 
and could help protect the diatoms from increased ultraviolet 
radiation. 

SERC scientists have been conducting a long-term study of 
the effects on plant communities ot elevated carbon dioxide con- 
centrations, such as are anticipated to occur on Earth 50 years 
from now. Respiration of C3 plants is strongly inhibited by ele- 
vated carbon dioxide. This, in combination with increased photo- 
synthesis, results in large increases in plant biomass. Studies of 
these C3 plants have now shown that the mechanism of inhibi- 
tion of respiration is a reduction in the concentration of cyto- 
chrome c oxidase. Plants grown in elevared carbon dioxide also 
had more non-structural carbohydrates and less nbulose bis- 
phosphate carboxylase, a key enzyme for photosynthesis. Thus, 
they had less photosynthetic capacity per weight of tissue, but 
the whole plants still out-produced normal plants in ambient car- 
bon dioxide concentrations. 

With concerns over the possible thinning of the strato- 
spheric ozone layer and the resultant increase in ultraviolet-B 
(UVB) radiation at the Earth's surface, SERC scientists con- 
ducted studies of the relative penetration of UVB and white 
light into hardwood deciduous forests. Under closed canopies, 
mean UVB transmittance through the canopy was only I to 
2% of incident radiation. This transmittance increased to 30% 
during the leafless season. Vertically, the UVB radiation was 
extinguished rapidly, with 40-70% absorbed by the top 25% 
of the canopy. When compared with white light penetration, 
UVB had a higher transmittance. 

Nitrogen is a key nutrient in receiving waters, such as Ches- 
apeake Bay. When these waters receive to much nitrogen, 
algae become to productive resulting in reduced levels of dis- 
solved oxygen at night or in deep stratified layers of water. In 
the case of Chesapeake Bay, much of the nitrogen inputs ar- 
rive as nitrate, ammonium, and organic nitrogen dissolved in 
rain water. SERC scientists have measured the volume and 
nitrogen contents of each rainfall event for 20 years. Nitrate is 
the most abundant nitrogen nutrient in the rain and its 
delivery via the rain has more than doubled over this period. 
Ammonium is the second most abundant and its delivery has 
also more than doubled. Organic nitrogen delivery fluctuated 
but declined, if anything, over this time period. 

SERC scientists also have conducted long-term studies of 
how the rates of discharge of nutrients from subwatersheds of 



Chesapeake Bay vary with geology, land use, and variations in 
weather. Nutrient concentrations were measured for 153 
streams in various parts of the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and 
Appalachian physiographic regions. Concentrations of nitrate 
were strongly related to land use within any one geologic re- 
gion, with low concentrations in streams draining forested 
lands and high concentrations in streams draining agricul- 
tural lands. However, under conditions of similar land use, 
concentrations of nitrate were much higher in Piedmont and 
Appalachian streams than in Coastal Plain streams. This was 
primarily due to the fact that groundwater draining Coastal 
Plain streams has a relatively shallow trajectory, which allows 
the vegetation in the stream riparian zone to intercept more 
nitrate than in the other regions, where groundwater path- 
ways are often to deep for plant roots to have an effect. 

Another study by SERC scientists found that agricultural 
livestock populations in the Chesapeake Bay region release sig- 
nificant concentrations of hormones into streams and the Bay. 
An important source of estrogen in streams is chicken manure 
that is spread on farm fields as fertilizer. Another source of es- 
trogen and testosterone was sewage treatment plant effluent. 
Testosterone was found in the streams during the growing sea- 
son, but not during the rest of the year. Estrogen reaches the 
streams by surface runoff during storms, while testosterone 
reaches the streams in both groundwater and surface runoff. 

The blue crab is presently the most important fishery in 
Chesapeake Bay. A better understanding of its biology and 
ecology is fundamental to maintaining this species in the Bay. 
SERC scientists use ultrasonic telemetry to study the behavior 
of blue crabs in the turbid waters of the Bay. Although adults, 
on average, move faster and stay in deeper water, both alter- 
nate between periods of slow meandering movement with 
faster, directionally-onented movement. Fertilized females mi- 
grate long distances into high salinity areas near the mouth of 
the Bay to incubate their eggs. They complete this migration 
cycle only once per rwo to five year generation. Adult abun- 
dance is determined by both recruitment and survival of juve- 
nile crabs. Cannibalism by large blue crabs was the source of 
75 to 97% of the mortality of juvenile crabs. By seeking ref- 
uge in the shallows juveniles avoid some of this cannibalism. 

The European green crab has been introduced to the west 
coast of North America with an initial population developing 
in San Francisco Bay. SERC scientists have been monitoring 
the expansion of the green crab range and the mechanisms of 
expansion. These studies also show that this exotic crab is im- 
pacting the populations of clams and amphipods in estuanne 
habitats. 

The education program at SERC also had a successful year. 
Many visiting groups took part in such activities as the Java 
History Trail, the Discovery Trail, canoeing on the tidal creek, 
and estuanne activities in the shoreline area. These groups in- 
cluded handicapped, elderly, children, and minorities. SERC 
also hosted a large number of workshops and educational out- 
ings for teachers, administrators, and scientists. At SERC 
these groups can combine meetings and lectures with seeing 



50 



field research in action wirhin a wide variety of natural 
habitats. 

SERC also continued a very successful work/learn intern- 
ship program for undergraduate and beginning graduate stu- 
dents. This is a competitive international program. 
Prospective interns apply to work with a SERC staff scientist 
or educator on a specific project. In addition, SERC staff and 
facilities attracted a large number of graduate students, post- 
doctoral fellows, and visiting scientists. 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 



Barbara J. Smith, Director 

The Getty Grant Program awarded the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Libraries support for a three-year pro]ect to create an 
Online Index and Finding Guide to the Literature of African 
Art and Culture which is being developed for access on the 
Internet as part of the Libraries' online catalog. Responding 
to the public's growing interest in non-Western art, the index 
of 52,000 citations was created by Janet L. Stanley, National 
Museum of African Art Branch Librarian, to identify source 
materials in this expanding field. 

The Libraries' online catalog has been available on the 
Internet since January at telnet:\\siris. si.edu: and a second edi- 
tion of a CD-ROM of the Libraries' catalog, Smithsonian On 
Disc, was published by G. K. Hall, Macmillan. This year the 
Libraries launched an Electronic Republishing program with 
a pilot project funded by the Institution's Atherton Seidell 
Endowment. The full, searchable text of two volumes in the 
Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology series of Native 
American anthropology studies is being prepared for elec- 
tronic dissemination and will be available on the Libraries' 
World Wide Web site to Internet users around the world, 
making a contribution to The National Digital Library. 

All eighteen branch libraries now offer users access to the 
World Wide Web, and several branches have created Home 
Pages with links to external reference materials. Branch staff 
held training sessions to assist the Smithsonian research com- 
munity in making use of the resources from all over the world 
now available electronically. The Libraries' CD-ROM Net- 
work, accessible in most branches and in many Institution of- 
fices, was upgraded to increase the number of CD-ROMs that 
are available to users at one time. An agreement with the Li- 
brary of Congress has expedited access to and delivery of mate- 
rials from that facility to Smithsonian library users. The 
Management and Systems Division's Shipping and Receiving 
section decreased turn-around time for library materials by 
processing shipments using a new automated system. Thanks 
to a grant from the Smithsonian Women's Committee, the Li- 
braries now has software to enlarge type on the screen so that 
visually impaired users can read from the screen, and thereby 



access computer-based information, including the Libraries' 
online catalog and databases from the CD-ROM Network. 
SIL also purchased a closed-circuit rv enlarger to give visually 
impaired library users access to printed material. The equip- 
ment was installed in the Museum Reference Center, a cen- 
trally located branch on the Mall. 

A major event in 1995 was the opening of new and reno- 
vated facilities at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
(STRI) Branch Library in Panama, both funded by the Tupper 
Foundation. A new Library Annex provides four levels of 
stacks to house the collections, and the library building itself 
was renovated to provide better services for STRI Branch 
Library, the premiere Central American research library for 
the scientific community since 1956. These facilities will assist 
Libraries staff in serving the 18,000 library users who come an- 
nually, including an international body of students in the nat- 
ural sciences and anthropology, and students in biological 
sciences ftom the University of Panama. 

The installation of compact shelving in the Dibner Library 
of the History of Science and Technology (located in the Mu- 
seum of American History) has doubled the stack size, in- 
creased work space for staff, brought the facility into 
conformance with the American with Disabilities Act regula- 
tions, and upgraded the electrical system connections for 
researchers' computers. New dataloggers — electronic hygro- 
thermographs that can be read from a remote location ■ — in 
the Libraries' rare book locations have brought greater effi- 
ciency to the crucial task ot monitoring the environmental 
conditions in those areas accurately. The Women's Committee 
provided funds for rare-book foam supports that ensure 
proper handling of rare books during use by researchers. In 
May the Libraries appointed William E. Baxter head of its 
Special Collections Department. 

The Smithsonian Institution Libraries' exhibition Science 
and the Artist's Book, co-sponsored by the Washington Proiect 
for the Arts, explores how scientific ideas can stimulate artis- 
tic creation. The year-long show displays original artist's 
books inspired by and displayed with pioneenng scientific 
studies from the rare-book collections of SIL's Dibner Library 
of the History of Science and Technology. The exhibition, 
curated by book artist Carol Barton and the Libraries' Rare 
Book Cataloguer Diane Shaw, opened at two venues, Patt I in 
the Libraries Exhibition Gallery located in the National Mu- 
seum of American History, and Part 2 at the Washington Proi- 
ect for the Arts, the co-sponsor, in late May. This cooperative 
effort featured twenty-seven original artist's books created spe- 
cifically for this show by leading book artists from around the 
country displayed with majot publications in the history of 
science and technology from the Dibner Library. Twenty-two 
of the participating artists attended the opening reception. 
Supported by the Glen Eagles Foundation and the 
Smithsonian's Special Exhibition Fund, the exhibition honors 
the gift of the Dibner Library in 1976 and focuses on one of 
the Libraries' core strengths, the history of science and tech- 
nology. The exhibition was featured in the illusttated article, 



51 



"Science Defined by the Hands of a Book Artist" in Smithso- 
nian magazine (June 1995) and, with its own Web server in- 
stalled, Libraries' staff began scanning images and marking 
up text for an electronic version of this exhibition. 

In conjunction with Science and the Artist's Book, Roald 
Hoffmann, Cornell University's Nobel laureate in chemistry, 
poet, and author, delivered the 1995 Dibner Library lecture on 
"Chemistry Imagined" which explored connections between 
science and art. The lecture was supported by The Dibner 
Fund. The Libraries presented four public programs of music 
about balloons writcen between 1890 and 1910, from the collec- 
tions of the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Branch. 
Performed by the U. S. Navy Band Sea Chanters, the musical 
programs were presented in con]unction with the Libraries' ex- 
hibition, Balloons: the Birth of Flight, 1783-1793 which was on 
display in the Libraries Exhibition Gallery from September 
through April. Into the Blue: Materials from the National Air 
and Space Museum Branch, an exhibition in the Library Hall of 
the Natural History Building where the Libraries' central ad- 
ministrative offices are located, featured additional ballooning 
materials from the NASM Branch. It was curated by NASM 
Branch Librarian Dave Spencer and NASM Reference Librar- 
ian Paul McCutcheon with the assistance of two interns. 
Claire Dekle and staff of the Book Conservation Laboratory 
created the subsequent exhibition for the Library Hall, 
Nineteenth-century Publishers' Cloth Bindings. 

In August Rare Books and Special Collections in the Smithso- 
nian Institution Libraries, supported by The Dibner Fund, was 
published by the Smithsonian Institution Press. This 108- 
page visual survey of the Libraries' most distinctive and valu- 
able research materials in a wide sweep of disciplines contains 
more than 60 images (over forty in color) and is available from 
the Press and in Museum Shops. 

Despite limited acquisitions funds for book purchases, the 
Libraries was able to enrich its collections through the gener- 
osity of donors. Proceeds from the S. Dillon Ripley Library 
Endowment funded the purchase of over 50 notable books for 
seventeen of the Libraries' eighteen branches. Other signifi- 
cant acquisitions came from donations to three memorial 
funds and from the newly established Wells Endowment 
Fund in memory of John W. Wells and Ellen B. Wells. More 
than 100 individuals and many corporations and institutions 
donated books and other library materials this year. The Li- 
braries welcomed a maior gift of a microfilm copy ofTrade-a- 
Plane magazine from TAP Publishing Company, including a 
printing copy, a user copy, and a cabinet to house the film. 
Representing the company, Jean Durfee presented the gift of 
114 reels of microfilm which preserves the run of the magazine 
from its beginning in 1937. 

Following the departure of the deputy director, head cata- 
loguer, and several staff during a federal downsizing initiative 
at the beginning of the year, Director Barbara J. Smith re- 
organized the Libraries into three divisions, consolidating all 
technical services departments — cataloging, acquisitions, 
preservation — and special collections under the Collections 



Management Division. Several economies were achieved by 
combining Management and Systems into a single division; 
and the Research Services Division continues to oversee the 
branch library system that serves users in fourteen locations in 
the Washington metropolitan area as well as in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, New York City, Edgewater, Maryland, and the 
Republic of Panama. 

The Libraries is currently serving as the host institution to 
CAPNET (Capitol Area Preservation Network), a regional 
group of preservation officers and conservators in libraries and 
archives. The group, which fosters information and resource 
sharing and plans educational activities, co-sponsored a pro- 
gram in April with the Library of Congress on emergency pre- 
paredness and response. Tom Garnett, Systems Department 
head, was nominated and served as a Fellow for Excellence in 
Government during 1994-1995. His project was opening the 
treasures of the Libraries to a wider audience through estab- 
lishing the Libraries' Web server. Working with an automa- 
tion project funded by the Andrew W Mellon Foundation, 
Margaret D'Ambrosio, Cataloguer, went on leave to serve as 
resource librarian at the Bibliotheca Berenson, the Harvard 
Center for Renaissance Studies in Fiesole, near Florence, Italy. 
Libraries' staff presented papers at several association meet- 
ings, and published articles and reviews in professional jour- 
nals. The Dibner Library hosted two new SIL/Dibner Library 
Resident Scholars during the year, thanks to support from 
The Dibner Fund. Six interns from library schools and col- 
leges around the country worked in branch libraries and one 
intern assisted in the Systems Department. This year, the 
Libraries circulated 243,855 items, processed 51,076 inter- 
library loan requests, acquired by purchase or gift 19,700 
books and other library materials, and answered 56,682 
reference questions. 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 



Ira Rubinoff, Director 

During FY 95 the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
(STRI), based in the Republic of Panama, continued its efforts 
to increase our understanding of tropical nature and peoples 
and to communicate this knowledge internationally. To carry 
out its mission, STRI operates tropical forest and marine field 
stations, well-equipped laboratories, a research vessel, and a 
major tropical sciences library. These facilities support the 
work of 35 staff scientists and hundreds of visiting researchers 
and students that in FY 95 came from around the world. 

From October 16-18 STRI scientists and administrators 
held a retreat on Taboga Island to discuss present issues and 
future directions. In January 1995 director Ira Rubinoff deliv- 
ered a "State of STRI" address to all employees in which he re- 
viewed the Institute's budgetary situation, accomplishments, 



52 



and presenr and future projects in the areas of research, educa- 
tion, construction and telecommunications. 

Several major construction projects completed this year 
advanced the master plan of STRI facilities. The renovation 
of two floors of Building 352, formerly Surfside Theater, and 
occupied for several years by STRI's Oil Spill Project, added 
new offices and laboratories for fellows and visitors at the 
Naos Marine Laboratories. 

Construction of the annex for the Earl S. Tupper Library 
and renovation of the original building were also completed. 
This represents a significant expansion of the STRI Library 
facilities made possible by a gift from the Tupper family. A 
bronze bust by sculptor Jay Carpenter of Earl S. Tupper, 
founder of Tupperware and supporter of STRI, was placed in 
the plaza outside the library. A mosaic based on the work of 
the Panamanian artist Brooke Alfaro, that was contributed by 
the artist to STRI, adorns the facade of the new annex. The 
work, entitled "El Trueque" ("The Exchange") symbolizes 
Panama's traditional role as a site of biological, cultural and 
commercial exchange. 

On Barro Colorado Island, construction of new labora- 
tories, housing units for workers and visitors, and a new 
pier completed a major part of the program, begun in 
1987, to replace buildings from the 1920s and improve the 
field station's living and working facilities. The new 
building has seven individual laboratories, a chemistry 
lab, instrument room, computer room, a darkroom, and 
walk-in freezer. 

During FY95 construction progressed on the renovation 
and conditioning of the Ancon facility to house the Center for 
Tropical Paleoecology and the building and installation of the 
new back up generator for the Tupper Research and Confer- 
ence Center complex. 

A major advancement this year was the installation of a sat- 
ellite earth station at the Tupper Center to establish more reli- 
able communications between STRI and SI. The satellite link 
will provide both data and voice services, thus helping to re- 
duce communication expenses at both ends. 

Of special interest was the publication of Fishes of the 
Eastern Tropical Pacific, coauthored by Gerald R. Allen and 
STRI staff scientist D. Ross Robertson. The most comprehens- 
ive guide of the fishes of the region, this publication is now 
being translated into Spanish. 

The Spanish version of the executive summary of STRI's 
Oil Spill Project's final report was published this year and dis- 
tributed widely by the Office of External Affairs. Also pub- 
lished, by Texas University Press, was the book Plants and 
Animals in the Life of the Kuna by STRI's environmental conser- 
vation specialist Jorge Ventocilla, Heraclio Herrea and Valerio 
Nunez, and translated by Elisabeth King. 

Another translation that saw the light of day this year was 
La domesticacion y cri'a de la paca I Agouti paca) Guia FAO 
Conservacion No. 26 (The domestication and rearing of the 
paca, Agouti paca, FAO Conservation Guide No. 26 ), by Nich- 
olas Smythe and Ofelina Brown de Guanti, formerly at STRI. 



The project on which this publication was based was sup- 
ported by a grant from the W. Alton Jones Foundation. 

To reach wider audiences STRI published jointly with 
Panama's newspaper LA PRENSA 12 monthly color supple- 
ments in Spanish entitled "Naturaleza Tropical." The supple- 
ments, written for lay audiences by STRI scientists and 
collaborators, dealt with various aspects of Panama's natural 
history and were enthusiastically received by readers. 

With support from the SI Women's Committee the Span- 
ish version of a second edition of A Day on Barro Colorado Is- 
land was completed. The English version will be out in 
October, as will the Spanish edition of the guidebook for visi- 
tors to the Fausto Bocanegra Nature Trail on Barro Colorado 
Island. 

Two new fellowships were established and awarded this 
year. The Earl S. Tupper 3-year Postdoctoral Fellowship was 
awarded to Ulrich Mueller, a researcher from Cornell Univer- 
sity, who will conduct studies on the evolution and the ecol- 
ogy of the Attine fungus symbiosis. The Fellowship in honor 
of the late Alan P. Smith was awarded to senior botany stu- 
dent, Eloisa Lasso, from the University of Panama, who will 
conduct her thesis research on the canopy access system pion- 
eered by Smith. 

In FY 95 the recipient of the Burch Fellowship in Theoreti- 
cal Medicine and Affiliated Sciences was Pedro Leon Azofeifa, 
from the Cell and Molecular Biology Research Center of the 
University of Costa Rica. He received this distinction for his 
theoretical and applied work in vertebrate genetics and he 
will be interacting with STRI scientists during the course of 
this fellowship. 

To promote cooperation between the Organization of Tropi- 
cal Studies (OTS) and STRI, the Andrew W. Mellon Founda- 
tion awarded a three-year grant of 8350,000 to be shared 
equally by STRI and OTS. The grant will fond exchange vis- 
its by STRI and OTS researchers as well as visits by outside 
researchers. 

A generous contribution of one million dollars was made 
by Glenn O. Tupper to the Earl S. Tupper Fund to support sci- 
entific research at STRI. The STRI Development Office began 
this year an "Alumnus Development Program" which raised 
approximately $10,000. Numerous letters received from STRI 
alumni provided testimony to the important role STRI has 
played in the careers of many biologists and conservationists. 

The Smithsonian Board of Regents approved the use of the 
name Fundacion Smithsonian de Panama for a new founda- 
tion to be established in Panama that will raise funds for 
STRI projects, specifically those that would involve outreach 
to the Panamanian community. One major project supported 
by this group of corporate and individual donors is the Ma- 
rine Exhibition Center at Culebra Point. A pilot marine envi- 
ronmental education program at this site has received over 
20,000 students from the pre-kindergarten through the uni- 
versity levels. 

The U.S. Department of Defense provided funding to two 
STRI projects through its Legacy Program. The first project 



J3 



concerns the restoration and renovation of military bunkers 
for the development of a visitor center and classroom for the 
Culebra Marine Exhibitions Center. The second project in- 
volved inventory and monitoring of birds and forest trees in 
U.S. military bases in Panama. 

The Center for Tropical Forest Science at STRI began the 
fourth census of the 50 hectare forest plot on Barro Colorado 
Island began in January 1995; previous censuses were con- 
ducted in 1982, 1985 and 1990. In Borneo the first census was 
completed on a 50-hectare plot that contains 1173 species and 
380,000 stems. A new 50-hectare plot was initiated this year 
in a high-diversity Amazon forest in area of Yasuni, Ecuador 
in collaboration with the Catholic University of Ecuador and 
the Aarhus University of Denmark. 

On May 6, 1995 a new field station was opened in the Carib- 
bean by a consortium of private partners in Honduras and 
Switzerland, the Honduras Coral Reef Foundation and a part- 
nership of STRI and the Honduran government. The solar 
powered field station provides laboratory and living space for 
15 scientists and will be the site for studies on coral reefs and 
other marine habitats, and for an initiative in the sustainable 
development of fishing and tourism. 

In Africa, the Mpala Research Centre, a collaborative re- 
search effort between Princeton University, the National Mu- 
seum of Kenya and the Kenya Wildlife Service, hired its first 
director, Nicholas Georgiadis, a STRI research affiliate. This 
unique savannah field station located, in the Laikipia plateau 
in northcentral Kenya, provides housing and dining facilities 
for 15 scientists. Director Georgiadis visited Panama this year 
to formalize links between Mpala and STRI, which adminis- 
ters the SI interests in this consortium. 

A working plan and cooperative agreement was signed be- 
tween STRI and Brazil's Federal University of Parana (UFPR). 
The agreement calls for technical and scientific exchange to re- 
construct the history of the vegetation and climate since the 
last glacial epoch, in several regions of Brazil. The STRI pale- 
oecology team headed by Paul Colinvaux and the UFPR de- 
partment of Botany headed by Raquel Negrelle will be 
working together towards the successful completion of the 
project. 

Several international workshops were held at STRI's Tupper 
Center this year. From March 20-24, the Technical Meeting of 
Herbaria of Central America and the Caribbean brought to- 
gether twenty-six specialists from eight nations and was or- 
ganized by Mireya Correa, of STRI and the University of 
Panama, and Rafael Ocampo, of the Centra Agronomico Trop- 
ical de Investigaciones y Ensenanza (CATIE) in Costa Rica. 
Seventy-five specialists from around the world gathered at the 
Tupper Center for the United Nation's Environmental 
Program's Global Biodiversity Assessment Workshop that 
was held from June 12-16. 

The U.S. State Department provided seed funding to initi- 
ate the development of an international travelling exhibit on 
coral reefs. The exhibit is conceived as a means to increase 
public awareness of the plight of coral reefs, and is one way in 



which STRI is helping to carry out the objectives of the Inter- 
national Coral Reef Initiative, in which STRI has an advisory 
and collaborative role. The exhibit will open at the ATLAPA 
Convention Center in conjunction with the Eight Inter- 
national Coral Reef Congress to be held in Panama from June 
24-29, 1996, cohosted by the University of Panama and STRI. 

The bilingual itinerant exhibit "Parting the Green Cur- 
tain" continued its travels through its fifth country in Latin 
America, opening at the Banco Central de Reserva del Peru in 
Lima, from July through September 1995. The educational 
exhibit "Imagenes contra el SIDA" opened at the Tupper Cen- 
ter in December and was subsequently donated to Panama's 
Ministry of Health to support local HIV/ AIDS prevention 
education. 

STRI and the University of Panama offered the V Intro- 
ductory Course in Field Research for biology students held 
from April 2-11 in the Gigante Peninsula, part of the Barro 
Colorado Nature Monument. In collaboration with Panama's 
Ministry of Education (MINEDUC), STRI organized the II 
Workshop in Marine Environmental Education held from 
March 27-31, 1995. The workshop supported by a grant from 
the SI Educational Outreach Fund was attended by 23 middle 
school teachers from Panama's coastal areas, including a repre- 
sentative from the San Bias islands. 

Thirty students from the University of Panama and the 
Azuero Regional University Center participated in the archae- 
ological excavations at the Cerro Juan Diaz site near the town 
of Los Santos, directed by STRI staff member Richard Cooke 
in collaboration with Panama's Institute of Culture. The 
students' training and participation was supported by a grant 
from the SI Educational Outreach Fund. 

Secretary I. Michael Heyman and Theresa Heyman visited 
STRI from February 6-10 to meet the staff and learn about on- 
going programs. Secretary Heyman and STRI director Ira 
Rubinoff met Panama's President Ernesto Perez Balladares at 
Blair House in September. President Perez Balladares pre- 
sented Heyman with a letter expressing his government's in- 
tention to continue supporting STRI beyond the year 2000. 



Arts and Humanities 



Anacostia Museum 



Steven Cameron Neu'some. Director 

The Anacostia Museum continued its tradition of increasing 
public knowledge of the black experience through direct en- 
gagement with a variety of constituent groups in the develop- 
ment of exhibitions, public programs, and research projects. 
The groundbreaking exhibition "Black Mosaic: Community, 
Race, and Ethnicity among Black Immigrants in Washing- 
ton, D.C." was the anchor for activities that strengthened the 



54 



museum's leadership in documenting and interpreting con- 
temporary urban and community history and culture. The 
collaborative strategies that the museum uses to develop and 
implement projects are useful models for other institutions. 

To complement "Black Mosaic," the museum sponsored 
two conferences about music. "Musica Afro-Latino" explored 
the history of Latin musica] forms in Washington, D.C., and 
featured performances and discussions by some of the city's 
pioneers and trendsetters. "Beyond the Reggae Beat" in- 
creased public understanding of musical genres with origins 
in English- and French-speaking Caribbean communities. 
Free concerts followed both conferences. 

Three notable exhibitions were installed in the Community 
Gallery. "In Search of Common Ground: Senior Citizens and 
Community Life at Potomac Gardens" focused on eight resi- 
dents of a public housing development. "Art Changes Things: 
The Art and Activism of Georgette Powell" was a retrospec- 
tive view of the life and work of a noted African American art 
educator and artist who has been active since the 1930s. 
"Anacostia: Not the Same Old Story" was developed by stu- 
dents participating in the museum's partnership with the 
Lucy Ellen Moten Elementary School. 

The National African American Museum Project became 
part of the museum's administrative structure and was re- 
named the Center for African American History and Culture. 
The center mounted two exhibitions in the Arts and Indus- 
tries Building. "Imagining Families" offered a provocative ex- 
amination of family history through a variety of art forms. In 
"The Harmon and Harriet Kelley Collection of Art," the pub- 
lic gained insight into the impact of individuals who decide 
to commit themselves to collecting African American art. 

An advisory board began consulting with museum staff on 
plans for the 1997 exhibition "Speak to My Heart: African 
American Communities of Faith and Contemporary Life." 
The exhibition, the second in a trilogy of major contemporary 
urban history offerings, will explore the social and cultural 
dynamics of Washington's African American spiritual institu- 
tions. It will also address the impact of changes in vestments, 
iconography, and liturgy on black religious traditions. 

Plans for the museum's Archives Study and Storage Center 
were completed. Construction is slated for 1996 and 1997. The 
addition will enable the museum to be more effective in col- 
lecting and caring for manuscript, archival, and photographic 
material that reflects black life. 



Archives of American Art 

Richard J. Wattenmaker 

Acquisitions 

Major groups of important papers were acquired this year by 
the Archives of American Art. John Gruen (b. 1926), art critic 



and author, donated original manuscripts, tape recordings and 
transcripts of interviews conducted with important artists 
who constitute a "Who's Who" of figures in the art world 
over the past 40 years. These comprise discussions with crit- 
ics, including Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenberg, as 
well as the original, unedited draft manuscript of Gruen 's 
book, The Party's Over, with much more data than was ulti- 
mately published. 

A large group of personal papers were donated by the critic 
Lucy Lippard (b. 1937) including drafts of her books Six Years, 
Cross Fire. Mixed Blessings, and Eva Hesse, together with corre- 
spondence from 1970-1992. Other papers given include clip- 
pings, leaflets, broadsides on American culture and politics as 
well as her teaching notes for the University of Colorado, 
Boulder in 1986. 

The Archives received a group of rare catalogues (1944- 
1992), newsletters and records of the Society of American 
Graphic Artists from Vice-President Richard Dorian. SAGA 
continues today as the leading organization of printmakers in 
America. 

Papers and gallery records were received from Kraushaar 
Galleries, New York. More than 35 cubic feet of documents 
comprising correspondence with artists, collectors, dealers, 
museums and other clients. These include artists such as John 
Sloan, Guy Pene du Bois, and Gifford Beal. Kraushaar, 
founded in 1885, is one of the oldest art galleries in America 
and played an important role in fostering the successful ca- 
reers of such American artists as the Prendergast brothers, 
Maurice and Charles, William Glackens, and John Sloan. In 
the 1920s the Gallery was a leading exhibitor of modern Euro- 
pean painters. Vose Galleries of Boston, Inc. also donated cus- 
tomer files 1914-1945 adding to a group of papers given by 
Vose over a period of years. The Gallery is the oldest family 
owned art gallery in America begun in Providence, RI in the 
1840s and operating in Boston since before the turn of the 
century. These exceptional records constitute a continuing 
gift that will provide an invaluable resource for the study of 
19th and 20th century art in America. 

Among other continuing gifts are the papers of scholar 
Stanton L. Catlin (b. 1915), a leading authority on 19th and 
20th century Latin American art. One of his most notable 
achievements was the organization of the "Art of Latin Amer- 
ica since Independence" exhibition at Yale and the University 
of Texas in 1967. An addition to the papers of painter and 
draughtsman Hyman Bloom (b. 1913) was also received. Fel- 
low of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 
i960, Bloom is well known for his figure and anatomical com- 
positions, landscapes and Jewish genre subjects. 

The Archives acquired the papers of sculptress Bessie Vonnoh 
Potter (1872-1955) who gained a national reputation for bronze 
fountains, portrait busts and mother-and-child figure groups. 
The collection also includes vintage photographs. Of special in- 
terest are the artist's letters describing her visit to the 1900 Paris' 
Exposition Universelle. The donor, Lulette J. Thompson, is 
Vonnoh s 98-year old cousin and oldest surviving heir. 



" 



The papers of sculpcor Heinz Warneke (1895-1983), born in 
Germany, and who migrated to the United States in 1923, 
have also been donaced to the Archives. Warneke was head of 
the sculpture department of the Corcoran School of Art from 
the early 1940s to 1970. 

Another rich collection, papers (1907-1973) of painter 
Stanton Macdonald-Wright (1890-1973) including corre- 
spondence (1909-1915) from the artist and his brother Wil- 
lard Huntington Wright to their mother, and a diary 
(1909) from Paris concerning color theories and aesthetics, 
were donated by the artist's wife. Included is a treatise on 
color with palette and color wheels and an untitled manu- 
script loosely based on the lives of Stanton and Willard 
Wright as well as five journal notebooks kept by the artist 
from 1939-1973. 

Finally, the Archives was bequeathed the papers of art histo- 
rian Albert Elsen (1928-1995) professor of art history at Stan- 
ford University and president of the College Art Association 
from 1974-1976. Elsen was also author of the "Statement on 
Standards for Sculptural Reproduction and Preventive Mea- 
sures to combat Unethical Casting in Bronze." Long-time 
member of the Archives' West Coast Advisory Committee, he 
was instrumental in the acquisition of several collections. This 
collection includes correspondence, writings, photographs and 
printed materials related to his teaching and research in such 
figures as Rodin, Matisse, Seymour Lipton and Paul Jenkins. 

Exhibitions 

An exhibition of a promised gift of papers of sculptor Louise 
Bourgeois was presented at the New York Regional Center, 
November 11 to December I, 1994. Ms. Bourgeois donated the 
papers to the Archives in honor of Agnes Gund, the well- 
known collector and supporter of contemporary art, and the 
Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Museum of Modern Art. 
Mts. Gund was honored by the Archives of American Art at a 
black tie benefit dinner at the University Club on November 
17 attended by 280 people. 

Katharine Kuh (1904-1994), an art historian, critic, gallery 
owner, and curator, gave the first installment of her papers to 
the Archives in 1971 and continued to make gifts of her corre- 
spondence throughout the 1970s and 1980s. It was her wish 
that after her death the remainder of her letters, manuscripts, 
photographs, and diaries also be given to the Archives. 
Archives' staff member Nancy Malloy and art historian Avis 
Berman curated a wonderful exhibition at the Archives' New 
York Gallery featuring Kuh's papers, which document the 
broad range of interests and contributions to art history and 
criticism made by this remarkable scholar. 

Letters, sketchbooks, diaries, travel journals, and photo- 
graphs of abstract expressionist painter Georgio Cavallon 
(1904-1989) were on display at the Archives' Gallery in the 
New York Center from April 4 to June 30. Complementing 
the papers were a selection of 18 of Cavallon's paintings and 
watercolors that were lent for the exhibition. Critic Robert 
Hughes praised Cavallon's work as "one of the most lucid, 



steadfast, and articulate bodies of work in modern American 
painting." Diane Kelder, Professor at CUNY Graduate Center 
and Chair of the Art Department at Staten Island College, was 
the guest curator. 

Also on view at the Archives' New York Regional Center 
was an exhibition featuring highlights from collections re- 
cently acquired by the Archives of American Art. Among the 
items displayed were letters, sketches, and books from private 
libraries of artists and critics such as Peter Dean, Frank Stella, 
Robert Smithson, and Lucy Lippard. Also on view were origi- 
nal birthday cards given to collector Roy Neuberger from art- 
ists such as Jackson Pollack, Romare Bearden, Stuart Davis, 
and Alexander Calder. 

Publications 

The Archives' latest publication, Government and Art: A Guide 
to Sources in the Archives 0} American Art, will be published in 
late Fall. In addition to other materials the Archives has the 
largest collection of manuscripts, archives, and oral history 
interviews documenting the New Deal arts programs of the 
1930s. 

Oral History 

During the 1995 Fiscal Year, the Archives conducted a number 
of new oral history interviews. Among figures interviewed 
were New York art dealer Paula Cooper, interviewed by Bill 
Weiss, who speaks of her gallery experiences and the begin- 
nings of her involvement with such contemporaries as Walter 
de Maria, Carl Andre, and other sculptors of the 1960s. Paul 
Karlstrom, West Coast Regional Director interviewed sculp- 
tor Viola Frey (b. 1933), as part of the Women in the Arts Oral 
History Project, she discusses her education and recalls artists 
such as Richard Diebenkorn, Marc Rothko, and Robert Arne- 
son. Claire Falkenstein (b. 1908), interviewed by Paul J. 
Karlstrom, provided a candid discussion of her development 
as an artist while a student at the University of California, 
Berkeley. Falkenstein discusses her largest commission at 
St. Basil's Cathedral in Los Angeles. She also talks about her 
teaching in the Bay area and friendships with Clyfford Still as 
well as meetings with such figures as Karl Appel, Martha 
Jackson and Sam Francis. In an interview Fritz Scholder 
(b. 1937) discusses his family background and growing up 
in the parallel worlds of Anglo and Native American cul- 
ture, his education and his travel in Europe and Egypt as 
well as the importance of magic and occult in his work. 
He also recalls such contemporaries as Wayne Thiebaud, 
Vincent Price, Georgia O'Keeffe, Agnes Martin and 
Leonard Baskin. 

The Archives has undertaken an oral history project in 
cooperation with the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Oral History Proj- 
ect has interviewed twelve of the approximately twenty- 
five individuals who are or have been closely connected 
with the museum's operations and programs. These inter- 



56 



vieweesincludestaffand trustees including those who have 
served the museum in the past. 

Collecting 

The Director and Southeast Regional collector, Liza Kirwin 
traveled to San Antonio, Texas, where they met with artists 
and arts administrators to pursue the Archives' longstanding 
activity documenting Mexican American and Latino art. The 
Archives is currently preparing a guide to Latino holdings. 

In Memorium 

William E. (Bill) Woolfenden, former Director and Director 
Emeritus of the Archives of American Art died July 19 in 
New Haven, Connecticut. He was 77. Mr. Woolfenden was 
Director of the Archives for 19 years and was involved with its 
programs from its inception in 1954. He was responsible for 
its growth into the nation's largest repository for documenta- 
tion of the visual arts and culture of the United States. 



Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer 
Gallery of Art 

Milo C. Beach, Director 

With both the Sackler and Freer buildings open, in full opera- 
tion and physically linked for more than two years, the galler- 
ies began two major evaluative efforts. The first, a 12-month 
visitor study, was aimed at learning more about the galleries' 
public — who they are and what they hope to gain from their 
museum experience. Working with the Smithsonian's Institu- 
tional Studies Office and a four-member gallery steering com- 
mittee, professional interviewers spoke to a random sampling 
of visitors over a period of seven days each month from Octo- 
ber 1994 through September 1995. 

Recognizing a related need to refine the galleries' mis- 
sion statement and set programmatic priorities in a time of 
diminishing resources, the administration hired a strategic 
planning firm to help guide the staff and visiting commit- 
tees in identifying key issues and operating principles, 
while helping them to set goals, objectives, and tasks for 
the next five years. A series of workshops and retreats 
resulted in a newly drafted mission statement. Staff in 
individual departments are now engaged in discussions as 
to how departmental goals can further the achievement of 
the mission. 

A project to preserve some of the world's great art was initi- 
ated by the government of Japan and private concerns in 1991, 
and the Freer Gallery was the first institution in the United 
States to benefit from this effort. By the time the project is 
completed early in 1996, 40 of the gallery's masterpieces of 
Japanese painting, dating from the I2th through the 19th cen- 



tury, will have been stabilized, cleaned, and remounted in the 
traditional format by specialists in Japan. 

The Sackler Gallery exhibition "A Basketmaker in Rural 
Japan" presented the complete repertoire of baskets made by 
Hiroshima Kazuo (b. 1915) for use in the home, field, and 
stream during his 64-year career as a bamboo craftsman. The 
exhibition was the first in the United States to focus on 
Japanese baskets as objects of use. It exemplified the gallery's 
efforts to identify works of art with their makers and place 
them within a cultural context. 

The Freer joined the National Gallery of Art and the National 
Portrait Gallery in presenting a full range of the art of American 
expatriate James McNeill Whistler. "Whistler and Japan" was 
the first exhibition at the Freer to focus specifically on the rela- 
tionship between the Japanese and American painting collec- 
tions, and it examined Whistler's interest in Japanese art and 
how it affected his work. The Freer Gallery also cosponsored a 
Whistler Scholars' Colloquium with the Centre for Whistler 
Studies, University of Glasgow. The colloquium was held at the 
Freer, with an opening reception at the British Embassy. 

During a one-day Sackler Gallery symposium, "Saints, 
Sufis, and Siddhas," six scholars of art history and religion pre- 
sented papers examining the significance of the holy person- 
age, an overarching theme in the South Asian artistic idiom. 
Sessions devoted to Hindu, Islamic, and Buddhist "saints" 
were followed by an open discussion. The symposium was 
made possible by the generosity of Mrs. Arthur M. Sackler. 

The Sackler and Freer family program ImaginAsia benefited 
by the addition of a part-time staff member, who expanded these 
popular activities to complement current exhibitions and devel- 
oped a variety of related hands-on activities. The public re- 
sponded enthusiastically and in great numbers to ImaginAsia's 
increased frequency and changing themes. 

Since the Freer Gallery of Art reopened following renova- 
tion in 1993, concerts of Asian music and Western chamber 
music have drawn audiences of music lovers to the grassy 
plaza at the gallery's north entrance and to the Eugene and 
Agnes E. Meyer Auditorium inside. Concerts this year fea- 
tured the music of Partha Chatteriee on the lute-like sitar, ac- 
companied by Samir Chatterjee on the tab/a. or drums; the 
music of Afghanistan, North India, and Pakistan as per- 
formed by Wali Ahmad Raoufi and Broto Roy; the Gudecha 
brothers; and Shiv Kumar Sharma with Shafaat Ahmed Khan. 
The Bill and Mary Meyer Concert Series, now in its third 
year, included six programs of chamber music by such artists 
as Musicians from Marlboro, Pamela Frank, and the Takacs 
Quartet. A highlight of the concert by the Shanghai Quartet 
was the Washington, DC, premiere of "Song of the Ch'in," 
by the contemporary Chinese composer Zhou Long. The Bill 
and Mary Meyer Concert Series has been established in mem- 
ory of Dr. Eugene Meyer III and Mary Adelaide Bradley 
Meyer. It is generously supported by The Island Fund in the 
New York community Trust and Elizabeth E. Meyer. 

The Sackler Gallery sponsored six tree public film series fea- 
turing recent and classic works from China, Taiwan, Hong 



57 



Kong, Japan, Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Philippines, as 
well as films from the United States about Asia. Advertise- 
ments for the series appeared in Asian community newspa- 
pers, and that exposure helped attract large and diverse 
audiences to the films. 

The Freer and Sackler Library began major improvements 
in public service through an automated cataloging system 
that includes titles in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Library 
staff have begun to convert the 57,000-volume card catalogue 
to the electronic database, which eventually will be accessible 
by computer worldwide. 

Visitors entering the Freer Gallery through the north door can 
check current exhibitions and the day's events on two interactive 
video monitors that were installed this year. Designed by gallery 
staff and made possible by a generous grant from the Smithson- 
ian Women's Committee, the monitors attracted approximately 
4,000 visitor queries in the first month of operation. 

The director was host of a reception at the Freer Gallery in 
honor of the visit of the Dalai Lama in September. His Holi- 
ness toured the Buddhist galleries and addressed guests about 
the importance of preserving the cultural heritage of Tibet. 

"Contemporary Japanese Porcelain," an exhibition of recent 
work by living artists, received top honors as Best Overall Ex- 
hibition in the 1994 Smithsonian Exhibition Awards. "A 
Mughal Hunt," which examined the process by which a 
scholar traces the history of an unidentified work of art, was 
cited for the excellence of its labels. 

The collections management departments of the Sackler 
and Freer Galleries were combined in a single department 
under a head registrar, who oversaw the acquisition of 175 
works of art through gift, purchase, and transfer to the Sackler 
Gallery this year. Among the significant gifts were 72 photo- 
graphs of Asia by Lois Conner; a group of archaic Lunstan 
bronzes; and a fine 14th-century Tibetan Buddhist sculpture, 
which was purchased by the Friends of Asian Arts and the 
Smithsonian Collections Acquisition Program. 

A highlight among the 18 gifts, purchases, and transfers to the 
Freer collection this year was the Portrait of Yamamoto Kamuke, a 
hanging scroll by Gion Seitoku (1781-1829?), a Japanese artist 
known for his religious and historical portraiture, as well as for 
his paintings of courtesans. The subject of the Freer portrait was 
the trusted adviser and brilliant military strategist for one of 16th- 
century Japan's most cunning and powerful warlords. The paint- 
ing was purchased by Friends of Asian Arts and the Smithsonian 
Collections Acquisition Program. 



Center for Museum Studies 



Rex M. Ellis. Director 

The Center for Museum Studies (CMS) serves a diverse constit- 
uency of museum professionals, students, volunteers and cul- 
tural resource specialist by offering courses, seminars, 



fellowships, internships, information services and professional 
support. CMS is committed to offering programs and services 
that foster excellence, public service and diversity within the 
museum community. 

1995 marked a year of change, new beginnings and in- 
creased private support for the center. In 1995, the Office of 
Museum Programs changed its name to the Center for Mu- 
seum Studies. The new name more accurately reflects the mis- 
sion and function of the office and more clearly aligns with 
what the museum community has come to accept as the termi- 
nology defining museum operations. The office mission has 
always been, primarily, to support external museums and mu- 
seum staff by providing training, information and professional 
support in museum operations. The name change will help to 
accomplish this more effectively as the office seeks to broaden 
service to a national constituency. The new name also more 
clearly facilitates and accommodates efforts to build networks 
with the many colleges and universities that offer courses and 
degrees in museum studies. 

The center began two programs in 1995: a new workshop 
series and the Museum Intern Partnership Program. 

Under the direction of Nancy Fuller, Research Manager, 
the center developed a new workshop series designed primar- 
ily to meet the needs of staff working in small, emerging, mi- 
nority and rural museums. The center's objective in offering 
the new workshop series (Introduction to Public Program- 
ming, December 5-9; Introduction to Museum Management 
and Operations, January 23-27; Introduction to Exhibition De- 
sign and Production, March 6-10; and Introduction to Manag- 
ing Museum Collections, April 24-28) was to help museums 
attain effective levels of professional operation to better serve 
their communities. Class size was intentionally limited to bet- 
ter meet the individual needs of the participants. 

The center also introduced the Museum Intern Partnership 
Program, under the direction of Bruce Craig, Communication 
Manager, and Bob Kidd, Museum Program Specialist. Given 
the size and scope of the Smithsonian, most of the 
Institution's interns do not get a museum experience compara- 
ble to the vast majority of museums in the United States. The 
Museum Intern Partnership Program provides a complimen- 
tary internship at a Smithsonian museum or office and at a 
smaller, community-focused museum. The program gives se- 
lected interns a well-rounded experience, provides a mecha- 
nism for Smithsonian staff to work closely with colleagues in 
other institutions and broadens the dissemination of 
Smithsonian resources. Three outstanding individuals were se- 
lected for the first year of the program, funded by a grant 
from the Smithsonian's Educational Outreach fund and pro- 
grams funds in the Center for Museum Studies. Partnerships 
took place at: National African American Museum Project, 
Washington, DC, and Museum of African Art, Tampa, FL; 
Anacostia Museum, Washington, DC, and the Motown His- 
torical Museum, Detroit, MI; and the National Museum of 
American Art, Washington, DC, and the Institute of Ameri- 
can Indian Arts, Santa Fe, NM. In April, at the end of the pro- 



58 



gram, the chree interns returned to the Smithsonian and led a 
half-dav workshop on museum programming with students 
from the Duke Ellington High School for the Performing 
Arts. 

The center's fundraising efforts were recently given a boost 
by two generous donations which will support intern and fel- 
lowship programming. In March 1995, Mr. and Mrs. Anthony 
Welters made a generous contribution of $150,000 to estab- 
lish the Vincent Wilkinson Endowment Fund, within the 
Smithsonian Fund for the Future, in memory of Mrs. Welters' 
father. The Wilkinson Endowment Fund will provide support 
for African American undergraduate students to participate in 
the Museum Intern Partnership Program. Interns supported 
by this fund will be known as the Vincent Wilkinson Interns. 
This generous contribution has also attracted the attention of 
other donors. At the end of the year staff were working to se- 
cure an endowment which would fund Latino/a students in 
the Museum Intern Partnership Program as well. 

The center's Fellowships in Museum Practice program re- 
ceived a pledged endowment of $150,000 from the Smithson- 
ian Women's Committee, in celebration of the upcoming 
150th anniversary of the Institution. This program was created 
in 1992 with an endowment of $100,000 from the Smithson- 
ian Women's Committee, given in honor of their 25th anniver- 
sary, and remains the only activity at the Smithsonian funded 
by an endowment from that committee. Under the direction 
of Nancy Fuller, four fellows are selected each year to do re- 
search at the Smithsonian on museum issues. Fellows in 1995 
were: 

D. Lynn McRainey, Associate Educator for Museum Pro- 
grams, Chicago Historical Society. Project title: "Interpreting 
History Through Interactive Experiences." Pro|ect sponsor: 
Nancy McCoy, Director, Division of Education, National Mu- 
seum of American History. 

Helen Glazer, Exhibitions Director and Collections Coordi- 
nator, Goucher College. "Project title: "In Quest of Myth: A 
Prototype Multi-Museum Tour at the Smithsonian." Pro]ect 
sponsor: Zahara Doering, Director, Institutional Studies, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Nigel Holman, Executive Director, A:ishi A:wan Museum 
and Heritage Center, Pueblo of Zuni. Project title: "Debating 
the Curation and Use of Historic Photographs in Museums 
and Archives." Project sponsors: Eulalie Bonar, Assistant Cura- 
tor, and George Horse Capture, Deputy Assistant for Cultural 
Resources, National Museum of the American Indian. 

Teresa Morales, Coordinator, Programa de Museos Com- 
unitarios y Ecomuseos, Oaxaca, Mexico. Project title: "Cul- 
tural Appropriation and Community Museums." Project 
sponsor: Nancy Fuller, Research Program Manager, Center for 
Museum Studies. Project advisors: William Merrill and 
Christine Kreamer, Curators for Anthropology, National 
Museum of Natural History. 

The center continued its strong commitment to increasing 
cultural diversity in the museum workforce through work- 
shops and technical assistance offered by the American Indian 



Museum Studies Program, the Awards for Museum Leader- 
ship and the Latino Graduate Training Seminar. 

In addition to offering workshops in cultural program- 
ming, collections management, archival methods and living 
history programs, Karen Cooper, Program Manager of the 
American Indian Museum Studies program, launched a new 
publication series in October: Perspectives, a series of technical 
pamphlets directed specifically for use in American Indian 
cultural centers. The first two pamphlets were Travelling Exhi- 
bitions for Tribal Museums and Cultural Centers and Tribal Collec- 
tions Management at the Makah Cultural and Research Center. 
The program also produced a directory of all participants 
since its inception in 1991; a "Bibliography of Current 
Museum-Oriented Writings on Native American Topics;" 
and developed resource lists on "Membership Organizations 
of Interest to Tribal Museums," "Training for Museum Ca- 
reers," and "Funding Sources for American Indian, Alaska and 
Hawaii Museums and Culcural Centers." 

The Awards for Museum Leadership, held this year July 17X 
21 under the direction of Bob Kidd, featured innovative topics 
and speakers. The program ob|ectives were to broaden partici- 
pant perspectives on diversity issues in museums; explore 
technological, social, political and economic challenges in the 
museum profession; strengthen team-building skills and 
problem-solving capabilities; and create a supportive climate 
in which to nurture new networks of expertise and collabora- 
tion. Fifteen individuals participated in the program, reflect- 
ing a diverse range of ethnic backgrounds, geographic 
locations, career paths, educational backgrounds and insti- 
tutional/organizational sizes. Rennie Saunders, an indepen- 
dent human resource consultant and trainer, led a very 
successful session on Team Building and Dynamics of 
Teamwork. Another highlight of this year's program was a 
Leadership Development seminar facilitated by Myra 
King, Assistant Professor at Montgomery College; Jane 
Delgado, Executive Director, The Bronx Museum of the 
Arts; and Elaine Heumann Gurian, former deputy director 
of the U.S. Holocaust Museum. 

With the Inter-University Program for Latino Research, 
the Center for Museum Studies sponsored the second annual 
Latino Graduate Training Seminar in Qualitative Methodol- 
ogy. Fifteen doctoral candidates participated in "Interpreting 
Latino Cultures: Research and Museums," June 19-30. Magda- 
lena Mieri, Museum Programs Specialist at the center, served 
as a coordinator for the program. As the Smithsonian moves 
forward with plans to expand staffing and programming re- 
lated to Latino history and culture, this program represents an 
important milestone toward increasing the pool of Latino 
curators and museum professionals. The program challenges 
students to develop strong research skills while exploring is- 
sues of interpretation and representation of cultural materials 
and traditions in museums. The program also offers students 
an opportunity to forge relationships with a community of 
scholars, curators and archivists who are often not available at 
their home institutions. 



so 



With funding from the Smithsonian Institution's Latino 
Initiative Pool, the center created a new fellowship program, 
the Latino Graduate School Fellowship, under the direction of 
Magdalena Mien. The goal of the program is to support the 
scholarly development and research interests of Latino gradu- 
ate students, to expose them to the resources available at the 
Smithsonian and to introduce them to museum operations. 
The program emerged as a result of issues raised during the 
Latino Graduate Training Seminar and a desire to extend the 
length of time Latino scholars could conduct research at the 
Smithsonian. Five outstanding Latino/a Ph.D. candidates, 
chosen from among participants in both the 1994 and 1995 
seminars, were elected to begin research at the Smithsonian in 
Fiscal Year 1996. 

Responsibility for central intern services at the Institution 
is a majot function at the center. During 1995 both Sarah Lan- 
don. Intern Services Coordinator, and Rebecca Culpepper, In- 
tern Services Assistant, left the center and were replaced 
respectively by Elena Piquer Mayberry and Allison Wickens. 
Intern Services at the center provides a weekly orientation to 
new Smithsonian interns as well as special programs, tours 
and discussions. The center also offers an annual Museum Ca- 
reers Seminar, held this year July 5-26. This four-part program 
explored museum practice and functions, the types of posi- 
tions available within the museum field, career guidance and 
advice. Through programming and counseling, Intern Ser- 
vices insures that all interns have access to, and use, the 
unique resources of the Smithsonian to explore the many fac- 
ets of museum work. 

In 1995 the center moved closer to providing comprehens- 
ive electronic outreach information to the museum commu- 
nity and beyond. Staff and volunteers began cataloging 
citations to the American Association of Museums annual 
meeting audio-tapes which will be added to the Museum 
Studies Database, accessible through the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Research Information System (SIRIS). The center also es- 
tablished a "home page" on the Smithsonian's web site. The 
page includes program information and listings of resources 
available from the center. Several web users have already 
downloaded and sent to the office the Application for 
Smithsonian Internships which is posted in the Intern Ser- 
vices area. The center has also drafted out subject area and 
services to be placed on Smithsonian On-Line, the on-line 
information area of America On-Line in early Fiscal Year 
1996. Increasing access to our materials as well as provid- 
ing information to the general public about museums, mu- 
seum careers and museum issues will guide the design of 
the center's web page. Discussions among staff continue 
about use of the internet to deliver training as well as the 
feasibility of tele-conferencing segments of our worskhops 
and seminars. 

The center begins 1996, and the 150th anniversary of the 
Smithsonian, with excitement and a deep commitment to con- 
tinue servicing and promoting excellence and equity in the 
museum community as well as in its daily operations. 



Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 

Dianne H. Pilgrim, Director 

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum seeks to enrich the 
lives of all people by exploring the creation and consequences 
of the designed environment. The National Design Museum 
is one of the largest repositories of design in the world, and 
the only museum in the United States devoted exclusively to 
historical and contemporary design. Four curatorial depart- 
ments, Drawings and Prints, Decorative Arts, Textiles, and 
Wallcoverings, care for, interpret, and add to the Museum's 
collection of neatly a quarter of a million ob|ects. The Mu- 
seum also houses a Department of Contemporary Design, an 
outstanding reference library, extensive archival material on 
American industrial design, an African-American Design 
Archive and a newly established Latino Design Archive. 

During 1995, construction began on the Museum's major 
capital renovation and accessibility project. The project will 
accomplish several goals: create storage/study centers for the 
Museum's collections, improve conservation of the collections, 
and make the entire Museum facility — Mansion, Miller and 
Fox Houses, and the Arthur Ross Terrace and Garden — com- 
pletely accessible. Approved by the New York City Land- 
marks Commission and the New York State Historic 
Preservation Trust, the design by the architectural firm of 
Polshek and Partners is already being hailed as a model for 
providing accessibility in a historic landmark building. 

In December of 1994, partial funding of $13 million for the 
S20 million pro]ect was approved by the Smithsonian. The 
Museum has worked during the past year to secure the addi- 
tional $7 million needed to complete the project as originally 
planned. In less than one year, the Museum has secured 
pledges and gifts of cash and securities totaling S3. 7 million. 
This figure includes a $2 million donation from Agnes 
Bourne, a San Francisco-based furniture and interior designer 
and her husband. Dr. James Luebbers. They sold their land- 
mark mansion, Stonehouse, and donated $2 million from the 
proceeds to the National Design Museum. The Museum has 
used the $3.7 million to restore elements of the project to the 
construction schedule that had been previously eliminated 
because of cost. 

In order to ensute the safety of both the public and the col- 
lections, the Museum suspended exhibitions fot the duration 
of the renovation project. The galleries closed in August 1995 
and will reopen in the fall of 1996 with the major exhibition, 
Mixing Messages: Graphic Design in Contemporary Culture, spon- 
sored by the Mead Corporation. While the galleries are closed, 
the Museum will continue to offer a wide range of innovative 
educational programs and the Museum's library of 56,000 vol- 
umes and extensive archives are available by appointment. 
Also, the Museum is collaborating with several outside organi- 
zations on off-site exhibitions. Six Bridges: The Making of the 
Neu- York Megalopolis, a collaborative effort of the National De- 



60 



sign Museum and the PaineWebber Arc Gallery, will be 
shown at the PaineWebber Art Gallery from January 25 to 
April 19, 1996. The Museum is consulting with the Central 
Park Conservancy on Help Design Frederick Doug/ass Circle, an 
exhibition of the different designs submitted for improve- 
ment of the Frederick Douglass Circle area. It will be on dis- 
play from March 28 to June 2, 1996 in Central Park. 

Avant-garde Letterhead, an exhibition of lecterheads de- 
signed between 1909 and 1950, will open at the American In- 
stitute of Graphic Artists' gallery in March or April 1996. The 
exhibition is curated by Ellen Lupton, the Museum's Curator 
of Contemporary Design. In addition, the Museum is plan- 
ning an exhibition on swings to be displayed in the Arthur 
Ross Terrace and Garden in the summer of 1996. 

Before the gallery doors closed, the National Design Mu- 
seum presented a full roster of the innovative and creative ex- 
hibitions that have become the Museum's trademark. 
Exhibitions on the evolution of the workplace, Dutch Modern- 
ism and the applied arts from 1880 to 1930, the work of 
graphic designer Elaine Lustig Cohen, jewelry and accessories 
from the Museum's collection, a review of 1950s wallpaper 
and analysis of an 18th-century bedcover were all on view at 
the National Design Museum during 1995. 

The Museum created a Marketing Committee to help main- 
tain the Museum's momentum and public profile during the 
renovation project and to plan activities to celebrate the 
Museum's Centennial in 1997. The Committee consists of out- 
side professionals and several members of the Board of Trust- 
ees. The Committee is also involved in the creation of a 
National Design Awards program. These awards will give the 
Museum the opportunity to highlight the best work of the de- 
sign world and reward designers and companies for their cre- 
ativity and problem solving. 

The National Design Museum's work was honored this 
past year with seven Federal Design Achievement Awards for 
the exhibitions The Cooper-Hewitt Collections: A Design Resource; 
Mechanical Brides: Women and Machines from Home to Office; 
Packaging the New: Design and the American Consumer 1925-1975; 
The Power of Maps; Revolution, Life and Labor: Soviet Porcelain 
(1918-198$); and A Royal Gift: The 1826 Porcelain Jewel Cabinet 
and The Edge of the Millennium, a collection of essays by design- 
ers and scholars. In a competition involving more than 400 
entries from 75 government agencies and departments, 77 fed- 
eral projects were chosen to receive Federal Design Achieve- 
ment Awards for superiority in design. The ceremony for the 
Northeast recipients of Federal Design Achievement Awards 
was held at the National Design Museum on July 14, 1995 and 
was hosted by National Endowment for the Arts' Chairperson 
Jane Alexander. A small number of winning projects were 
then chosen to receive Presidential Design Awards. In recogni- 
tion of the high caliber of the National Design Museum's 
seven winning projects, the Museum will receive one Presi- 
dential Design award for all seven projects. 

The Museum's new graphic identity program, created by 
Drenttel Doyle Partners, continues to be honored by the 



graphic design field. In 1995, the Museum received a 1995 Dis- 
tinctive Merit Award for Environmental Graphics and a 1995 
Merit Award for the Identity Program from the Art Director's 
Club and a Citation for Typographic Excellence from the Type 
Director's Club. 

The National Design Museum received a $98,000 grant 
from the Smithsonian Institution to support the Institution's 
efforts to increase its Latino audience and expand its coverage 
of Latino contributions to history, art, and science. The Na- 
tional Design Museum is using this grant to support educa- 
tional programs, exhibition development and the 
establishment of a Latino archive. 

The historical importance of the National Design 
Museum's collections was demonstrated when the Museum 
was asked to work with the restoration committee on the re- 
furbishing of the Blue Room at the White House. Assistant 
Curator for Wallcoverings, Joanne Warner, worked with a 
committee of historians, curators, and designers to select the 
wallcoverings for the room. The Blue Room wallcoverings are 
now complemented by borders adapted from two early 
nineteenth-century French papers found in Cooper-Hewitt, 
National Design Museum's collection. 

During 1995 the Education Department of the National 
Design Museum continued to offer exciting and imaginative 
educational programs. The National Design Museum and The 
Board of Education of the City of New York, Division of 
School Facilities co-sponsored the second annual Summer De- 
sign Institute in July. This year's program, attended by over 
one hundred public school teachers, focused on technology 
and education. The Summer Design Institute was one of 
many innovative workshops for educators and school pro- 
grams presented by the National Design Museum including 
"A City of Neighborhoods," "Studio After School," "Design 
Career Days," and "Les Journees des Artisans." 

In addition to achieving many noteworthy goals in 1995, 
the Museum continued work on several important long-term 
projects including major exhibitions on the North American 
city, universal design, and sports. The Museum is also devel- 
oping an exhibition, a triennial, that focuses on the best of the 
design world. 

Design and its impact on individuals, societies and the 
planet are critical issues for the present and the future. Cooper- 
Hewitt, National Design Museum is in an unique position to 
help the public gain a better understanding of design and 
learn to use design to create a better world. 



Hirsbbom Museum and Sculpture Garden 



The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden reached its 
20th anniversary as the Smithsonian Institution's showcase for 
modern and contemporary art in October 1994. Today, as in 
1974, the Museum remains committed to increasing the 



6l 



awareness and understanding of art through acquisitions, exhi- 
bitions and publications, research activities, innovative public 
programs, and the presentation of the collection in its galler- 
ies and outdoor exhibition spaces. The museum provides a 
public facility for the exhibition, study, and preservation of 
19th- and 20th-century art while presenting a spectrum of con- 
temporary work. 

With the help of various acquisition funds, as well as gifts 
from generous donors, the museum continued to acquire sig- 
nificant works by modern and contemporary artists, among 
them Chuck Close's painting Roy II (1994), Agnes Martin's 
canvas Untitled #11 (1984), Ana Mendieta's earth sculpture t/w- 
titled (1984), Roberto Marquez's painting Theater of the World 
(1988), Juan Mufioz's bronze Conversation Piece (1994-95), an ^ 
Andy Warhol's silkscreen Self-Portrait (1986). One acquisition 
that proved particularly popular after its installation on the 
Sculpture Plaza was Barry Flanagan's eight-foot-high bronze 
Drummer (1989-90), a whimsical representation of a standing 
hare banging a drum. 

The 2.7-acre Hirshhorn Museum plaza won a 1995 Federal 
Design Achievement Award on May 24, 1995. The renovation 
and landscaping project by James Urban Associates of Annap- 
olis, Maryland, introduced trees, accessibility features, areas of 
lawn, and granite flooring to the plaza. Finished in 1993, it 
was among 77 designs chosen from more than 400 federal pro- 
jects completed between 1984 and 1994. 

The Hirshhorn's exhibition program highlighted contem- 
porary artists with growing international reputations. Open- 
ing on November 3, 1994 (and continuing through January 
29, 1995) was the first East Coast showing of "Bruce Nau- 
man," a 30-year retrospective of some 60 works by this cele- 
brated American artist (b. 1941) that toured from Madrid, 
Minneapolis, and Los Angeles and was bound for New York 
and Zurich. Organized by the Walker Art Center in 
Minneapolis in association with the Hirshhorn, the exhibition 
included sculpture, photographs, drawings, films, architec- 
tural environments, holograms, and high-intensity video, 
neon, and voice installations. 

The challenging nature of the exhibition spurred in-depth 
public programming. "Floating" docents and an "advice cen- 
ter" encouraged visitors to articulate and discuss their re- 
sponses. "Young at Art" programs on November 19 and 
December 10 focused on a shadow-puppet piece. Four champi- 
ons of Nauman's art debated his reputation in a December 14 
panel titled "Nauman Then and Now," and programs of 
music (by the 20th Century Consort) and film echoed 
Nauman's influences. In addition, the second annual Mordes 
Lecture in Contemporary Art, sponsored by collectors Dr. Mar- 
vin and Elayne Mordes of Baltimore, brought the renowned 
New York-based critic Peter Schjeldahl to the Hirshhorn on 
December 4 to discuss Nauman's achievement. Publications 
accompanying the exhibition included a free gallery handout 
and a 215-page, richly illustrated softcover catalogue by exhibi- 
tion co-curators Neal Benezra, Director of Public Programs 
and Chief Curator at the Hirshhorn, and Kathy Halbreich, Di- 



rector of the Walker, plus rwo guest essays. A 392-page hard- 
cover edition featured a catalogue raisonne. Support for the 
Washington presentation of "Bruce Nauman" was provided 
by Mr. and Mrs. Robert Lehrman and the Lannan Foundation. 

After the Nauman show closed, large-scale exhibitions at 
the Hirshhorn ceased for nearly four months to allow for ex- 
tensive renovations to the second floor. The schedule resumed 
from June 14 to September 10, 1995, with "Sean Scully: 
Twenty Years, 1976-1995," which launched its international 
tour at the Hirshhorn. Organized by former Hirshhorn Chief 
Curator Ned Rifkin, now Director of the High Museum of 
Art in Atlanta, the retrospective charted the evocative abstract 
imagery of this Irish-born American artist (b. 1945) with more 
than 60 paintings and works on paper. After its Washington 
showing, it traveled to the High Museum, the organizing in- 
stitution (October 10, 1995-January 7, 1996), and then to Bar- 
celona, Dublin, and Frankfurt. Public programs included 
"Sean Scully: A Dialogue," a slide-illustrated conversation be- 
tween Rifkin and the artist on June 14; "Summer Abstrac- 
tions," a "Young at Art" family workshop to make geometric 
images, on July 15; and a 40-minute interview video in the 
Orientation Theater. A fully illustrated, three-essay, 160-page 
catalogue was published by Thames and Hudson. 

The Directions series of one-gallery shows during the year 
offered three distinct installments underscoring the vitality of 
contemporary art. "Directions — Gary Simmons," presented 
November 17 to February 12, 1994, featured cartoon-derived 
chalk images on ten panels and a lo-by-37-foot gallery wall 
created by this New York-based artist (b. 1964). The drawings 
on green or black chalkboard-like surfaces — half-erased, frag- 
mentary, or in motion — showed images and objects gleaned 
mostly from cartoons of the 1930s and 1940s starring Bosko, a 
now-largely-forgotten, race-specific character. The exhibition, 
organized by Assistant Curator Amada Cruz, marked the sec- 
ond solo show in a museum for Simmons. 

"Directions — Cindy Sherman: Film Stills," presented 
March 15 to June 25, 1995, marked the first complete showing 
of a formative series for this New York-based artist (b. 1954) 
known for her evocatively staged, self-posed photographs. The 
69 black-and-white photographs of 1977-80, echoing the at- 
mosphere and imagery of American and European movies 
from the late 1940s through early 1960s, featured an imagin- 
ary woman — always the artist herself, in make-up and 
costume — variously displaying vulnerability, anxiety, self- 
consciousness, or fear. The exhibition, organized by Associate 
Curator Phyllis Rosenzweig, was accompanied by a free bro- 
chure illustrating the entire series in contact-sheet format. 

"Directions — Martin Kippenberger: Works on Paper," pre- 
sented from July 20 through October 22, 1995, featured more 
than 50 drawings on hotel stationery and collages by this Ger- 
man artist (b. 1954) dating from the 1980s and 1990s. Statio- 
nery mostly from European hotels showed a colorful pastiche 
of styles, figures, portraits, images of objects, imaginary 
scenes, and references to high art and pop culture. The nine 
collages on view superimposed photographic and text frag- 



62 



mencs from magazines and tabloids. The exhibition, organ- 
ized by Frank Gettings, the Hirshhorn's Curator of Prints and 
Drawings, marked the first solo show in Washington for 
Kippenberger, a highly visible participant in Germany's art 
scene, and one of his few ever in an American museum. It was 
accompanied by a free, illustrated brochure. 

Public programs were planned for all three Directions exhi- 
bitions, drawing enthusiastic response. On January 20, I995, 
Simmons joined cultural critic Gina Dent for "Cartoons, Pop- 
ular Images and Culture," an on-stage dialogue and screening 
of "Bosko" cartoon excerpts. Also in conjunction with the 
Simmons show, a Young at Art family workshop on February 
II inspired children to make "Chalkboard Expressions" in tan- 
dem with African American folktales. Sherman's "film stills" 
inspired a film-noir festival in March, a class photography 
project and exhibition in May with the Duke Ellington 
School of the Arts in Washington, D.C., a technical lecture 
on film stills on April 26 by local photographer Dirck 
Halstead, and a "Young at Art" photo-collage workshop on 
March 18. 

The Hirshhorn continued its "Collection Reviewed" pro- 
gram sponsored by the Smithsonian's Special Exhibition 
Fund. Two artists represented in the permanent collection, 
Robert Colescott of New Mexico and Juliao Sarmento of Lis- 
bon, Portugal, spoke in slide-illustrated public lectures on 
April 12 and May 17, with Sarmento s appearance receiving 
additional support from the Luso-American Development 
Foundation. The program also featured "The Collection in 
Context: Thomas Eakins's Portrait of Frank Hamilton Cush- 
ing" opening June 30, 1995 (and continuing through January 
7, 1996). Organized by Associate Curator Phyllis Rosenzweig, 
the innovative one-gallery presentation explored the context 
and creation of an American realist's portrayal, 100 years ago, 
of a Smithsonian ethnologist famed for his research at Zuni 
Pueblo. The 1895 portrait was lent by the Thomas Gilcrease 
Institute of American History and Art in Tulsa, Oklahoma. 
Supplementing studies for the work owned by the Hirshhorn, 
loans came from the Smithsonian's National Anthropological 
Archives, National Portrait Gallery, and Library of the Na- 
tional Museum of American Art and the National Portrait 
Gallery. 

"First Fridays: Gallery Talks," a program of informal 
monthly gallery talks by staff, was inaugurated in April 1995 
with a discussion by Associate Curator Phyllis Rosenzweig on 
a Louise Bourgeois sculpture, followed by conservators Lee 
Aks and Clarke Bedford on a sculpture by Anish Kapoor; 
Chief Curator/Director of Public Programs Neal Benezra and 
Chief Conservator Lawrence Hoffman on a painting by Ger- 
hard Richter; and Research Assistant Anne-Louise Marquis, 
Curator of Sculpture Valerie Fletcher, and Education Special- 
ist Teresia Bush on works by Jan Vercruysse, Alberto 
Giacometti, and Anselm Kiefer, respectively. 

Eight "Young at Art" family programs enthralled more 
than 160 six-to-eleven year olds and their parents with tours 
of a temporary exhibition or the permanent collection fol- 



lowed by hands-on art projects. Some workshops focused on 
sculpture: the first, on May 6, 1995, helped children with vi- 
sual impairments experience works of art, and the second on 
June 10, featured a sculpture-inspired dance-movement work- 
shop conducted in the Sculpture Garden. Meanwhile, more 
than 22,000 people attended free film programs from late Sep- 
tember 1994 through May 1995 featuring cutting-edge interna- 
tional independent cinema, documentaries on contemporary 
artists, and family-oriented animation. Among the highlights 
were the one-time-only American showing of British filmma- 
ker Peter Greenaway's Baby of Macon on October 27 and 28, 
1994; the world premiere of A Jury of Her Peers, a drama by 
local filmmaker Edgar Davis, on February 2 and 3, 1995; and 
Germany Year 90 Nine Zero, a new feature by French New 
Wave veteran Jean-Luc Godard on June 8 and 9. 

Staff changes included the retirement of Edward P. Lawson, 
Education Chief since 1973, and the appointment in May 1995 
of Olga Viso, previously with the Norton Museum of Art in 
West Palm Beach, Florida, as Assistant Curator. Viso replaced 
Amada Cruz, who joined the staff of the Museum of Contem- 
porary Art in Chicago. 

A major exhibition introduced Asian audiences to the 
Hirshhorn's sculpture collection. "The Human Figure Inter- 
preted: Modern Sculpture from the Hirshhorn Museum" was 
presented March 24-May 28, 1995, at the Taipei Fine Arts Mu- 
seum in Taiwan, accompanied by a bilingual catalogue in 
Chinese/English by Curator of Sculpture Valerie Fletcher, who 
organized the show. The largest presentation of sculpture 
from the Hirshhorn ever sent overseas featured some 60 works 
by Edgar Degas, Henri Matisse, Alexander Archipenko, Al- 
berto Giacometti, Henry Moore, and Marino Marini. After 
Taiwan, the exhibition was expanded to include works by Au- 
guste Rodin and Jacques Lipchitz and then toured Japan ac- 
companied by a Japanese/English catalogue. The tour, 
supported by the Tokyo-based Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper 
chain, included the Shiga Museum of Modern Art in Otsu 
(July I-August 6, 1995), the Odakyu Art Museum in Tokyo 
(August 9-27, 1995), the Iwaki City Art Museum (September 
23-November 5, 1995) and the Takamatsu Municipal Museum 
of Art (November 10-December 10, I995). 

Art historical research on objects in the permanent collec- 
tion continued as museum staff reactivated the Artist's Object 
Record program documenting each work of art. Information 
was obtained directly from 24 living artists. In other areas, in- 
depth research on British sculptor Henry Moore was con- 
ducted by Curator of Sculpture Valerie Fletcher as a Visiting 
Scholar to the Henry Moore Foundation in Much Hadham, 
England. 

The curatorial staff continued researching contemporary 
art by jurying shows, serving on panels, consulting or lectur- 
ing, and traveling abroad to visit galleries, studios, and col- 
leagues on several continents. In addition, the six curators 
kept current on the broad scope of modern and contemporary 
art through periodicals, catalogues, monographs, and inter- 
changes with artists and fellow curators. Finally, curatorial 



63 



staff members carried forward their writing on selected works 
from the collection for a major book to be published in 1996. 



Institutional Studies Office 



Zahava D. Doering, Director 

The Institutional Studies Office (ISO) is a pan-Institutional 
resource for the scientific study of the characteristics, 
attitudes, opinions and experiences of Smithsonian constituen- 
cies. The small staff includes professionals with expertise in so- 
ciology, demography, research methods, survey statistics, and 
a variety of quantitative and qualitative data analysis and eval- 
uation techniques. 

Since its founding in 1987, ISO has conducted studies and 
applied research for Smithsonian administrators, curators and 
programmatic staff. Areas of investigation include audience 
and membership profiles, background studies and assessments 
of SI exhibitions and public programs, and ongoing analyses 
of employee composition. For each study, ISO is responsible 
for all aspects of study or survey design, implementation of 
data collection, analysis and report writing. Institutional cli- 
ents are asked to assume the costs of data collection and data 
entry. In addition, the office provides some technical consulta- 
tion to cultural organizations throughout the country and pro- 
fessional review of applied research conducted for them. The 
staff is also available, on a limited basis, to conduct seminars 
in various aspects of applied quantitative and qualitative re- 
search and program evaluation. 

The results of ISO studies are disseminated in several for- 
mats. The major vehicle is a Report series; analyses include 
technical appendices which both document the work and can 
be used as methodological models. The Reports are distrib- 
uted both within and outside of SI. Results are also presented 
at professional meetings or in journal publications. (For exam- 
ple, a presentation at the American Association of Museums 
1995 Annual Meeting, Who Attends Our Cultural Institutions? 
summarized national museum attendance.) Research Notes 
have a more limited distribution, either because of the subject 
matter or because the results are not generalizable. (For exam- 
ple, a Research Note (RN 95-3) Cognitive Development ofSEEC 
Pre-School Students: Preliminary Results is based on a longitudi- 
nal study of students in the Smithsonian Early Enrichment 
Center; Research Note 95-2, 1994-9$ National Museum of Ameri- 
can History (NMAH) Visitor Survey. Overview: October to December 
1994, is based on only a few months of data collection from a 
year-long study.) Finally, to ensure that clients have timely ac- 
cess to results while more formal documents are prepared, 
memoranda are prepared for internal use. 

The Office's 1994-95 activities included: 
• Application of ISO-developed methodological and statisti- 
cal innovations in sampling and interviewing museum au- 



diences (e.g. in studies of the characteristics, attitudes and 
behavior of visitors to NASM, NMNH, NMAH and the 
Freer-Sackler). These innovations are increasingly being 
used as models elsewhere in the country. 

• Assessments of major exhibitions, including profiles of visi- 
tors and analyses of their behavior and learning experiences 
(e.g., Science in American Life at NMAH, Star Trek at 
NASM). 

• Planning studies that determine the attitudes and expecta- 
tions of prospective visitors in advance of major exhibition 
projects (e.g., the National Museum of the American In- 
dian). 

• Providing statistical information on Smithsonian constitu- 
encies for bureau and office development staffs and pro- 
gram personnel (e.g., data gathered from various ISO 
studies is being used in the planning for the NASM Exten- 
sion at Dulles Airport). 

• All of the statistical analyses used by the Institution to 
meet its labor force reporting requirements to the Regents, 
the Congress and other federal agencies. 

• Statistical, methodological, and analytical advice for units 
conducting their own studies or applying for grants which 
have evaluation components (e.g., OESE's and OFG's inter- 
nal studies). 

As part of an on-going efforts to understand Smithsonian 
constituencies, three studies were completed (one based on ad- 
ministrative data, two based on personal interviews), and data 
collection completed for several new efforts. The first, 1994 
Visits to Smithsonian Museums, conducted in collaboration with 
the Office of Public Affairs (OPA), analyzed the visit statistics 
collected routinely by the Office of Protection Services (Re- 
port 95-1). The second was Air and Space Encounters: A Report 
Based on the 1994 National Air and Space Museum Visitor Survey 
(Report 95-4). The study, a follow-up to a study conducted in 
1988, was based on interviews with 2,975 visitors. They were 
asked about their background, their experience of Washington 
and the Mall, and their attitudes and expectations of NASM. 

Data collection was also completed and a report issued 
based on a year-long study of the National Museum of Natu- 
ral History (NMNH). This is the first comprehensive study of 
visitors' characteristics and experiences at NMNH (Beyond the 
Elephant: A Report based on the 1 994—95 National Museum of 
Natural History Visitor Survey (Report 95-6)). 

Throughout the year, data collection took place at the Freer 
Gallery of Art (Freer) and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 
(Sackler), and at the National Museum of American History. 
Analyses and reports are scheduled for FY96. From October 
1994 through September 1995, 2500 visitors were interviewed 
as they exited the Freer and Sackler galleries. During the same 
time period, a total of about 5300 visitors were interviewed at 
NMAH using a questionnaire similar to those developed for 
NMNH and NASM. Data from these year-long studies, in 
combination with data from NASM and NMNH, and the re- 
sultant analyses, provide a wealth of consistent data about 
major Smithsonian museums. 



64 



Two major studies continued ISO efforts to understand the 
congruence between the intentions of exhibition creators and 
the responses of the visiting public to exhibitions. The Science 
and American Life (SAL) Study at the National Museum of 
American History (NMAH) was completed. Data were col- 
lected at the exhibition and the associated Hands On Science 
Center. Entrance and exit surveys were conducted with about 
800 visitors to detetmine if any attitudinal changes resulted 
from a visit to the exhibition. In addition, the behavior of 160 
visitors in the exhibition was systematically observed to un- 
derstand the importance of exhibition elements and their use 
(e.g., use of interactives). NMAH will use the analysis and ob- 
servations as part of an effort to improve the visitors' experi- 
ence in SAL as well as to respond to questions about its 
communication effectiveness. 

A comprehensive assessment of the Ocean Planet exhibition, 
on view at NMNH prior to a national tour, was designed dur- 
ing FY95 and includes entrance and exit interviews and an ob- 
servation study. Data were collected from visitors in August 
1995; in October 1995, data collection from visitors will be 
completed. 

In sum, as described here and in our publication listing, 
Fiscal Year 1995 has seen continued use, at SI and elsewhere, 
of ISO's technical expertise and utilization of the results accu- 
mulated since its establishment. 



National Air and Space Museum 



Robert S. Hoffmann, Acting Director 

The past year was an especially challenging one for the Na- 
tional Air and Space Museum. The museum's efforts to mount 
a complex exhibition about the end of World War II, featur- 
ing the Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay," elicited con- 
siderable debate. Meanwhile, the museum expanded its 
educational offerings, continued to move forward on plans for 
the much-needed facility at Washington Dulles International 
Airport, and launched a contributing membership program. 
As the year drew to a close, the museum staff was putting 
the finishing touches on a schedule of exhibitions and public 
programs that promise to make 1996, the twentieth anniver- 
sary of the public opening of the world's most visited mu- 
seum, a memorable and exciting year. 

New Programs, Initiatives 

The National Air and Space Society, an individual member- 
ship program designed to raise capital funds for the building 
of the N ASM Dulles Center as well as to support the 
Museum's restoration and preservation projects and educa- 
tional programs, was established in June, 1995. At the end of 
the fiscal year, the society had more than 2,000 contributing 
members. 



The Office of Development expanded to include both a for- 
mal Planned Giving program and a Marketing Office. The 
museum's Special Events Office coordinated 135 events during 
FY 1995. Gift-related events generated more than $450,000 in 
unrestricted funds, one of the highest totals ever received by 
NASM. 

In May 1995, the NASM home page went online on the 
Worldwide Web. Supported by a grant from NASA, the 
museum's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies (CEPS) and 
the Education Services Department are developing online ma- 
terials and educational activities. The grant is also supporting 
development of electronic versions of "Exploring the Planets" 
and "Looking at Earth" galleries. Educational programs, se- 
lected curricula, schedules, and interactive opportunities are 
now presented through colorful, informative sites. Via a gift 
from NASA, a collaboration was formed with NASM, the 
University of California at Berkeley, Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, the Lawrence Hall of Science, the New 
York Hall of Science, the Exploratonum, the Adler Planetar- 
ium, and the Virginia Museum of Science to create curricula 
and activities for the Internet. An on-line station was added 
to the museum's Teacher Resource Center to allow access to 
the materials from within the museum as well. 

To make our large-screen IMAX films more accessible to 
visitors, NASM has installed the world's first closed-caption 
system for a motion picture theater. Captioning is available 
for up to 12 individuals at a time during all regular daytime 
features. A new box office is credited with boosting atten- 
dance at the Einstein Planetarium. 

Exhibitions 

Two exhibitions dominated the museum's FY 1995 agenda. 
The first, "The Last Act: The Atomic Bomb and the End of 
World War II," demonstrated the challenges museums can 
face when attempting to display potentially controversial arti- 
facts and research. While "The Last Act" was cancelled by Sec- 
retary Heyman several months before its scheduled opening, 
the controversy surrounding the exhibition served as a catalyst 
for constructive discussions regarding exhibition development 
and guidelines. 

The cancelled exhibition was replaced with "Enola Gay," an 
exhibition focusing on the aircraft itself; the men who flew it; 
and the efforts of museum staff and volunteers to restore it. 
More than a quarter of a million visitors passed through the 
"Enola Gay" exhibit in its first three months. 

"Building the Arsenal of Democracy: World War II Photo- 
graphs from the National Air and Space Archives" opened in 
March 1995. The 47 photographs in the exhibition illustrate 
the changes brought about by the combined efforts of mili- 
tary personnel and private citizens, working not only to sup- 
port those on the front lines, but also to protect the United 
States from attack. 

A Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat was the third and final aircraft 
in the museum's "Air Power in World War II" series. "Hell- 
cat" opened in April 1995 and provided visitors with the op- 



65 



portunity to learn about the premiere carrier-based fighter of 
World War II. 

"Flights of Fancy: Photographs by Jacques-Henri Lartigue, 
1904-1922," opened in September 1995. In 1904, at the age of 
eight, Lartigue photographed the first glider flight by French 
aviator Gabriel Voisin. By the age of 15, he had taken more 
than 1,000 photographs of early aviators and flying machines. 
This temporary exhibition features 84 prints. 

A light-hearted look at one of America's best-known toys, 
"Flight Time Barbie: Dolls from the Popular Culture Collec- 
tion of the National Air and Space Museum" was on display 
from June 9 through Sept. 4, 1995. Fifty-six space- and avia- 
tion-related toys, including 15 Barbie dolls, 19 other Mattel 
personalities, outfits and playsets, were included in the sum- 
mertime display. 

The first in a series of ma|or updates to the "Exploring the 
Planets" gallery were made in 1995. A "What's New" unit will 
highlight the Galileo Mission to Jupiter. It has been designed 
to allow for quick updates as new images and data become 
available. A unique, state-of-the-art 10' X 10' global color mo- 
saic of Venus generated for NASM at NASA's Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory using images returned by the Magellan spacecraft 
has been installed over the gallery's entrance. 

Publications and Research 

Retired Vice Admiral Donald Engen, U.S. Navy, is the 
museum's Dewitt C. Ramsey Chair for Naval Aviation His- 
tory. During his tenure as Ramsey Fellow, Admiral Engen is 
writing a book on the development of naval aviation from 
World War II through the 1980s. 

Von Hardesty, of the Department of Aeronautics, was cho- 
sen as a Regents Publication Fellow for 1994-1995. He is the 
editor of the Smithsonian History of Aviation Book Series. 
The series, now in its seventh year, has a total of 26 publica- 
tions. 

Treasures of the National Air and Space Museum, a small- 
format (4X4-1/2 in) picture book published in September, fea- 
tures more than 280 artifacts from the Museum's aeronautics 
and space collection. Published in April 1995, Aviation: A 
Smithsonian Guide and Spaceflight: A Smithsonian Guide, explore 
the technological and human achievements of aviation and 
space flight. A third book in this series, "Planets: A Smithson- 
ian Guide" was completed. 

Tom Crouch, chairman of the Department of Aeronautics, 
completed an essay, "Capable of Flight: The Saga of the 1903 
Wright Airplane," for the forthcoming volume, The Smithson- 
ian on Exhibition. He also assisted the 2003 Committee of Day- 
ton, Ohio, the Ohio Centennial of Flight Commission, the 
North Carolina Centennial of Flight Commission and the 
First Flight Society, Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, in planning 
for the 100th anniversary of powered flight. 

Flying aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, a modified 
C-14I aircraft and telescope, Laboratory for Astrophysics staff 
members discovered that strong natural infrared lasers occur 
in the disk of material around a peculiar star, MWC349, and 



they have successfully modeled the phenomenon in some 
detail. 

CEPS' ongoing research in Earth's drylands and studies as- 
sessing anthropogenic changes to the Earth's surface are part 
of the Institution's Global Change Research Program. Staff 
members continued their study of present day sand transport 
and paleoclimatic change in the Western Desert of Egypt; con- 
ducted field work in support of a study of environmental sta- 
bility and change at the Mpala Research Station, central 
Kenya; and, using remote sensing data, field evidence, and 
sedimentological data, demonstrated that sand deposits in the 
Mojave Desert in the southwestern United States have been 
transported along distinct paths, crossing topographic barriers 
and several ad]acenr drainage basins. 

As a component of CEPS research in planetary geology and 
geophysics, staff members continued geologic mapping of 
areas of Mars; and, using radar images and data from Magel- 
lan, of Venus. CEPS Chairman Tom Watters, with a colleague 
at Cornell University, published the results of a comparative 
study of volcano-tectonic structures on Mars and analogous 
structures on Venus known as coronae. Ted Maxwell and Bob 
Craddock published the results of their analyses of the ancient 
terrain that provides further support for an early, wet Martian 
climate. Bruce Campbell, Bob Craddock, and Tom Watters 
have begun investigations of the Moon using new data re- 
turned by the Clementine spacecraft. 

Education and Outreach Activities 

During the past year, more than 129,000 people participated 
in educational programs and services at the Museum, 65,000 
of them students. Several schools utilized the programs via 
Internet and television programs. The museum continues to 
look for opportunities to provide educational materials and re- 
sources not only to museum visitors, but also to educators and 
families who cannot physically come to the museum. 

In July 1996, the museum will open "How Things Fly." 
The purpose of the gallery, is to teach the basic forces of flight 
in a hands-on, interactive fashion. The gallery will be sup- 
ported by the museum's successful Explainers Program, a 
group of high school and college students who provide chil- 
dren and families with demonstrations on the forces of flight 
and the nature of the universe. The Cessna Aircraft Company 
pledged $1.5 million for a ten-year period to fund "The Ex- 
plainers." Cessna's gift is the largest ever received by the Mu- 
seum for an educational program. 

Other recent successes include a summer camp for students 
in grades 4-12, focusing on the curricula for "Where Next, Co- 
lumbus?," and two IMAX films, "Blue Planet" and "Destiny 
in Space." More than 300 students attended the camp, made 
possible through a gift from the M&M Mars Company. 

In collaboration with the Foundation for Advancements in 
Science Education, the Public Broadcasting System, the Na- 
tional Science Foundation, and several other funders, the De- 
partment launched "Innovations in the American Classroom." 
This special series invites nationally recognized outstanding 



66 



science and history teachers to share teaching methodologies 
and practices with their peers. The first presentation was Dis- 
ney teacher of the year, Kay Toliver, who has been profiled in 
Time. Parade. Neusweek. and in the PBS series, "The Eddie 
Files" and "Good Morning Mrs. Toliver." 

The Department worked with Maryland Public Tele- 
vision and other partners to produce "Live From the 
Stratosphere," an interactive experience at the museum 
that allowed students and teachers to communicate 
directly via a satellite uplink with researchers aboard the 
Kuiper Airborne Observatory, as well as with research staff 
in the museum. 

The Department won an Educational Outreach grant in 
support of a history teaching program on the experience of 
Hispanics in the development of aviation entitled "Sin 
Limitas: The Latin American Experience in Aviation." This 
program gave students from D.C. areas schools the oppor- 
tunity to meet World War II Flying Tiger Don Lopez and 
Orestes Lorenzes, a pilot who escaped from Cuba with his 
family. Students also had the opportunity to explore the 
museum's archives of photos and information on Hispanics 
in aviation and learn about the science and technology of 
flight. 

Although the Educational Services Division takes the 
lead in developing educational pro]ects, other departments 
in the museum join in advancing the educational focus of 
the museum. The Laboratory for Astrophysics was cited by 
the U.S. Department of Education for its innovative family 
education series, "Learning is a Family Experience." This 
program, now centered at the National Zoo, was developed 
by the Laboratory for Astrophysics, the NASM Educational 
Services Division, and the Zoo's NOAH center. The pro- 
gram works to build the support structures between par- 
ents, teachers, and students by presenting programs that 
they can all enjoy together, while providing teachers with 
follow-up curriculum materials and training. The program 
is supported in part by the American Institute for Aero- 
nautics and Astronautics. 

The Einstein Planetarium has started a monthly Saturday 
morning program called "Family Star Watch." The program 
presents shows that combine live demonstrations, lectures, 
and fully automated pre-programmed shows, offering the pub- 
lic a variety of venues to learn about the nighttime sky. The 
Planetarium staff is also planning two new programs that will 
open in 1996. 

The 1995 Mutual Concerns of Air and Space Museums 
conference, in its eighth year, is a four day invitational sem- 
inar co-sponsored by the museum and the American Associ- 
ation of Museums. Held in Washington, D.C, it includes 
professionals from aviation and space museums around the 
world. A related publication, the Aviation and Space Compen- 
dium contains comprehensive information on 62 interna- 
tional aviation and space museums. The seminar and the 
Compendium are coordinated by the museum's Office of 
Cooperative Programs. 



National Museum of African Art 

Sylvia H. Williams, Director 

The National Museum of African Art celebrates the rich 
visual traditions and extraordinarily diverse cultures of 
Africa. Through its collections, exhibitions, research and 
public programs, the museum fosters an appreciation of Af- 
rican art and civilizations. It is also a research and reference 
center, housing the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives 
and the Warren M. Robbins Library, a branch of the 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries, as well as exhibition 
galleries and educational facilities. 

Exhibitions 

The first level of the National Museum of African Art 
houses several permanent exhibitions: "The Art of the 
Personal Object," "Purpose and Perfection: Pottery as a 
Woman's Art in Central Africa" and "Images of Power and 
Identity." In addition, this year the museum reopened the 
revised and refurbished permanent exhibition, "The An- 
cient West African City of Benin, A.D. 1300-1897," featur- 
ing the museum's collection from the royal court of the 
capital of the Kingdom of Benin as it existed before colo- 
nial rule. The maiority of the works were a gift from 
Joseph H. Hirshhorn to the Smithsonian Institution in 
1966 and 1979; the ob|ects were transferred to the National 
Museum of African Art in 1985 by the Hitshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden. 

In addition, this year, in collaboration with the Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston, the museum opened "The Ancient Nubian 
City of Kerma, 2500-1500 B.C.," a three-year loan exhibition 
of wotks from the permanent collection of the Museum of 
Fine Arts, featuring objects from Kerma, an ancient Nubian 
city that was located on the Nile River. The exhibition was 
organized by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and its De- 
partment of Ancient Egyptian, Nubian and Near Eastern Art; 
all objects ate from the Harvard University-Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston, Expedition. 

Also located on the first level is the Point of View Gal- 
lery which presents small tempotary exhibitions that focus 
on specific themes or objects. This gallery was the site of 
three exhibitions: "Beaded Splendor," "Grace Kwami Sculp- 
ture: An Artist's Book by Atta Kwami" and "Art from the 
Forge." 

The museum's second level gallery was the site of two 
important exhibitions. The first, "Mohammad Omer 
Khalil, Printmaker, Amir I.M. Nour, Sculptor," was de- 
voted to selected wotks by two artists born in the Republic 
of Sudan. A second major exhibition, "Ancient Nubia: 
Egypt's Rival in Africa," presented 300 artifacts that docu- 
ment the rise and fall of Nubian kingdoms from 3100 B.C. 
to A.D. 400. The exhibition was organized by the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania Museum. 



67 



Acquisitions 

Among che most significant wotks acquired by the museum 
in the past year were a superb and rare carved wooden face 
mask from the Lele peoples of Zaire and a carved wooden face 
mask, "Oloju-foforo," attributed to Yoruba artist Bamgboshe 
of Osi-Ilonn, Nigeria (d. c. 1920). Another noteworthy acqui- 
sition was "Spoon," a conceptually complex modern bronze 
sculpture by Amir I. M. Nour (b. 1939), a contemporary sculp- 
tor who was born in the Republic of Sudan and has lived in 
the United States most of his adult life. 

Outreach Efforts 

The museum presented a wide range of public programs. The 
year's offerings included tours, workshops, lecutres, gallery 
talks, panel discussions, films, musical performances and pro- 
grams for educators. 

An extensive series of programs were offered in conjunction 
with the exhibition "Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa." 
One highlight was an interdisciplinary panel discussion on 
"The Art and Culture of Ancient Nubia." Participants in the 
standing room only program included historian Ismail 
Abdallah, College of William and Mary; archaeologist David 
O'Connor, The University of Pennsylvania Museum; cultural 
anthropologist Ann Jennings; and archaeologist Nettie K. 
Adams, The Webb Museum of Anthropology. In addicion, the 
museum published a gallery guide for young audiences. 

Also this year the museum launched an ongoing program 
for young audiences called "Let's Read about Africa." The 
weekend program introduces young visitors to African cul- 
ture, visual traditions and the joy of reading. 

The National Museum of African Art continues to make it- 
self accessible to people with special needs. Tours for hard-of- 
heanng visitors were made possible through a portable FM 
Assistive Listening System. This system also allowed hard-of- 
hearing visitors to participate in educational programs in the 
workshop and lecture hall. Sign language interpreters for deaf 
visitors were available upon request for all museum programs. 

Publications 

Throughout the yeat, the museum's curatorial staff published 
exhibition catalogues and additional informational materials 
to accompany exhibitions. This included a 52-page illustrated 
book, "Mohammad Omer Khalil, Etchings, Amir I.M. Nour, 
Sculpture," published in con]unction with the exhibition of 
the works of two Sudanese-born artists. In addition, the mu- 
seum published gallery brochures in conjunction with two ex- 
hibitions: "Grace Kwami Sculpture: An Artist's Book by Atta 
Kwami" and "Art from the Forge." The museum also co-pub- 
lished with the Smithsonian Institution Press the anthology 
African Nomadic Architecture: Space, Place, and Gender edited by 
architect and architectural historian Labelie Prussin. In this 
handsomely illustrated book, Prussin identifies the three basic 
elements that distinguish nomadic from sedentary architec- 
ture: mobility, gender and ritual. 



National Museum of American Art 



Elizabeth Broun, Director 

The National Museum of American Art and its Renwick Gal- 
lery offered thematic exhibitions and relevant public pro- 
grams on American art to audiences in Washington, and 
through traveling exhibitions and online programs, to 
museum-goers nationwide during 1995. The museum made 
important additions to its permanent collections of American 
art and crafts in all media. Significantly expanded electronic 
outreach and important strides in development and increasing 
private revenue were also major accomplishments. 

The White House Collection of American Crafts exhibition 
and its complementary Internet tour showcased 72 outstand- 
ing examples of contemporary craft by some of America's 
most innovative artists in glass, ceramics, wood, metal, and 
fiber. These works were originally assembled by former 
Renwick Gallery curator-in-charge Michael W Monroe for 
display in public and private rooms of the White House in 
recognition of the Year of American Craft in 1993. First lady 
Hillary Rodham Clinton addressed a press preview and a re- 
ception for the White House Collection of American Crafts 
exhibition. After its Washington premier at NMAA April 26 
through September 4, che show began a six-city national tour 
in Rochester, New York. 

An in-depth survey of the American daguerreotype 
through some 150 surprisingly varied examples, curated by 
NMAA senior curator Merry Foresta and John Wood of 
McNeese State University in Louisiana, was provocatively ti- 
tled, Secrets of the Dark Chamber: The Art of the American 
Daguerreotype. The use of fiber optic lights in the installation 
was a firsc for the museum. These lights permuted easy view- 
ing of the images on their silvered surfaces. The exhibition 
catalog, published by Smithsonian Press, was named best 
photography book of che year by The New York Times Book 
Review. 

Free Within Ourselves: African-American Arc from che 
Museum's Collection curated by Lynda Hartigan was a chance 
for the museum to display a broad selection from what has be- 
come che country's most extensive public collection of African- 
American art. Nearly 200 works by some 100 
African-American artists from the early 19th century to the 
present in all media made it possible to see che scope of the 
African-American contribution to the visual arts in America 
as never before. The show introduced the museum's firsc pho- 
tography by African-Americans. A lively reception for the 
exhibition drew a large component of artists and their fami- 
lies. The show's Family Day attracted a record number of par- 
ticipants for art demonstrations and hands-on activities, 
storytelling, and dance and dramatic performances. In con- 
junction with the exhibition, the education and curatorial 
departments of the museum produced "African American Art- 
ists: Affirmation Today," a 30-minute video on the life and 



68 



work of five contemporary' artists. The film has been accepted 
by PBS for national broadcast in 1996. 

African-American crafts were featured in an exhibition at 
the Renwick Gallery called Uncommon Beauty in Common 
Objects: The Legacy of African American Craft Art, April 7 
through June 18. The exhibition, organized by the National 
Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center in Wilberforce, 
Ohio, was complemented by more than a dozen artists' talks 
and demonstrations. 

Many of the museum's second floor galleries devoted to 
19th-century art were reinstalled this year. Plans were com- 
pleted tor the remaining second floor reinstallation, to be 
ready in time for the 150th anniversary year. 

The National Museum of American Art continued to show 
great strength in its acquisitions program, adding some 600 
works, including major paintings by American modernists 
Georgia O'Keeffe and Robert Motherwell, a 24-foot wide 
sculpture by Louise Nevelson, important works by Latino art- 
ists, and the Charles Isaacs Collection of 330 prime examples 
of early American photography. The Renwick Gallery ac- 
quired 60 new examples of 20th-century American crafts, 
made possible by its support group, the James Renwick Alli- 
ance. This year, the Alliance passed the half-million dollar 
mark in gifts to the Renwick for acquisitions. Building on 
the success of its rwo-year-old presence on America Online, 
the museum's New Media Initiatives staff achieved a quan- 
tum leap by making collection images and related texts avail- 
able to Internet users around the world. Parallel effort 
advanced design and production of a state-of-the-art multime- 
dia CD-ROM to be marketed during the Smithsonian's 150th 
anniversary year in 1996. 

The museum's introduction of a rich Gopher site on the 
Internet in January was followed shortly by the April pre- 
miere of a World Wide Web Internet Home Page that maxi- 
mizes the site's ability to seamlessly combine texts and images 
and transmit video and many other enhanced capabilities. The 
web site contains an unsurpassed complement of resources 
available electronically, including an extensive virtual tour of 
"The White House Collection of American Crafts" exhibition 
[http://www.nmaa. si. edu//whc/americancrafts], featuring vis- 
its to craft artists' studios and the White House, made possi- 
ble by a gift from MCI. This and another tour based on the 
NMAA daguerreotype exhibition, "Secrets of the Dark Cham- 
ber: The Art of the American Daguerreotype," inaugurated 
the museum's plan for providing an online version of each 
major exhibition organized. Myriad electronic "visitors" have 
registered their delight with the online offerings, which have 
been acknowledged and praised in the national press. In Sep- 
tember senior staff participated in a retreat to consider the fu- 
ture of electronic technology initiatives at the museum. 

The first new publication on the permanent collection in a 
decade, National Museum of American Art, copublished with 
Bulfinch, features 450 full-color illustrations and texts and in- 
vites readers to explore a wide range of the museum's hold- 
ings. The book is organized thematically to reflect the variety 



of concerns and aesthetic visions that have shaped American 
art over the past three centuries. Three hundred objects for re- 
photographed for the publication. The book is a companion 
to the extensive collection CD-ROM to be issued in early 
1996. Almost 80,000 Contributing Members of the Smithson- 
ian received National Museum of American Art as the 
Smithsonian's annual gift. 

Together with Hyperion Books for Children (a Disney affili- 
ate), the museum published a new book edited by education 
chief Nora Panzer. Celebrate America in Poetry and Art. joins 
poems and visual art to illuminate the ethnic, economic, and 
geographic diversity of the American experience. The 
illustrations are all from the museum's collection; the poems 
feature some of America's finest writers. The New Yorker's 
Daniel Menaker praised the book saying, "The pages team 
with creativity and variety." Celebrate America was selected for 
the Notable Children's Trade Books in the Field of Social 
Studies 1995 list and was awarded a star of recognition by the 
School Library Journal. Over 20,000 copies have been sold. 

Independent scholar Sidra Stich, former chief curator at the 
Universiry Art Museum in Berkeley, California, was in resi- 
dence as NMAA's Distinguished Scholar in American Art for 
the 1994-1995 academic year. Professor Neil Harris, Preston 
and Sterling Morton Professor of History, University of Chi- 
cago was selected as Distinguished Scholar in American Art 
for the 1995-1996 academic year. 

At the Renwick Gallery, Kenneth R. Trapp, formerly cura- 
tor of decorative arts at the Oakland Museum, was appointed 
curator-in-charge as of October 1 after the retirement of 21- 
year-veteran Michael W. Monroe. Jeremy Adamson served as 
acting curator-in-charge following Monroe's departure on 
June 30. 

Outreach to District of Columbia schools by the Renwick 
was significantly increased in a program supported by the 
James Renwick Alliance. 

After the closing of Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the 
White House, discussions began between the museum and 
the National Park Service on how best to accommodate 
Renwick access and proposed landscaping. 

In the business arena, the museum hired its first ever full- 
time development officer in June and set up a Development 
Department to handle membership and fundraising for spe- 
cial exhibitions and their publications, education programs, 
electronic outreach initiatives and special projects. The mu- 
seum also launched a quarterly members' newslettet to keep 
special constituents in closer touch with activities and behind- 
the-scenes information. 

Product development and licensing activity saw ma|or 
growth, with fees to the museum increased by 25 percent 
over FY94 levels. For one project, the museum |Oined 
forces with the National Portrait Gallery to create a 
spectrum of new postcards from the collections at a great 
saving. Summer Courtyard Grill food service was 
expanded to twice weekly, in operation from May through 
September. 



69 



A space lease was signed on September I for 9,000 square 
fee: of office space at 601 Indiana Avenue, N W to house ap- 
proximately 40 employees in the museum's Research and 
Scholars Center and the Publications and New Media Initia- 
tive Office. Renovations will proceed a move in January 1996. 

The museum's traveling exhibition program enjoyed a ban- 
ner year, with a William H. Johnson retrospective scheduled 
for seven museums across the country. Tours of contemporary 
landscape photography, Thomas Cole and William H. 
Johnson's Homecoming were successfully concluded. In other 
travel-related activity, curators and the registranal staff 
planned for 19 objects from the NMAA and Renwick collec- 
tions to travel with the two-year national tour of "America's 
Smithsonian," honoring the Institution's 150th anniversary. 



Natio?ial Museum of American History 



Spencer R. Creu; Director 

The National Museum of American History (NMAH) dedi- 
cates its collections and scholarship to inspiring a broader un- 
derstanding of our nation and its many peoples. Drawing on 
more than 17 million objects in its collections and the hold- 
ings of its Archives Center, the museum creates learning op- 
portunities, stimulates imaginations, and presents 
challenging ideas about our nation's past through original re- 
search, exhibitions, publications, and public programs. 

The museum this year announced the founding of the Je- 
rome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention 
and Innovation on May 31, 1995, through a $10.4 million gift 
from the Lemelson Foundation. The center is named after its 
benefactors, Jerome Lemelson, one of the nation's most pro- 
lific inventors, and his wife, Dorothy. Their gift was the larg- 
est cash donation ever presented to the Smithsonian 
Institution. Lemelson holds more than 500 patents for a range 
of inventions relating to videocassette recorders, cordless tele- 
phones, and many other devices. His patented inventions in 
robotics, machine vision, and flexible manufacturing have 
profoundly influenced computer chip manufacturing and the 
automotive industry. 

The primary mission of the Lemelson Center is to docu- 
ment, interpret, and disseminate information about invention 
and innovation. Through a variety of public programs, exhibi- 
tions, research efforts, and electronic outreach projects, the 
center hopes to encourage inventive creativity in young peo- 
ple and foster an appreciation for the central role invention 
plays in the history of the United States. 

On June I, the Lemelson Center kicked off its "Innovative 
Lives" program for children and young adults with a series of 
lecture-demonstrations by Hal Walker. An former aerospace 
engineer, Walker shared his ideas on innovation as a career 
and explained his research on lasers. He also helped illustrate 



the properties and applications of laser light for 85 middle- 
school students in the museum's Hands On Science Center. 
The center also immediately opened its own home page on 
the World Wide Web. The address is http://www.si.edu/or- 
ganiz/museums/nmah/homepage/lemel/ 

To serve the museum's large and diverse audiences, staff 
members organized, produced, presented, and often per- 
formed scores of other public programs — musical, dramatic, 
scholarly, popular, and participatory. On October 7 and 8, the 
continuing American Sampler series presented the first install- 
ment of "The Guitar: Art and Soul." Hispanic artists per- 
formed classical, flamenco, and traditional works, followed 
later in the year by two more performance weekends featuring 
jazz, blues, rhythm and blues, and gospel guitar styles. Ameri- 
can Sampler also presented "Native American Women's 
Music" in November to explore the often overlooked role of 
women in Native Ametican music. In April, the continuing 
series American Song presented "This Song Is You: A Centen- 
nial Celebration of Oscar Hammerstein II," the preeminent 
lyricist of the American musical theater's golden age. Another 
American Song offering in June focused on the work of lyri- 
cist Marilyn Bergman, cownter of such songs as "Windmills 
of Your Mind" and the score for Yentl. The Office of Educa- 
tion and Visitor Services organized programs throughout the 
year, including "What's the Catch: Fish, Shellfish, and Fisher- 
ies in America." In this the two-day conference, six panel dis- 
cussions focused on American fisheries, their role in the life of 
the nation, and how their harvests can be both bountiful and 
safe. "Campfire Diary," presented in February, was a multime- 
dia presentation by art professor Roger Shimomura that grew 
out of a journal kept for fifty-six years by his grandmother, a 
Japanese American pioneer and midwife sent to an intern- 
ment camp during World War II. 

The Program in African American Culture (PAAC) offered 
"Fighting Two Wars: African Americans in World War II" in 
October. The conference, held at the historic Lincoln Theatre, 
chronicled the experiences of African American men and 
women in the U.S. Army during World War II. In January, 
PAAC presented "Birthplace of a Whirlwind: The i960 
Greensboro Sit-in," an afternoon program of reminiscences, a 
song workshop, and a museum tour that commemorated the 
birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. A few weeks before the 
program, the museum had put on display a section of the 
lunch counter from the Woolworth's store in Greensboro, 
North Carolina, which was the scene of one of the first organ- 
ized sit-ins by college students to protest segregation during 
the Civil Rights Movement. 

Hollywood filmmaker John Singleton, director of Boyz 'n 
the Hood, was among the participants at the conference "100 
Years of Black Film: Imaging African American Life, History, 
and Culture" on February 1-4. The conference featured a series 
of film screenings, a showing of Oscar Micheaux's classic si- 
lent film Within Our Gates with live musical accompaniment, 
and lectures by historians, filmmakers, and authors. The four- 
day event was presented by PAAC and the Ethnic Imagery 



70 



Projecc of the Archives Center. Additional sponsors included 
the Black Film Institute of the University of the District of 
Columbia and "Black Film Review" magazine. On April 28, 
more than 300 junior and senior high school students from 18 
public schools the Washington, D.C., area participated in a 
showcase of poetry, song, and dance during the Smithsonian's 
Fourth Annual Duke Ellington Youth Festival. The students 
also displayed original works of art based on themes in 
Ellington's life and work in a temporary exhibition presented 
in conjunction with the festival. 

In March, for Women's History Month, the museum of- 
fered "What's American About American Quilts?," a confer- 
ence examining aspects of American and European quilting 
traditions. The forum was presented with support from the 
American Quilt Defense Fund. On March 14, the museum 
opened the exhibition "Putting Her Best Quilt Forward: Ex- 
hibiting at the Fair," which focused on how fairs gave women 
of the 19th century an opportunity to display their talents and 
gather new ideas for quilts. Both the conference and the exhi- 
bition were offered in conjunction National Quilting Day. An- 
other Women's History Month program, "The Yellow Rose of 
Suffrage," was a one-woman performance by playwright- 
actress Jane Cox based on the life of suffragist Carrie Chap- 
man Catt. In August, to celebrate the 75th anniversary of 
woman suffrage, the museum also produced the symposium 
"Visions of Equality: Past and Future" on August 25. 

Several new program series presented lectures and discus- 
sions throughout the year. The Forum on Environmental Jus- 
tice series examined pollution in the nation's capital, 
environmental justice and Native Americans, and other top- 
ics. Looking American focused on civilian dress during World 
War II. Staff of the museum's Division of Costume offered 
talks on subjects such as wartime restrictions and fashion, ap- 
propriate dress for factory work, and the war's influence on 
clothing styles. The museum also inaugurated its Viewpoints 
program, a series of informal talks by museum staff on sub- 
jects ranging from sea stories to caring for family heirlooms. 

The Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra (SJMO) pre- 
sented four weekends of performances from April through Au- 
gust at the National and Lincoln theaters. Musical directors 
Gunther Schuller and David N. Baker led the orchestra and 
the audiences through the music of Mary Lou Williams, 
Chick Webb, Duke Ellington, Dizzy Gillespie, Lionel Hamp- 
ton, Woody Herman, Miles Davis, Jimmie Lunceford, 
Tommy Dorsey and other composers and orchestras. Like the 
SJMO, the Smithsonian Chamber Music Society is directed 
from the museum's Division of Cultural History. From the 
Smithsonian Chamber Orchestra to the Castle Trio, the 
society's ensembles offered works of Franois Coupenn, Marin 
Marais, Henry Purcell, Mozart, Haydn, Brahms, Schubert, 
and other composers well known and lesser known. As every 
year, many of the selections were performed on original instru- 
ments from the museum's collections, including the 1854 
"Queen Victoria" piano and the 1701 "Servais" Stradivanus 
cello. The concerts often featured guest performers, and this 



year several of the evenings began with brief lectures by noted 
scholars on conservation, recordings of early music, compos- 
ers, and other subjects. In August, the Smithsonian Chamber 
Players released a new CD, Metamorphosis, that features Sir Ed- 
ward Elgar's Serenade, Samuel Barber's Adagio for Strings, and 
Richard Strauss's Metamorphosen. 

In December, the museum's annual Holiday Celebration 
delighted thousands of visitors with music, storytelling, and 
demonstrations of holiday foods and crafts that reflect the 
many ways Americans celebrate Christmas, Hanukkah, 
Kwanzaa, and the New Year. 

"With Pen and Graver: Women Graphic Artists Before 
1900, " which opened in February, was one of the many well- 
received exhibitions at the museum this year. The exhibition 
included more than 80 examples of commercial and fine arts 
work by some of the leading women artists in the 19th cen- 
tury. The featured works included examples by such artists as 
Fanny Palmer, lithographer for Currier & Ives; Maud Hum- 
phrey, an illustrator and the mother of Humphrey Bogart; 
and Emily Sartain, a Philadelphia art teacher. Lithographs, 
greeting cards, illustrated books, copper plates, and wood 
blocks were among the objects on display. 

To commemorate the 50th annivetsary of the end of World 
War II, NMAH presented several temporary exhibitions. 
"The Virgil Whyte 'All-Girl' Band," an exhibition of photo- 
graphs, documents, and artifacts produced by the museum's 
Archives Center, showed how a touring U.S.O. band during 
World War II promoted the ideal of equality in job opportu- 
nity for women within the field of music. The band's director, 
Virgil Whyte, demanded that his female musicians receive 
union pay equal to that of male musicians of comparable 
skills — all within the context or the traditional "home front" 
partnership which women were expected to contribute to the 
war effort. "Women War Workers" highlighted the contribu- 
tions of women during World War II through a display of 
photographs, cartoons, wartime advertisements, sheet music, 
and a rivet hammer, welding mask, coveralls, and other tools 
and equipment used by women during the war. "Produce for 
Victory: Posters on the American Home Front, 1941— 1945" ex- 
amined the images and underlying messages of the posters 
used to help mobilize Americans during the war. "World War 
II: Sharing Memories" offered a look back at the World War 
II era through paintings of wartime scenes commissioned by 
the U.S. armed forces during the war and everyday objects 
used by men and women at war and on the home front. Visi- 
tors were encouraged to record their memories of the war in 
notebooks, and hundreds of people wrote first-hand accounts 
or reminiscences of that era handed down among family mem- 
bers. Many of the notes were posted on a bulletin board inside 
the exhibition for other visitors to read. 

Documentary photography shows at the museum explored 
subjects such as industrial life and work in "Images of Steel" 
to the plight of migrant workers in "Earth Angels: Migrant 
Children in America," to "Images of Vietnam: March 1970— 
February 1971," an exhibition of 48 photographs taken by pho- 



~> 



rojournalist Srephen H. Warner, who was killed in 
action. "Going Strong! Older Americans on the Job," an 
exhibition of photographs by Harvey Wang, captured the 
images and stories of more than 35 Americans well past 
retirement age who still continued in their chosen 
professions — from a typesetter to a shepherd ro a scrap 
metal dealer. The History in the News series presented 
one-case exhibitions such as "Asbestos: Promise, Problems, 
Panic, Prudence," "Earth Day 1970," and "Cinema's 
Centennial," commemorating the 100th anniversary of 
moving pictures. 

In June, the museum also co-sponsored a special display of 
student-created exhibitions that featured the work of selected 
state winners of the National History Day competition. The 
competition is designed for students in grades six through 
twelve who present months of research in media productions, 
papers, performances, and table-top projects. 

Acquisitions of note this year included the gown worn by 
Hillary Rodham Clinton's to inaugural balls in 1993. Now a 
part of the First Ladies Collection, the gown is on exhibit in 
the "Ceremonial Court," which displays many artifacts belong- 
ing to past presidents and first families and re-creates architec- 
tural details of the 1902 White House. The University of 
Maryland School of Nursing donated a Florence Nightingale 
Nursing Cap, affectionately known to the school's gradu- 
ates as "Flossie," to the Medical Sciences Collection. The 
Flossie was patterned after a cap worn by Florence Nightin- 
gale. The museum also received a bacterial culture replic- 
ator from the laboratory of Joshua Lederman of the 
University of Wisconsin. Lederman's research won him a 
Nobel Prize in 1958. The Warner-Lambert Company do- 
nated the last glass Listenne bottle to be manufactured; 
the first plastic bottle of Listenne; and the bottle with the 
oldest, rarest label. The Archives Center accepted the pa- 
pers of Robert G. Chamberlain, a mechanical engineer, 
business school graduate in finance, and one of the first 
numerical control programmers in the United States. 
Chamberlain's work centered on the use of computers in 
controlling machine tools and to problems of ensuring 
accuracy in metal cutting and forming operations under 
computer control. 

Around, beside, beneath, and among all the programs 
and activities, the National Museum of American 
History continued to remake itself, both organizationally 
and physically. The museum's continuing Master Plan saw 
extensive repair and renovation to the fifth floor and base- 
ment this year. More significantly, 1994-95 marked the first 
full year of the museum's reorganization under Director 
Spencer Crew. The process has brought forth both a new 
organizational structure at the museum and new goals 
and strategic objectives — in areas including visitor orien- 
tation at the museum, electronic access, computerized col- 
lections, space planning, project management, and staff 
development — that will guide the museum in the years 
ahead. 



National Postal Museum 



James H. Brum. Diector 

As a new museum, during 1995 the staff concentrated on estab- 
lishing operational priorities, developing departmental goals 
and objectives, formulating the museum's first long-range 
"Planning and Budget Document," and writing essential 
operational procedures and plans. 

Among the operating plans prepared in 1995 were the 
museum's "Collecting Plan," "Collections Management Pol- 
icy," Public Affairs Policy," "Hazardous Materials Policy," and 
"Exhibitions Policy." 

In cooperation with the Office of Membership and Develop- 
ment, the museum drafted its long-range "Endowment Plan." 
This plan, which will be part of the "Smithsonian Fund for 
the Future," calls for the creation of $10 to $15 million in en- 
dowments over the next ten years. 

The museum dramatically expanded its educational out- 
reach with the publication of "We Were There: Letters from 
the Battle Front," an activity book and resource guide for sec- 
ondary school students; the "Postal Pack for Elementary 
Schools," a curriculum guide and activity book that integrates 
letter writing and postal history into language arts, history, 
geography and math classes; and "Pen Friend," an mter-gener- 
ational letter writing project guide book. 

During 1995 the museum's curatorial and collections man- 
agement staff processed 95 accessions, acquisitions that con- 
sisted of over 10,900 objects. 

Three exhibits opened in 1995, including "Best Wishes: 
Greetings from the White House" (November-February), 
"Are We There Yet' Vacationing in America" (May- 
lndefinite), and "The Graceful Envelope" (July-August). The 
latter exhibit began as a national calligraphers' demonstration 
and workshop sponsored by the museum. Hundreds of hand- 
crafted envelopes were mailed to the museum. The "most 
graceful" of these were placed on temporary exhibit. Many of 
these will soon be the subject of a book. 

During 1995 the museum's education department con- 
ducted 24 pubic programs, including lectures by prominent 
philatelists, historians, and scholars. Among the museum's of- 
ferings were "Marilyn Monroe: The Myth and the Message," a 
invitational lecture by theater and film critics Molly Haskell 
and Andrew Sarris conducted in conjunction with the issu- 
ance of the Marilyn Monroe stamp. Other presentations were 
provided by National Air and Space Museum curator Bob Van 
Der Linden, who lead a discuss of the role of the Post Office 
Department in the creation of America's commercial airlines 
and National Museum of American History curator William 
Withuhn, who presented a program about American emigrant 
trains. Another offering included historian and author Alvin 
Josephy, who presented "A Portrait of Chief Joseph," a discus- 
sion of the legacy of the leader of the Nez Perce tribe of the 
American northwest in the late 19th century. Donations of 



72 



cash, pledges and in-kind support amounced to more than 
$3.5 million in 1995. 



National Museum of the American Indian 

W. Richard West Jr., Director 

The National Museum of the American Indian is an institu- 
tion of living culture dedicated to the preservation, study, and 
exhibition of the life, languages, literature, history, and arts of 
the Native peoples of the Western Hemisphere. The 
museum's mission is to recognize and affirm to Native com- 
munities and the non-Native public the historical and con- 
temporary culture and cultural achievements of the Natives of 
the Western Hemisphere by advancing — in consultation, col- 
laboration, and cooperation with Natives — knowledge and un- 
derstanding of Native cultures. The museum has a special 
responsibility, through innovative public programming, re- 
search, and collections, to protect, support, and enhance the 
development, maintenance, and perpetuation of Native cul- 
tures and communities. 

When Southern Cheyenne Camp Crier Moses Starr, Jr., an- 
nounced the opening of the National Museum of the Ameri- 
can Indian in New York City on Oct. 30, it marked the 
beginning of a year in which the museum's mission became a 
reality with the indigenous voice and world view resonating 
throughout the exhibitions at the Heye Center. As the mu- 
seum approached its anniversary in late September, more than 
375,000 museum visitors had experienced the exhibitions and 
heard the accompanying Native American voices, more than 
nine times the number who visited the museum in one year at 
its old location at Audubon Terrace at 155th and Broadway. 
The inaugural exhibitions of the National Museum of the 
American Indian were second in museum attendance during 
the exhibition season in New York City only to the Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art, where the exhibition "Origins of Im- 
pressionism" drew 794,108 visitors. 

"Creation's Journey: Masterworks of Native American Iden- 
tity and Belief features 165 objects selected for their beauty, 
rarity and historical significance, and representation of diverse 
cultures. Displaying objects from tribal groups in North, Cen- 
tral, and South America, with dates ranging from 3200 B.C. 
to the 20th century, the exhibition's multivoiced perspective 
includes anthropologists, curators, historians, scholars, and 
Native peoples. 

"All Roads Are Good: Native Voices on Life and Culture" 
features more than 300 objects chosen by 23 Native American 
selectors, who selected items from the museum's collection 
that were of artistic, cultural, and personal significance. 
Selectors' responses to the process and the objects are shared 
with museum visitors on audio and videotape, as well as la- 
bels that accompany the objects. "All Roads Are Good" exem- 



plifies the museum's mandate for interpretation by indige- 
nous peoples with first-person insights and sensitivities to a 
world view that places the objects along a continuum of liv- 
ing culture. 

"This Path We Travel: Celebrations of Contemporary Na- 
tive American Creativity" is a collaborative exhibition featur- 
ing the collective and individual talents of 15 contemporary 
Native American artists. The exhibition combines installation 
with sculpture, performance, poetry, music, and video to pres- 
ent the artists' views and concepts of creation, the importance 
of sacred places, and how the Indian universe has been af- 
fected by conflicts with Euroamencan beliefs and cultures. 
The exhibition represents how ancient indigenous ideas, as ex- 
pressed in the archaeological and historic objects in the other 
exhibitions, still contribute to contemporary Indian world 
views. 

In conjunction with the opening in October, the museum 
announced the five recipients of the first annual Art and Cul- 
tural Achievement Awards of the National Museum of the 
American Indian. They are Allan Houser (Chincahua 
Apache), posthumously; Oren R. Lyons (Onondaga); N. Jana 
Harcharek (Inupiat); Geronima Cruz Montoya (San Juan 
Pueblo); and Katharine Siva Saubel (Cahuilla). 

On Nov. 19 and 20, in celebration of the Heye Center open- 
ing, the National Museum of the American Indian Powwow 
was held at the Jacob K. Javits Center in New York City. Ac- 
tivities included gourd dancing, intertribal dancing, Caddo 
stomp dances, Yupik dances, and Iroquois, Ponca and Osage 
social dances, a lacrosse workshop, a Northern Arapaho tipi 
construction demonstration, a Hocak (Winnebago) language 
pro|ect, arts and crafts sales, Ponca and Osage handgames, and 
Indian and Eskimo Olympics. 

In October, the museum staff began packing and moving 
more than 45,000 objects from the old location of the mu- 
seum at Audubon Terrace in New York City to the Research 
Branch in the Bronx, N.Y Eventually, most of the one-mil- 
lion-object collection will be moved to the Cultural Resources 
Center, which will be built in Suitland, Md. 

The design of the museum's Cultural Resources Center in 
Suitland, Md., was completed in March by the award- 
winning architectural firm of Polshek and Partners of New 
York City, working with Metcalf Tobey Davis of Reston, Va., in 
association with the Native American Design Collaborative. The 
Cultural Resources Center is scheduled to open in 1997. 

The museum displayed 24 19th-century Navajo wearing 
blankets from its collections at the Ned A. Hatathli Museum 
of the Navajo Community College in Tsaile, Ariz., on June 27 
through June 30. The display concluded with a workshop for 
Navajo weavers, whose input will be incorporated into the 
final design and script for the exhibition "Woven by the 
Grandmothers: 19th Century Navajo Textiles from the Na- 
tional Museum of the American Indian" planned for the fall 
of 1996 at the Heye Center in New York City. 

On Oct. 24, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation of 
Connecticut made a $10 million contribution to the National 



73 



Museum of the American Indian National Campaign. At the 
time, it was the largest cash contribution to the Smithsonian 
in its 148-year history. 

In October, the museum released a number of publications 
and products in conjunction with the opening of the Heye 
Center. Products included books on each of the three exhibi- 
tions, a music recording on compact disc and cassette tape, a 
calendar, a postcard book, and T-shirts. 

The museum began the Native American Expressive Cul- 
ture Series — on-going public programming that includes sto- 
rytelling, theater, music, dance, film and video. In the 
multimedia Resource Center, ten computer stations provide 
access to resource information about the objects in the exhibi- 
tions and the indigenous world view. 

During the year, Douglas J. Cardinal Architects, Ltd., in 
collaboration with Geddes, Brecher, Quails and Cunning- 
ham Architects, and in conjunction with the museum staff 
and Native American consultants, developed a conceptual 
design for the National Museum of the American Indian, 
which will be constructed on the National Mall after the 
turn of the century. 



National Portrait Gallery 

Alan Fern, Director 

The National Portrait Gallery is dedicated to the exhibition 
and study of portraits of people who have made significant 
contributions to American history and culture and to the 
study of the artists who created such portraiture. The Gallery 
sponsors a variety of scholarly and public activities for audi- 
ences interested in American art and American history. 

Collections Acquisitions 

Acquisitions in the Painting and Sculpture Department in- 
clude two presidential pottraits: Ronald Sherr's portrait of 
George Herbert Walker Bush and Jan Woods's bust of Wil- 
liam Jefferson Clinton. Among the other portraits acquired 
were Smithsonian Secretary-emeritus Robert McCotmick 
Adams by Burton Silverman, collector and art dealet Edith 
Gregor Halpert by Marguerite T Zorach, General Winfield 
Scott by Robert Walter Weir, and poet Gwendolyn Brooks by 
Sara S. Miller. The Photographs Department teceived a gift of 
ninety-nine photographs from the estate of George Tames, 
Washington photographer for the New York Times from the 
1940s through the eatly 1980s. Other important photographs 
include Martin Luther King, Jr. by Dan Weiner, labor leader 
Andrew Furuseth by Dorothea Lange, American poets Sylvia 
Plath and Anne Sexton by Rollie McKenna, a group portrait 
of William Tecumseh Sherman and his generals by Mathew 
Brady, and a rare carte de visite of the sculptor Edmonia Lewis. 
Among the Print Department acquisitions are a mezzotint of 



Benjamin Franklin by Charles Willson Peale and a drypoint 
of Henry Marquand by Anders Zorn. 

Research 

The National Portrait Gallery launched its virtual museum as 
part of the Smithsonian's Home Page on the Internet's World 
Wide Web and as part of the Smithsonian Online educational 
service on America Online. Previews of exhibitions, current 
events, highlights of the permanent collection, Gallery bro- 
chures, educational programs, and publications are available 
on both services. Featured by America Online for the Fourth 
of July holiday, the online image of Rembrandt Peale's famous 
"Porthole" portrait of George Washington was downloaded by 
the public neatly 1,400 times. Interested visitors on the Amer- 
ica Online service may comment, ask questions, converse on 
message boards, and take part in online chat sessions. 

The Catalog of American Portraits continued its field sur- 
vey of portraits in public and private collections, cataloging 
portraits in Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, the Norman 
Rockwell Museum in Massachusetts, and portraits of Ameri- 
cans in the National Portrait Gallery, London. Portraits in the 
state of Alaska were surveyed with the assistance of a grant 
from the Smithsonian Women's Committee. The Smithsonian 
Office of Fellowships and Grants supported two internship 
projects that added important Native American and Latino bi- 
ographies to the CAP's multimedia research database. 

The Peale Family Papers project submitted volume four 
of Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family, sub- 
titled Charles Willson Peale: His Last Years, 1821-1827. to 
Yale University Press for publication. The staff is continu- 
ing research for volume 5, The Autobiography of Charles Will- 
son Peale. and for The Catalogue Raisonne of the Works of 
Rembrandt Peale. 

The Electronic Research Center became a reality in the 
NMAA/NPG Library at the end of December. Supported by 
both the National Portrait Gallery and the National Museum 
of American Art, the Center collects reference sources avail- 
able in CD-ROM and online formats, as well as maintaining 
Internet and America Online functions. The Center has biblio- 
graphic, image-based, and online resources accessible to Li- 
brary patrons. Some of the titles available are: Art Index 
(1984-1995); ARTbibliographies Modern on Disc (1984-1994); 
Artfact (auction price information for both the fine and decora- 
tive arts, 1986—1995); Select Phone (1995); National Portrait Gal- 
lery. Smithsonian Institution: Permanent Collection of Notable 
Americans: and Artnet (an online resource to auction records 
from 1990 to the present). 

Exhibitions 

In commemoration of the iooth anniversary of the death of 
Frederick Douglass, the National Portrait Gallery and the Na- 
tional Park Service co-organized an exhibition on his life and 
legacy. Featuring paintings, photographs, and memorabilia, 
"Majestic in His Wrath" opened February 9, 1995, with a re- 



74 



ception during which actor Billy Dee Williams read one of 
Douglass's most famous speeches. 

"In Pursuit of the Butterfly: Portraits of James McNeill 
Whistler" was the first of four exhibitions held in Washing- 
ton during the summer of 1995 that were devoted to this 
American expatriate painter. Whistler was the single most de- 
picted artist prior to the twentieth century, and NPG's exhibi- 
tion demonstrated the evolution of his image and his carefully 
self-constructed role as a popular icon in Victorian England. 

Several 1995 exhibitions highlighted aspects of the Gallery's 
permanent collection. "Federal Profiles: Saint-Memin in 
America, 1793-1814" amplified the museum's large holding of 
Saint-Memin engravings by featuring many of the original 
drawings from which the engravings were made. "From Tru- 
man to Clinton: Presidents on Time" was the most recent in a 
series of exhibitions drawn from the Gallery's collection of 
original Time magazine cover art. "The Passionate Observer: 
Photographs by Carl Van Vechten," which was organized by 
Hallmark Cards, presented a comprehensive overview of an 
artist whose works are widely represented in the Gallery's 
collection. 

Publications 

Saint-Memin and the Neoclassical Profile Portrait in America by 
Ellen G. Miles, NPG's Curator of Paintings and Sculpture, 
was published in November 1994 by the National Portrait 
Gallery and Smithsonian Institution Press. The culmination 
of twenty years of research on the French emigre artist who 
made nearly a thousand likenesses of Federal-era Americans, 
this book includes an essay on the history of the neoclassical 
profile portrait with a biography of Saint-Memin and a com- 
plete, illustrated catalogue of the artist's known works. It has 
been awarded second prize in the book category in the Ameri- 
can Association of Museums' 1995 Design Competition and 
first prize for illustrated books in the Washington Book 
Publishers' design competition. 

Produced to accompany the National Portrait Gallery's ex- 
hibition, Majestic in His Wrath: A Pictorial Life of Frederick 
Douglass, by NPG historian Frederick S. Voss, was published 
by the Smithsonian Institution Press. This softcover book's 
more than seventy illustrations include rare daguerreotypes of 
Douglass and images of fellow abolitionists and reformers. 

In Pursuit of the Butterfly: Portraits of James McNeill Whistler, 
co-published by the National Portrait Gallery and the Univer- 
sity of Washington Press, was written by Eric Denker, curator 
of the NPG exhibition of portraits of Whistler. Available in 
softcover, this illustrated book illuminates how this unconven- 
tional American expatriate was perceived by the artists and 
writers of his time. 

Work has commenced on a new edition of the National Por- 
trait Gallery Permanent Collection Illustrated Checklist. Data is 
being gathered on NPG acquisitions over the past ten years, 
since the previous edition was published. A James Smithson 
Society grant will allow the purchase of state-of-the-art 
desktop-publishing equipment for NPG's Publications Of- 



fice. This will make it possible to produce this valuable ref- 
erence tool — including some 7,000 illustrated entries — in- 
house through the prepress stage in the coming fiscal year. 

Education 

NPG offered a dramatization that provided both historical 
background and context to enhance students' knowledge 
gained during their tour of the Frederick Douglass exhibi- 
tion. Collaborations with publishers also made possible public 
lectures and book signings for biographies and portrait- 
related books. 

"Blues Woman," an interpretation of the music and life sto- 
ries of Bessie Smith, Ethel Waters, and Billie Holiday, was 
presented through the Gallery's "Portraits in Motion" series. 

Special Projects 

On the morning of July 21, 1995, the National Portrait 
Gallery's Hall of Presidents doubled as a television studio 
when C-SPAN's "Washington Journal" broadcast a live pro- 
gram on the museum and its collections. Host Btian Lamb in- 
terviewed NPG director Alan Fern as camera crews rolled 
through the Gallery's second floor, providing viewers with 
glimpses of the permanent collection on display. Pre-taped 
segments included presentations by curator of photographs 
Mary Panzer, historian Fred Voss, curator for the Frederick 
Douglass exhibition, and a cameo appearance by curator of 
prints and drawings Wendy Wick Reaves. The three-hour 
broadcast also included a live interview with museum shop 
manager Jackie Jackson on the shop's offerings. 



Office of Exhibits Central 



Mike Headley, Acting Director 

The Office of Exhibits Central (OEC) provides Smithsonian 
museums, galleries, and exhibitors with expertise in the 
creation of permanent, temporary, and traveling exhibitions, 
from concept to crating. Office of Exhibit Central services in- 
clude exhibition design and production, script development, 
consultation on design and production, writing, editing, 
graphic production, matting, and framing. Along with a wide 
range of exhibit fabrication services, OEC provides model 
making, gallery lighting, exhibit installation, and the han- 
dling, bracketing, and packing of artifacts. 

This year, OEC designed, edited, and produced five exhibi- 
tions for the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (SITES): "Try This On: A History of Clothing, 
Gender, and Power"; "Full Deck Art Quilts"; "Voyages and 
Visions: Nineteenth-Century European Images of the Middle 
East from the Victoria and Albert Museum"; "VanDerZee, 
Photographer"; and "An Ocean Apart: Contemporary 



75 



Viernamese Art from the United States and Vietnam." OEC 
also provided design and production consultation on four 
more SITES shows: "Earth 2U, Exploring Geography," "Ex- 
otic Illusions: Art, Romance, and the Marketplace," "Beyond 
Category: The Musical Genius of Duke Ellington" (small ex- 
hibit format), and "Wade in the Water: African American Sa- 
cred Song and Worship Traditions." OEC editors developed 
the text for the last three exhibits. 

OEC's Model Making Unit created an exact wooden replica 
of a 19th-century ship figurehead, hundreds of artificial fish, 
several mannequins, and three bronze creatures for "Ocean 
Planet," an exhibition developed by the National Museum of 
Natural History, the Environmental Awareness Program, and 
SITES. 

In preparation for the Smithsonian's 150th Celebration, 
OEC has contributed significantly to many of the anniversary 
events — and will continue to do so. OEC designed the ban- 
ners and signage on the Mall and for each museum. OEC 
designed, produced, and installed the plaque for the Unsung 
Heroes awards, and the exhibit cases for "Smithson's Gift," 
an exhibition dedicated to James Smithson's bequest to the 
Smithsonian. "Revealing Exhibitions: Photography at the 
Smithsonian," "From Smithson to Smithsonian: The Birth of 
an Institution," and many other exhibitions and events associ- 
ated with the 150th Celebration are still in the planning stages 
at OEC. 

OEC played a important role in many other exhibitions. 
For Horticulture Services Division, OPP, OEC provided de- 
sign, editing, fabrication, model making, lighting, installa- 
tion, and project coordination for the "Posy Holders" 
exhibition in the Arts and Industries Building. OEC pro- 
duced graphics for the 29th Annual Festival of American 
Folklife. For "Science and the Artist's Book," a collaborative 
project involving the Smithsonian Institution Libraries and 
the Washington Pro]ect for the Arts, OEC was responsible for 
design, editing, fabrication, model making, and installation. 
At the National Museum of Natural History, OEC provided 
model making for "Exploring Marine Ecosystems," while at 
the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, OEC supplied 
exhibition consultation for the "Coral Reef exhibition and 
illustration for "Where Land Meets the Sea." In addition, 
OEC collaborated with the Office of the Provost and the Na- 
tional Museum of African Art in the design, production, and 
installation of an exhibit at the Baltimore Washington Inter- 
national Airport. For the Office of Government Relations, 
OEC designed, fabricated, and installed two exhibit compo- 
nents, one for the Office of the Speaker in the U.S. Capitol 
and another for the Rayburn House Office Building. Further, 
OEC provided exhibition consultation and installation for 
"The Harriet and Harmon Kelley Collection of African Ameri- 
can Art" and the "Equal Rights and Justice" exhibitions for 
the Anacostia Museum at the Center for African American 
History and Culture. OEC also furnished project consultation 
and material management for the Ghana Project for the Inter- 
narional Center. 



In 1995 OEC Senior Designer Mary Bird won two Federal 
Design Achievement Awards for her design of "Spiders!" and 
"Produce for Victory: Posters on the American Home Front, 
1941— 1945." OEC also received honors from the Washington 
Building Congress for construction of a railway mail car at the 
National Postal Museum and a Smithsonian Exhibition 
Awards for Outstanding Team Effort on the Postal Museum's 
inaugural exhibits. 

There are many others projects that SI clients have taken 
advantage of OEC's prompt, professional, and cost-effective 
services. The Office of Exhibits Central is dedicated to the 
continued success of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service, SITES 



Anna R. Cohn, Director 

Since 1952, the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (SITES) has been committed to making Smithsonian 
exhibitions available to millions of people who cannot view 
them firsthand on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. 
Each year, audiences across North America experience the trea- 
sures and opportunities of the Smithsonian by visiting SITES 
exhibitions on view in local museums, libraries, science cen- 
ters, historical societies, zoos, aquariums, communiry centers, 
and schools. 

SITES' FY 1995 program mirrored the scope and vitality of 
the Smithsonian as never before. Traveling exhibitions featur- 
ing spiders, ocean conservation, Mexican landscape painting, 
jazz, and art quilts are but a small sampling of the diverse sub- 
jects through which SITES represents collections and research 
from the Institution's many museums and offices, and from 
many of the nation's finest cultural organizations. 

Over the past year, collaborations — with sister museums at 
the Smithsonian and other museums and cultural organiza- 
tions outside the Smithsonian, foreign countries, corporations, 
or at the grass-roots level — continue to drive the SITES pro- 
gram. Several new SITES exhibitions began traveling this year 
in small format, free-standing copiese: "Beyond Category: The 
Musical Genius of Duke Ellington," "Saynday was coming 
along. ..Silverhorn's Drawings of the Kiowa Trickster," "Before 
Freedom: African American Life in the Antebellum South," 
and "Produce for Victory: Posters on the American Home 
Front, 1941-1945." These exhibitions, designed specifically for 
smaller institutions and rural exhibitors, are especially import- 
ant additions to SITES' program and ensure more than ever 
that the wealth of the Smithsonian Institution will be experi- 
enced by audiences everywhere: from people in the nation's 
largest urban centers to those in the most remote rural areas. 

SITES' partnership with states humanities councils contin- 
ued to gain momentum in FY 1995. Ongoing collaborations 



76 



with the Federation of States Humanities Councils and a sec- 
ond NEH grant will result in another tour of the highly suc- 
cessful NMAH/SITES small format version of "Produce for 
Victory: Posters on the American Home Front, 1941-1945" to 
Arizona, California, Indiana and Nebraska. Designed specific- 
ally to reach rural areas, nine states are now part of this 
unique initiative which was begun in FY 1994. 

A National Portrait Gallery exhibition, "Lincoln and His 
Contemporaries: Photographs by Mathew Brady from the 
Meserve Collection" is also traveling to five communities in 
Utah as part of a block-booking arrangement reached with 
that state's Humanities Council. Rural exhibitors are comple- 
menting their displays with local objects and programming. 

The Smithsonian's major Quincentennial exhibition, "Seeds 
of Change," is also traveling in a small format version and 
opened in July in a brand-new specially designed facility at 
Central Florida Community College in Ocala, Fla. Staff at the 
college and SITES have been in discussion since January about 
an on-site facility that would be suitable for SITES exhibi- 
tions, and raised the necessary funds and built a new exhibi- 
tion space in less than one year. The college is now slated to 
host six SITES exhibitions over the next two years. 

In addition to ongoing partnerships that SITES has forged 
with private foundations such as the Lila Wallace-Reader's Di- 
gest Fund and corporations such as Time Warner, Inc., SITES 
is proud to announce a new partnership this year with Nissan 
Motor Corporation U.S.A., for the SITES/National Geo- 
graphic Society exhibition, "Earth 2U, Exploring Geography." 
At a special signing ceremony on October tenth hosted by Na- 
tional Geographic Society President Gilbert M. Grosvenor, 
Nissan's Vice President of Brand and Consumer Marketing 
Jerry Florence presented a check for $950,000 to Secretary 
Heyman to become the national corporate sponsor of the exhi- 
bition. Olympic gold medal speedskater Dan Jansen will 
serve as the national exhibition "Ambassador" of "Earth 2U, 
Exploring Geography," which will open in November 1995 in 
Washington, D.C. 

SITES has spent the past year gearing up for the opening of 
this ambitious exhibition, and since May has received an addi- 
tional $936,000 from Nissan for extensive national educa- 
tional programming and public relations efforts in 
conjunction with "Earth 2U, Exploring Geography." In July, a 
"Name the Mascot" contest commenced in the Smithsonian 
Castle for children ages 8— 12, the exhibition's primary audi- 
ence. The "Mascot" is a lively-looking cartoon bird who is de- 
picted throughout the exhibition. The grand-prize winner of 
the contest, who will be announced at the exhibition's press 
preview, will receive an all-expenses paid trip to the 1996 
Summer Olympic events in Atlanta. "Earth 2U, Exploring 
Geography" is geared toward children and their families and 
is expected to make a significant contribution to curbing geo- 
graphic illiteracy in the United States as it travels to 40 cities 
around the country in two versions. 

Several SITES exhibitions began national tours in FY 1995, 
reflecting the diversity of the SITES program. "Full Deck Art 



Quilts" opened at the Renwick Gallery in March. It is travel- 
ing to 11 additional locations, including regional art centers, 
university galleries and art museums in San Jose, Calif.; 
Tempe, Ariz.; Ocala, Fla.; Reno, Nev.; and Mobile, Ala. The 
small format version of the NMNH/SITES exhibition, "Sayn- 
day was coming along . . . Silverhorn's Drawings of the Kiowa 
Trickster," opened at the Kiowa Tribal Museum in Carnegie, 
Okla., in January. The national tour of "Spiders!," organized 
with the National Museum of Natural History and funded by 
Marvel Entertainment, began in March at the Ametican Mu- 
seum of Natural History in New In May, "VanDerZee, Pho- 
tographer (1886-1983)" — a National Portrait Gallery/SITES 
exhibition — began its national tour at the African American 
Museum of Fine Arts in San Diego, Calif. The opening of this 
exhibition garnered front-page news in the San Diego Union 
Tribune and significantly increased attendance at the museum. 
As a testament to how well-received this exhibition has been 
in San Diego, the museum is now preparing to accession an 
important, personal collection from a father and son who spon- 
sor an African American Studies program at a local university 
and who have lived in the area since the 1920s. 

In September, "An Ocean Apart: Contemporary Vietnam- 
ese Art from the United States and Vietnam" opened at the El- 
lipse Arts Center in Arlington, Va. All of these exhibition 
openings were accompanied events and public programs that 
attracted enthusiastic media and public responses. 

Special initatives and events in FY 1995 included the forg- 
ing of a new relationship between the Smithsonian and the 
Mexican Embassy during the fall showing of "Mexico: A 
Landscape Revisited." Secretary Heyman and Mexican Ambas- 
sador Jorge Montaho began a series of dialogues aimed at fu- 
ture cultural collaborations between Mexico and the 
Smithsonian. The exhibition is currently traveling to several 
cities around the country and will end its international tour 
next year in Monterrey, Mexico. 

In June, SITES donated the populat NMAH/SITES exhibi- 
tion, "Contrasts/Contrastes: Forty Years of Continuity and 
Change in Puerto Rico," a collection of photographs by WPA 
photographer Jack Delano that toured several years ago, to the 
Ponce Museum in Ponce, Puerto Rico. The event was cele- 
brated with public programs which featured a conference 
given by Delano and a concert string performance of one of 
Delano's original musical compositions. 

In September, SITES took the lead during National Arts 
and Humanities Month. A special mailing was orchestrated 
by SITES and the Office of the Secretary which alerted 
members of Congress to SITES' activities in their states and 
districts. 

SITES entered cyberspace in FY 1995. A listing of SITES ex- 
hibitions currently ttavehng around the country is now avail- 
able by accessing the Smithsonian's Home Page which was 
launched on May 8. 

SITES exhibitions are oftentimes accompanied by hand- 
some and informative publications. On the occasion of last 
year's opening of "Mexico: A Landscape Revisited," SITES 



" 



published a bi-lingual catalogue and a 1995 wall calendar with 
Universe Publishing Co. (a division of Rizzoli). The calendars 
were mailed as holiday gifts from Secretary Heyman ro mem- 
bers of the Smithsonian's Latino Task Force and the Congres- 
sional Hispanic Caucus. 

SITES is a high-visibility outreach arm of the Smithsonian. 
In FY 1995, 182 exhibitions traveled across the country. SITES 
hopes that its expanded visitor base in the coming year will 
enable more Americans than ever before to experience the rich 
variety of exhibition programs available from the Smithsonian. 



Educational and 
Cultural Ptograms 

Center for Folklife Programs & 
Cultural Studies 

Richard Kurin, Director 

The Center for Folklife Programs & Cultural Studies )oins 
high quality scholarship with strong community service and 
educational outreach to promote the understanding and conti- 
nuity of diverse contemporary grassroots cultures in the 
United States and throughout the world. A primary goal is to 
foster greater appreciation and participation of community 
culture in civil society. This became very apparent in the plan- 
ning and production of the annual Festival of American 
Folklife. 

The more than one million visitors to the 29th annual Festi- 
val of American Folklife, which took place June 23-July 4, 
were witness to the strength in community in the four pro- 
grams that were presented. "The Cape Verdean Connection" 
built upon and articulated the contemporary transnational 
chatacter of that culture. It not only occasioned a visit by the 
President of Cape Verde, Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro, but 
also prompted thousands of Cape Verdean Americans to orga- 
nize tours, reunions, and celebrations around the Festival. Co- 
sponsored by the government of Cape Verde, a host ot Cape 
Verdean-American community fundraising committees, the 
Gulbenkian Foundation of Portugal, the Smithsonian, and 
many other benefactors, the program featured performances 
and demonstrations of crafts, cooking, music, dance, and occu- 
pational traditions. Discussions included many topics in 
which participants reflected upon the culture and historical ex- 
perience of this transnational people. A significant part of the 
program was a large "Cachupa Connection" tent — named for 
the hominy stew that is the (trans)national dish of Cape Ver- 
deans everywhere. The tent contained information about a 
dozen Cape Verdean-American communities, presentations on 



seafarers and longshoremen, and a connection to the unofficial 
Cape Verdean home page on the Internet. From social com- 
mentary in ox-driving songs to conversations across the Inter- 
net, the program presented varieties of exchange that Cape 
Verdeans engage in to maintain their local and transnational 
communities. Chartered busloads of Cape Verdean Americans 
came from New England, where the Festival generated strong 
media coverage. Bana, the most popular male vocalist in the 
Islands for decades who lives and owns a nightclub in Lisbon, 
performed at the July 5 Independence Day celebration on the 
Mall as part of the program to mark the 20th anniversary of 
Cape Verde's independence from Portugal. Anna Maria Cab- 
ral, wife of the slain independence leader Amilcar Cabral, lec- 
tured on culture and national development at the 
International Center during the Festival. And a photography 
exhibit on Cape Verdean life by Ron Barboza was mounted in 
the International Center. 

"The Czech Republic: Tradition and Transformation" suc- 
cessfully reflected the range of music, crafts, and foodways 
that characterize grassroots, popular, and official genres today. 
The participants from the three major regions of the Czech Re- 
public — Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia — brought not only 
their cultural traditions but the fresh impacts of independence 
and changed borders on these traditions. Czech-American mu- 
sicians and cooks demonstrated survivals and transformations 
in foodways and soundscapes across the ocean. This extended 
community on the National Mall was broadened even more as 
Czech Americans drove the belfry — an example of a substitute 
church that serves small communities in mountainous 
Wallachia — to Texas after the Festival, where it is traveling 
among families of Wallachian descent. Czech officials also ob- 
served the Festival, and a Czech television documentary 
reached millions of viewers in that country. 

"Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations Women" was produced 
in collaboration with the Division of Cultural History at the 
National Museum of American History, as was a recently re- 
leased Smithsonian/Folkways recording of the same name. 
The program brought women from 20 different groups from 
the United States and Canada to the 1995 Festival, and visitors 
had the opportunity to see the important contributions that 
contemporary Native women axe making to the preservation 
and perpetuation of their culture, especially in the area of lan- 
guage. The sense of community among participants was rein- 
forced during spontaneous demonstrations of intertribal song 
sharing that culminated in a memotable finale on July 4, with 
all the singers uniting in song on the main stage. Sales of the 
recording and critical reviews were very strong. 

Identities and community were key issues in the program, 
"Russian Roots, American Branches: Music in Two Worlds." 
After several years of fieldwork, this program presented partic- 
ipants from four communities — Molokans and Old Believers, 
two religious minority communities both still active in Rus- 
sia and the United States — who joined together to discuss the 
changes that have affected their faith and, most importantly, 
to sing the choral music that provides the focus for their reli- 



78 



gious identity. The program provided great opportunities for 
exchanges, and it provided these communities with an oppor- 
tunity to meet and share stories after more than a century of 
separation. 

The sacred and social music, traditional poetry, dance, food, 
and crafts of Washington-area African-born immigrants were 
presented as part of the "African Immigrant Folklife Study 
Project." The Festival included two evening dance party/ 
concerts and a photo panel exhibition entitled, "New Ties: 
Portraits of African Immigrant Community Folklife," featur- 
ing photographs by Roland Freeman, photographic advisor to 
the project. These activities grew out of a year of fieldwork by 
community scholars participating in the project and 
illuminated the vibrant range of newly emerging African cul- 
tures in the Washington area. 

And on the evening of July 2nd, a special tribute concert in 
honor of former Festival director Ralph Rinzler was held at 
the Festival to commemorate the first anniversary of his pass- 
ing. Paying tribute to Ralph were Pete and Mike Seeger, Pied- 
mont blues musicians John Cephas and Phil Wiggins, and 
Black Appalachian singers Ed and Melissa Cabbell. The event 
was very well attended and performers and audience shared a 
deep appreciation for many of Ralph's accomplishments. For 
those wishing to support the Festival of American Folklife, a 
Friends of the Festival group was formed that is developing 
memberships and benefits; the organization is now approach- 
ing 600 members. 

Cultural education at the Center saw six groups of teachers 
using the Festival of American Folklife as a living laboratory 
for developing resources, education materials move into test- 
ing and design phases, and new projects emerge from ongoing 
programs. The teachers seminars included "Bringing Folklore 
into the Classroom: A Multicultural Learning Experience," di- 
rected by Center staff members with teachers from the Wash- 
ington, D.C., area; and "Teaching and Learning with 
Museums," directed by a member of the Smithsonian Office 
of Elementary and Secondary Education staff, with teachers 
and museum educators from ten cities in California. A semi- 
nar for music educators was sponsored by the University of 
Maryland; and another general seminar on folklore and folklife 
was sponsored by the Northern Virginia Campus of the Univer- 
sity of Virginia. In addition, two groups of teachers came from 
New England to attend the "Cape Verdean Connection" pro- 
gram — educators from Massachusetts and Connecticut will be de- 
veloping educational materials about Cape Verde and Cape 
Verdean Americans for their schools, and teachers from the Bos- 
ton area will be working on multicultural educational materials. 

The educational materials on "Land in Native American 
Cultures," "Borders and Identities," and "The Bahamas" will 
be available for the 1996 school year. The Bahamas kit will be 
distributed to all public schools in the Commonwealth and in- 
cludes an extensive student/teacher guide on both the elemen- 
tary and secondary levels, two videotapes, and two audiotapes. 
The kit was developed by Center staff in cooperation with a 
team of educators and advisors in The Bahamas. 



New projects include "Voices of Virginia," a teacher's guide 
and a recording that follows the fourth grade social studies 
curriculum and is being developed by teachers at Bailey's Ele- 
mentary School for the Arts and Sciences in Fairfax County; 
and the "Workers at the White House" materials which are 
being developed by a team of Washington, D.C., teachers in 
cooperation with Center staff and the Curator's office at the 
White House. The videotape, which is now available by itself, 
will be enhanced for classroom use by a teacher's guide, a 24- 
page educational booklet, and a full-color poster of a cross-sec- 
tion of the White House. These materials will be distributed 
free of charge to every public school in Washington, D.C., in 
the spring of 1996. 

The "Workers at the White House" exhibit continues to 
travel and was at the Carter Presidential Library in Atlanta, 
Georgia, and the Reagan Library in Simi Valley, California 
during the year. The exhibit was also mounted at Shaed Ele- 
mentary School in northeast Washington, D.C., where Hillary 
Clinton addressed students and teachers, and several of the 
workers were honored. 

Smithsonian/Folkways Recordings continues its work with 
collaborations with international scholarship, museum exhibi- 
tions, and artists' creativity. International collaborations in- 
cluded the first two of a projected six volumes of music from 
different "departments" of Peru produced at the Archivo de 
Musica Tradicional Andina in Lima, with the suppott of the 
Ford Foundation of Peru; the CD Musical Traditions of Portu- 
gal, which was partly supported by the City of Lisbon and was 
produced by the director of the only ethnomusicology pro- 
gram in Portugal; a recording of the Kayapo-Xikrin of Mato 
Gtosso, Btazil, annotated by two Brazilian anthropolgists; Sa- 
cred Rhythms of Cuban Santeri'a. produced by the Director of 
the Centro de Investigacion y Desarollo de la Musica Cubana 
in Havana; and three more volumes of the series, Music of Indo- 
nesia, produced with the Indonesian Society fot the Perform- 
ing Arts, with the support of the Ford Foundation, Indonesia. 

Smithsonian/Folkways also collaborates with museums to 
make sounds part of the museum experience. Two recordings 
are the products of such collaborations: Heartbeat: Voices of 
First Nations Women, produced with the Smithsonian's Na- 
tional Museum of American History; and Rhythms of Rapture: 
Sacred Musics of Haitian Vodou, which complements the exhibi- 
tion, "Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou" that opened at UCLA's 
Fowler Museum of Cultural History. 

Some new recordings develop out of ethnomusicological re- 
search. Those released this year include Dream Songs and Heal- 
ing Sounds m the Rainforests of Malaysia, and Old Believers: Songs 
of the Nekrasov Cossacks. Other recordings come directly from 
the vaults of the Folkways collection, and from Smithson- 
ian/Folkways artists themselves. Approximately 50,000 re- 
cordings were distnbuted through educational and archival 
fulfillment distributions. 

Smithsonian/Folkways also produces video projects. The 
JVC/Smithsonian Folkways Video Anthology of Music and Dance oj 
the Americas consists of six videotapes, featuring over 150 exam- 



79 



pies of music and dance from many traditions throughout the 
Americas. Each tape is accompanied by a 40-80-page booklet 
that includes general articles on style as well as descriptions of 
each track, most of which have recommendations for further 
viewing, listening, and reading. 

Another Smithsonian/Folkways video project was initiated 
three years ago and documents music of the Great Lakes Indi- 
ans. It consists of two videotapes dealing with Ojibwe pow- 
wows in Wisconsin which will be targeted to the Wisconsin 
public school system. The first of the two videos, 
"Naamikaaget: Dancer for the People," has been completed 
and shows a young dancer dressing for two powwows in suc- 
ceeding years. The second video will be a more generic treat- 
ment of powwows, including everything from singing and 
dancing to the preparation of fry bread. 

Approximately 35 interns who came from colleges and uni- 
versities from around the country, and several fellows from the 
United States, South America, and Africa, assisted with the re- 
search for and production of the many programs rhat were car- 
ried out by the Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural 
Studies. 



National Science Resources Center 



gram, modeled after the NSRCs national institutes, brought 
together more than 70 represenratives from New York City 
schools. 

Seventeen of 24STC hands-on science units for the elemen- 
tary and early middle school grades are now available in com- 
mercial or field-test editions. This year, Balancing and 
Weighing, Weather, and Floating and Sinking were published. 
Animal Studies. Solids and Liquids. Comparing and Measuring. 
and Land and Water reached the field-test stage, and the devel- 
opment of the final three units in the STC program began. As 
part of the STC program, the NSRC also began work on sets 
of science activity cards for grades four to six. Each set will 
complement an STC unit. 

The NSRC completed work on Resources for Teaching Elemen- 
tary School Science., a completely revised and updated edition of 
its best-selling annotated guide to exemplary hands-on sci- 
ence curriculum materials. The NSRC also began reviewing 
exemplary curriculum materials for a resource guide for mid- 
dle school science teachers. 

The NSRC hosted Corporate Americas Impact on Elemen- 
tary Science Education, a one-day working conference held at 
the headquarters of Merck & Co., Inc., in Whitehouse Station, 
New Jersey. Sixty corporate executives and managers met to 
discuss how business and industry can work effectively with 
school district leaders to bring about and sustain science edu- 
cation reform. 



Douglas Lapp, Executive Director 

The National Science Resources Center (NSRC), a program of 
the Smithsonian Institution and the National Academy of Sci- 
ences, helps the nations schools improve rhe teaching of sci- 
ence. The NSRC collects and publishes information about 
current science teaching resources, develops innovative curric- 
ulum materials, and sponsors activities to help teachers and 
administrators develop and sustain exemplary hands-on sci- 
ence programs. 

In the past year, the NSRC continued to involve teachers 
and school system officials, scientists and engineers, commu- 
nity organizations, and corporations in science education re- 
form through the National Science Education Leadership 
initiative (NSEL) and the Science and Technology for Chil- 
dren (STC) curriculum development project. The NSRC also 
expanded its international role in science education reform 
through ongoing contacts with education leaders in Mexico 
and South Africa. 

This years Elementary Science Leadership Institutes, a part 
of NSEL, brought together 38 teams of lead teachers, top ad- 
ministrators, and scientists, including teams from Mexico and 
South Africa, for training in the planning and implementa- 
tion of science education programs. To date, 178 teams from 
43 srates, two Canadian provinces, Mexico, and South Africa 
have participated in the institutes. The NSRC also co-hosted 
a regional Science Education Leadership Institute with the 
New York City Urban Systemic Initiative. The weeklong pro- 



Office of Elementary and 
Secondary Education 

Ann Bay, Director 

The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE), 
the Smithsonian's central office for precollege education, has a 
threefold mission. First, it makes Smithsonian resources avail- 
able to teachers and students in the Washington, D.C., area 
and nationwide. Second, it provides materials and training 
that enable teachers and students to use museums and the pri- 
mary sources they contain for experiential learning in class- 
room and museum settings. Third, it fosters communication 
and collaboration among Smithsonian education units and be- 
tween the Smithsonian and education organizations. 

The office and Smithsonian magazine established an 
educator's membership in the Smithsonian. Member educa- 
tors receive a year's subscription to the magazine, as well as 
subscriptions to OESE publications. 

The District of Columbia Public Schools established two 
museum magnet schools and named the office as coordinator 
of the Smithsonian's involvement. OESE developed the con- 
cept and worked wirh the school system to craft the proposal 
to the U.S. Office of Education. The museum magnet schools 
will show how the vast material and human treasures of the 



80 



Smithsonian can be used to the best advantage in a public ed- 
ucation setting. 

Publications available in print and electronic versions in- 
formed teachers about museum-based learning. Beyond the 
Frame: Using Art as a Basis for Interdisciplinary Learning 
showed how to use works from five Smithsonian art museums 
in the classroom. Art to Zoo, the office's quarterly teaching 
guide for elementary and middle schools, adopted a new de- 
sign, editorial, and distribution strategy. The Smithsonian 
Resource Guide for Teachers listed more than 500 publications 
available from the Smithsonian and its affiliates. 

A program with the National Faculty tor the Humanities, 
Arts, and Sciences has extended the office's work in develop- 
ing models for museum-school collaboration. Working with 
schools and museums in Atlanta, St. Paul, Seattle, and Wash- 
ington, D.C., the program helps teachers explore ways to use 
material culture across the curriculum and from a multicultu- 
ral perspective. 



The Under Secretary 

Office of the Under Secretary 

Constance Berry Newman, Under Secretary 



nancial, human, and physical resources. Funding for financial 
and administrative services in 1995 amounted to nearly S22 
million, or approximately 6.3 percent of the Institution's total 
operating expenses. Central services for physical plant, secu- 
nry, and environmental safety account for an additional $58 
million on behalf of the entire Institution. 



Office of Architectural History and 
Historic Preservation 



Cynthia Field. Director 

Research conducted this year reflects the breadth of the 
Smithsonian's architectural history. The office's study of the 
development of the National Air and Space Museum brought 
into focus the complex early history of the project from 1959 
to 1972. A study of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculprure Gar- 
den revealed the impassioned interpretations of the nature of 
the National Mall that were aired when this proiecr was 
planned. Two important chapters in the history of the first Na- 
tional Museum (now the Arts and Industries Building) were writ- 
ten as the result of research on the changing interior exhibition 
spaces and the meaning of the original building design. 



As the chief operating officer of the Smithsonian, the under 
secretary is responsible for the day-to-day administration of 
the Institution. Under Secretary Constance Berry Newman 
also works with Secretary I. Michael Heyman, the provost, 
and the Board of Regents to set long-range priorities and de- 
velop mechanisms for carrying them out. 

The Smithsonian continued the process of downsizing and 
restructuring to meet stringenr budget requirements and pre- 
pare for the challenges of the next decade. Future growth and 
strength will require wise choices through a careful assess- 
ment of priorities. Central to this year's effort was the estab- 
lishment of a strategic planning committee to examine 
potential restructuring of the Institution. 



Office of the Comptroller 



M. Leslie Casson, Comptroller 

The office continued design of a new general ledger for the In- 
stitution, which will provide significantly improved financial 
information. The office also streamlined the transmittal of 
vendor payment data to the Department of the Treasury and 
participated in the planning, development, and implementa- 
tion of new institutional policies and procedures to comply 
with new financial accounting standards promulgated by the 
Financial Accounting Standards Board. 



Finance and Administration 



Finance and Administration 



Office of Contracting and 
Property Management 



Nancy Suttenfield, Assistant Secretary 



John W. Cobert, Director 



Operating behind the scenes at the Smithsonian, a network of 
administrative offices serves the diverse programmatic needs 
of the Institution and facilitates the management and use of fi- 



This office provides central contracting and procurement ser- 
vices for Smithsonian museums, research institutes, and of- 
fices. During fiscal year 1995, the office supported planning 



Si 



efforts for the Smithsonian's 150th anniversary celebration. On- 
going work included contracting in the areas of design and 
renovation, Smithsonian business activities, acquisition of mu- 
seum collections, concession services, and office supplies and 
services. 



Office of Design and Construction 



William Thomas, Acting Director 

Construction began on the $20 million renovation, restora- 
tion, and accessibility project at Cooper-Hewitt, National De- 
sign Museum. Other current pro]ects include the East Court 
expansion at the National Museum of Natural History; design 
and procurement for construction of the National Museum of 
the American Indian's Cultural Resources Center and design 
of the museum's building on the National Mall; and construc- 
tion of two buildings at the Smithsonian Environmental Re- 
search Center. 



Office of Equal Employment and 
Minority Affairs 

Era L. Marshall, Director 

This office monitors the effectiveness of the Smithsonian's 
recruitment efforts for minorities, women, and people with 
disabilities. As part of the Institution's commitment to in- 
crease procurement opportunities for small, minority, and 
women-owned businesses, the office developed policies and 
procedures for implementing the Small Disadvantaged 
Business Utilization Program. For employees, the office 
made changes in the formal complaints program with a 
view toward resolving complaints before they are formally- 
made. 



Office of Facilities Services 



Richard H. Rice Jr. , Acting Director 

This office, along with other organizations in the Facilities 
Services Group, focused on collaborative efforts to 
improve service to the Institution. Among these activities 
were long-range strategic facilities planning and expansion 
of an organizational development project on the treatment 
of people, with an emphasis on empowerment and 
leadership. 



Office of Human Resources 



Susan Roehmer, Director 

In an ongoing effort to improve human resources programs 
and functions, the office identified ways to expedite the hiring 
process and give management greater personnel authority and 
flexibility. The office also continued to streamline the person- 
nel function through state-of-the-art technology. 



Office of Plant Services 



Patrick Miller. Director 

This office oversees the maintenance and operation of 
Smithsonian buildings and grounds and provides transporta- 
tion, mail, audiovisual, and related services. This year, the of- 
fice concentrated on improving customer service. A new 
customer service branch provides a central source for obtain- 
ing information and services. 



Office of Environmental Management 
and Safety 

William Billingsley. Director 

The office continued its responsibility for ensuring that safety, 
fire protection and prevention, industrial hygiene, and envi- 
ronmental principles are integrated into all aspects of the 
Smithsonian. 



Office of Printing and 
Photographic Services 

James Wallace, Director 

The office continued its transition into increased digital 
delivery of photographic images. Each month, an average 
of 45,000 image files were delivered worldwide on the 
Internet (http://photol.si.edu). Coinciding with the launch 
of the Smithsonian's World Wide Web site, the office 
brought its own Web server online (http://photo2.s1.edu). 



82 



By year's end, this server was delivering thousands of 
files daily from the office's collections. The office continued 
to provide digital image files to the consumer public through 
America Online, CompuServe, GEnie, and other online 
services. 



Office of Protection Services 



Michael J. Sofield, Acting Director 

The office continued to emphasize training for security 
officers as it seeks to protect Smithsonian facilities and col- 
lections. Nearly all officers have completed the first round 
of basic training, which has been reinforced with refresher 
and leadership courses. The office designed a program to 
respond to the increasing threat of violence in the work- 
place; provided a state-of-the-art security system for the 
George Gustav Heye Center of the National Museum of 
the American Indian; and designed a security system for 
the Hope Diamond display, for the new Hall of Geology, 
Gems and Minerals at the National Museum of Natural 
History, and for the National Museum of the American 
Indian's Cultural Resources Center. 



Office of Risk and Asset Management 



Sudeep Anand, Treasurer 

This office manages the Smithsonian endowment and 
working capital funds and provides risk and insurance 
management services to protect the Institution's assets 
against risk or loss. It also evaluates and develops financing 
for large new trust projects and implements real estate 
transactions. 



Office of Sponsored Projects 



Ardelle Foss, Director 

This office served Smithsonian researchers and scholars by 
supporting their efforts in submitting 161 proposals valued 
at $24 million and by negotiating and accepting for the In- 
stitution 120 grant and contract awards having a value of 
$14.2 million. The staff also supported researchers and 
scholars throughout the lifetime of 600 ongoing awards 
valued at $50 million. 



Ombudsman 



Chandra Heilman, Ombudsman 

This year, the Smithsonian Ombudsman worked with man- 
agers and approximately 250 employees as a neutral party to 
resolve work-related concerns. The Smithsonian Employee 
Emergency Assistance Fund, coordinated by the Ombuds- 
man; the Employee Assistance Program; and the Agriculture 
Federal Credit Union made more than 75 loans to help 
employees through personal financial difficulties. 



Institutional Advancement 



Institutional Advancement 



Alice Green Burnette, Assistant Secretary 

The wide-ranging development activities of the Smithsonian 
are the responsibility of the Office of the Assistant Secretary 
for Institutional Advancement. The office coordinates the 
Institution's broad efforts with those of the museums and re- 
search institutes to ensure that the Smithsonian receives the 
fullest possible private support for its research, exhibitions, 
and educational and public service activities. The office also 
conducts special studies and demonstration proiects on behalf 
of the Institution. 

During 1995, the assistant secretary continued to oversee 
marketing efforts for the Institution's 150th anniversary cele- 
bration in 1996. The marketing plan includes activities in 
public relations, advertising, communications, fund raising, 
visitor services, membership, telecommunications, and busi- 
ness operations. 

The office continued to coordinate the National Campaign 
for the National Museum of the American Indian. During the 
opening celebration for the museum's George Gustav Heye 
Center in New York City in October 1994, the campaign 
raised $1.3 million. 

In June 1995, the office coordinated a traditional blessing 
ceremony and other events in connection with groundbreak- 
ing for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's submilli- 
meter telescope array atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Associated 
events were supported by contributions from Aloha Airlines, 
Bank of Hawaii, and GTE Hawaiian Tel. 

The assistant secretary held a seminar for the Institution's 
marketing and development staff during which participants 
heard presentations on the Smithsonian's economic impact on 
the area's economy, the results of the Smithsonian Institution 
Marketing Study, and the recruitment ot Corporate Partners 
for the 150th anniversary. 



83 



In 1995, the secretary joined the Greater Washington Board of 
Trade. This membership led to collaboration between the 
Smithsonian and the board's Greater Washington Initiative, 
which seeks co attract businesses to the metropolitan area. The as- 
sistant secretary has provided leadership in this collaboration, 
which will further enhance the 150th anniversary celebration. 



National Museum of the American 
Indian National Campaign 

John L. Colonghi, National Campaign Director 

The National Campaign for the National Museum of the 
American Indian is responsible for carrying out the fund-rais- 
ing plan that the Smithsonian Board of Regents adopted for 
the Museum. By legislative mandate, the Institution must 
provide one-third of the construction cost of the museum on 
the National Mall. The Campaign has established a goal of 
$60 million to fund construction, as well an endowment for 
ongoing educational and outreach programs. 

In October, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal National made a 
contribution of Sio million — the largest cash gift made to date 
to the Campaign and among the largest ever to the Institution. 
News of the contribution made headlines nationally, providing 
valuable visibility for the Campaign's fund-raising efforts. 

The Campaign utilized the opening of the National Museum 
of the American Indian George Gustav Heye Center in New 
York City as a vehicle for raising funds and visibility. An opening 
gala for 1,000 guests generated net revenue of nearly $1.3 mil- 
lion — the most successful such event for the Smithsonian. The 
Campaign also initiated special advertising, direct-mail, and pub- 
lic relations activities focused on the New York opening. 

Program support for the Heye Center was provided by the 
AT&T Foundation, the Booth Ferris Foundation, the Educational 
Foundation of America, Toyota, The Hearst Foundation, Inc., 
The New York Times Company Foundation, and Con Edison. 

A national membership program continued to generate 
funds, as well as to establish a nationwide base of supporters 
for the National Museum of the American Indian. To date, 
the membership program has generated gross revenue of al- 
most $9 million. Membership outreach continued to be exten- 
sive. Special member activities were held in New York, Los 
Angeles, and San Francisco. 



Office of Membership and Development 

Marie A. Mattson, Director 

The Office of Membership and Development (OMD) was cre- 
ated during fiscal year 1995 when the Contributing Member- 



ship Program merged with the Office of Development. OMD 
generates restricted and unrestricted private financial support for 
the Smithsonian from individual donors and Contributing Mem- 
bers and corporations and foundations, to fund Institutional prior- 
ities and museum and office-based projects and programs. The 
office maintains central research and record-keeping functions, 
manages volunteer organizations, oversees the stewardship of 
grants, and directs the Contributing Membership Program. 

The Office of Membership and Development is responsible 
for che coordination of the Institution's 150th Anniversary Cor- 
porate Partner Program. This program is an innovative mar- 
keting and outreach vehicle designed to promote greater 
public awareness for the incomparable scientific, historic, and 
cultural resources of the Smithsonian. 

Major gifts and pledges to the Smithsonian during the past 
fiscal year (October 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995) in- 
cluded: $10,400,000 commitment from the Jerome H. and 
Dorothy Lemelson Foundation for The Jerome and Dorothy 
Lemelson Center for the study of Invention and Innovation 
and a supporting endowment at the National Museum of 
American History; a $1,100,000 grant from the Corporation 
for Public Broadcasting for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory; and $2,000,000 from Agnes Cowles Bourne for the 
Storage and Study Center at the Cooper-Hewitt, National De- 
sign Museum in New York, NY. 

In keeping with its efforts to increase private support for the 
Institution and reach out to potential Smithsonian constituen- 
cies, the office has integrated the Contributing Membership Pro- 
gram into the office's overall strategic plan for donor 
involvement, communication, and recognition. In preparation for 
fiscal year 1996 and the Smithsonian's 150th Anniversary celebra- 
tion, the office has launched a variety of creative initiatives de- 
signed to streamline the program and expand the membership. 

The Smithsonian Corporate Membership Program continues 
to expand in membership with corporations representing various 
industries and geographic locations. The Corporate Program 
grew from 37 members in 1994 to 47 members in 1995. In the 
Spring, executives of national and international corporations, 
members of Congress, and Smithsonian leaders met at the annual 
Corporate Membership Luncheon to discuss "The Power of Learn- 
ing in an Enlightened Information Age," which featured the 
Smithsonian online capabilities and other educational initiatives 
which impact technology, science, and the humanities. 



Office of Special Events and 
Conference Services 



Nicole L. Krakora, Director 

The Office of Special Events and Conference Services (OSECS) 
organizes special events and conferences throughout the Insti- 
tution that contribute to developing and maintaining import- 



84 



ant current and potential constituencies. In 1995, the office 
coordinated activities with Smithsonian museums and 
research centers, corporations, and organizations whose 
missions coincide with those of the Institution. Each year, 
the office coordinates special events for the Board of Re- 
gents, the Secretary, Under secretary, and Provost, and for 
the Smithsonian Institution Council. The office also helps 
Smithsonian scholars and managers plan and coordinate 
conferences, international symposiums, and collaborative 
programs. 

OSECS coordinated the annual black-tie dinner honoring 
members of the James Smithson Society, held on October 14 
at the National Zoo's Amazonia exhibition. 

The exhibition opening reception for "Voyages and 
Visions: Nineteenth-Century European Images of the Mid- 
dle East from the Victoria and Albert Museum," a major 
International Gallery exhibition, was planned and executed 
by OSECS. 

In May 1995, the queen of Thailand visited the National 
Museum of Natural History to commemorate the 50th 
anniversary of the king's accession to the throne and to 
review the museum's Thai collections. OSECS coordinated 
the program in Baird Auditorium and the reception in the 
Rotunda. 

OSECS assisted staff and coordinated several major con- 
ferences throughour 1995, including "What's American about 
American Quilts?" The Fourth International Conference on 
Tethers in Space," and the 58th Annual Meteontical Society 
Meeting. 



Smithsonian Women's Committee 



Gloria Shaw Hamilton, Chair 

The Smithsonian Women's Committee serves as an ongoing 
source of support for a variety of Institutional programs 
through volunteer fund-raising and public relations services. 

In 1995, the Committee voted to fund 23 projects in the 
amount of $240,936.16 at 13 Smithsonian museums and of- 
fices. The Discovery Theater received a grant for $7,400 
funded by the Hildegard van Roijen Memorial Fund. 

This year, the Smithsonian Craft Show was relocated to the 
National Building Museum, which allowed the Committee to 
increase the number of exhibitor booths to 120. The Commit- 
tee teceived 1270 applications for the Show, which promotes 
an awareness of crafts in the Washington metropolitan area 
and serves as a fund-raising event for the Smithsonian. The 
Show features one-of-a-kind and limited-edition pieces and 
has generated over $1.2 million to benefit research and educa- 
tional projects at the Smithsonian during its 13 years of opera- 
tion. The 1995 Show, held in April, raised over $250,000. 



Other Functions 

Business Management Office 



Smithsonian National Board 



Wilbur L. Ross, Chair 
Jean B. Kit borne. Vice Chair 

Smithsonian National Board members work for the ad- 
vancement of the Institution as advocates and as private 
sector advisers to the Secretary and Under Secretary, as well 
as through personal financial support and fund-raising 
activities. 

Wilbur L. Ross and Jean B. Kilborne served as Chair and 
Vice Chair during 1995. 

With the leadership of the Smithsonian National Board, 
the Smithsonian Fund for the Future endowment initiative is 
helping to increase private contributions and provide a long- 
term base of private support. 

Board members contributed nearly $625,000 in annual 
support to the Institution. These funds were earmarked for 
the Board Annual Giving Fund to underwrite expansion of 
the Smithsonian's constituencies. The contributions also 
supported special projects throughout the Institution. 



Nancy E. Johnson, Senior Business Officer 

The Business Management Office consists of thtee revenue- 
generating business activities: Retail Operations (comprising 
Museum Shops and the Mail Order divisions), Concessions, 
and Product Development and Licensing. It also oversees 
Business Development, which identifies additional revenue 
opportunities for the Institution. In midyear, oversight of the 
Marketing Database was transferred to the Office of Member- 
ship and Development. 

In June, Retail Operations opened its first permanent retail 
location outside of a Smithsonian museum in the new Obser- 
vation Gallery at Baltimore-Washington International Air- 
port. The shop features Smithsonian items and items telated 
to flight. To suppott the shop, general information about the 
Smithsonian is displayed in the airport terminal. 

A new outdoor restaurant opened in July on the plaza of 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculptute Garden. The Full Cir- 
cle, which takes its name from the museum's architecture, is 
open from April through September. 

Last year's merger of the Museum Shops and Mail Order di- 
visions has resulted in almost $1 million in savings in opera- 
tional costs with minimal reduction in staff. Sales for both 
operations have remained steady. 



85 



Product Developmenr and Licensing signed several import- 
ant new licensing agreements in 1995, including an agreement 
with Avon Products, Inc., for jewelry based on Smithsonian 
collections. This division also spent significant time in prepar- 
ing for the licensed merchandising opportunities that will re- 
sult from the Institution's 150th Anniversary- celebration in 
1996. 



Office of Communications 



David J. Umansky, Director 

The Office of Communications is responsible for the public 
face of the Institution. Its Office of Public Affairs is dedicated 
to media relations, publications, and public relations. The Vis- 
itor Information and Associates' Reception Area serves the 28 
million people who visit the Smithsonian each year. Both 
groups began intensive preparations for the observance of the 
Institution's 150th anniversary in 1996. 



Office of Public Affairs 



Through media relations and publications, the Office of Pub- 
lic Affairs (OPA) informs the American public, people around 
the world, and Smithsonian employees about the exhibitions, 
programs, and research activities of the Smithsonian. The of- 
fice provides the news media with press releases (more than 
600 this year), photographs, written material, videotapes, and 
public service announcements. Its publications include Re- 
search Reports (a quarterly bulletin), Smithsonian Runner (a bi- 
monthly newsletter about Native American activities at the 
Smithsonian), and the Torch (a monthly employee newspaper), 
as well as brochures for the public. 

When it was launched on May 8, the Smithsonian's Home 
Page (http://www.si.edu) instantly became one of the most 
popular sites on the World Wide Web. The Home Page fea- 
tures a rich variety of online exhibitions, services, informa- 
tion, images, and sound recordings. 

The opening of the "Enola Gay" exhibition at the National 
Air and Space Museum was covered intensely by U.S. and for- 
eign news media. More than 200 journalists, including 85 tele- 
vision crews, attended the media preview on June 27. 

Earlier in the fiscal year, OPA organized the publicity cam- 
paign for the opening of the New York facility of the Na- 
tional Museum of the American Indian on October 30. A 
week of special previews for the media, donors, members, and 
other guests culminated in a Native American blessing on the 
steps of the building. Extensive media coverage reached mil- 
lions of Americans. 



This year, the office issued a number of updated publica- 
tions, including the Smithsonian's general information bro- 
chure, "Latino Resources at the Smithsonian," and "Native 
American Resources at the Smithsonian." Information from 
these and other OPA publications is available on the 
Smithsonian's Home Page on the World Wide Web. 

OPA continued its program designed to reach new audi- 
ences with a radio advertising campaign geared to local 
African American listeners and a print advertising campaign 
targeting Latino readers. 

Activities for the commemoration of the Smithsonian's 
150th anniversary in 1996 began with a news conference on 
March 27. Secretary Heyman described plans for the celebra- 
tion, from a major event on the National Mall to a traveling 
exhibition of treasures from the collections. 



Visitor Information and 
Associates' Reception 

Mary Grace Potter, Director 

Celebrating its 25th anniversary, the Visitor Information and 
Associates' Reception Center (VIARC) continues to operate as 
a multi-program information and support organization respon- 
sible for Institution-wide information and assistance services 
for the public, Associate members, Smithsonian staff, and vol- 
unteers. Several VIARC programs operate seven days a week 
and involve the coordination and direction of two large corps 
of volunteers who constitute a primary source of support for 
the Institution's public information activities and for project 
assistance behind the scenes. 

Responsibilities of the Visitor Information and Associates' 
Reception Center include: the Smithsonian Information Cen- 
ter, the Institution's primary orientation and information facil- 
ity for visitors; Public Inquiry Mail and Telephone 
Information Services, the Smithsonian's central information 
and referral point for public correspondence and phone inquir- 
ies; the Volunteer Information Specialist Program through 
which volunteers are recruited and trained to staff telephone 
information stations and information desks in most of the 
Institution's 14 Washington, DC museums; the Castle Docent 
Program through which tours of the Smithsonian Institution 
Building are conducted; the Behind-the-Scenes Volunteer Pro- 
gram, a registration and placement activity for volunteers 
working in independent projects pan-Institution; a Pre-Visit 
Education Program which provides the principal Smithsonian 
contact with the local, national and international tour and 
travel industry; and an Exterior Graphic Information System 
through which out-of-doors wayfinding assistance is provided 
to visitors. VIARC s Information Resource Division main- 
tains multiple computer-based information systems and pro- 
duces the variety of printed reference materials, information 



86 



aids and publications chat support all VIARC public informa- 
tion activities and service programs. Additionally this Divi- 
sion is responsible for the pre-publication review of all 
Smithsonian visitor information materials. 

Operating from 9 a.m. -5:30 p.m. daily, the Smithsonian 
Information Center attracted well over 1.7 million visitors 
in FY 95 an increase of 7.9% over FY 94. New seating was 
purchased for the Center in keeping with ADA guidelines 
and the number of sofas was increased to better accommo- 
date the visiting public. The Center's capacity to promote 
Institutional programs and initiatives was expanded with 
the installation of graphic message capability in both 
orientation theaters. Reception services were provided to 
35,309 Associates and their families. 2,863 member- 
ships were sold and 260 Castle tours engaged 2,912 
participants. 

Museum information desk services continued daily at 16 lo- 
cations in 13 museums. Automated information retrieval was 
operational at II desk sites and all phone information stations. 
Multiple training classes on how to use VIARC's Info Tools 
computer program equipped volunteers with the skills 
needed co fully utilize the system. 67 new Information 
Specialists were added to the corps. 

Incoming public mail inquiries numbered 44,617 ( + 4%). 
Outgoing mail numbered 79,823 pieces. Inquiries resulting 
from VIARC's participation on America OnLine escalated to 
7,123 ( + 160%). Public telephone inquiries totaled 303,627 up 
2% from '94. 

224 new volunteers were recruited and placed in projects 
behind the scenes. 398 were registered for other staff. Total 
volunteers participating in behind the scenes projects during 
the year numbered 1,103. I 3° documents representing 10 
different languages were translated for SI staff. Evaluations 
from volunteers completing projects were positive with few 
exceptions. 

The Institution-wide volunteer survey conducted annually 
by VIARC counted a total of 5,412 volunteers who contrib- 
uted some 

472,766 hours of service to the Institution during FY 95. 
The January supplement o(The Torch recognized the contribu- 
tions of volunteers Institution-wide and focused upon new 
areas in which volunteers were participating. 

Information Specialists took advantage of some 29 in- 
service training opportunities designed to increase their 
knowledge and understanding of the work and collections of 
the Institution. 

Appreciation events were held for both VIARC's behind- 
the-scenes and information volunteers. Secretary Heyman ad- 
dressed the Information Specialists at their event in 
December. The InfoSpeaal newsletter, produced quarterly, 
highlighted a cross section of Institution exhibitions and pro- 
grams while also reporting on volunteer activities. 

Efforts continued in FY 95 to extend use of VIARC's infor- 
mation database which became a primary resource for the 
Institution's World Wide Web Home Page project. External 



on-line communications expanded to include the Washington 
Post's Digital Ink. 

Work with the tourism industry continued through partici- 
pation in major marketplace activities, liaison with local hos- 
picality, convention, and visitors associations and on-line 
through TravelFile. To promote the Smithsonian as a major 
destination for international travelers VIARC co-hosted two 
Smithsonian receptions, one for principal international tour 
operators and another for premier Concierges. Ads were de- 
signed and placed in key industry publications to promote 
travel to the Smithsonian during our Sesquicentennial year. 
Efforts with the American Bus Association resulted in the 
Smithsonian being selected as one of the top 100 destinations 
for visitors in 1996. 

Efforts to address the Institution's accessibility and cultural 
diversity goals were on-going. 36% of new Volunteer Informa- 
tion Specialists represented minority constituencies. 18% of 
new volunteers placed in projects behind the scenes were 
known to be minorities. Printed information in the form of 
"Samplers" was produced for all Heritage Celebrations and 24 
hour recorded information tapes were also provided. Publica- 
tions were revised to reflect adherence to accessibility guide- 
lines as new updates were required. 

New public information initiatives included participation 
on Bell Atlantic's InfoTravel system installed in area hotels 
and Guest Info, an independent voice mail information sys- 
tem made available to hotel guests. An outreach project of the 
Provost provided another opportunity to promote the Institu- 
tion as an important visitor destination. VIARC played a 
major role in shaping the new display at the Baltimore Wash- 
ington International Airport and the message. Photo images 
and text from the Information Center's backlit panels and our 
Castle model form the primary features. 



Office of Government Relations 



M. John Berry, Director 

As the ptimary liaison with the Congress, the President, and 
other federal, state, and local entities, the Office of Govern- 
ment Relations represents the Institution on matters of policy, 
operations, and governance. It is the coordinator and advocate 
of the Smithsonian's overall interests and positions in the leg- 
islative process as well as the central provider of congressional 
constituent services and outreach activities. 

During 1995, the office oversaw the enactment of legisla- 
tion appointing two citizen members to the Smithsonian 
Board of Regents. 

Government Relations staff sought enactment of legisla- 
tion authorizing the minting of commemorative coins in ob- 
servance of the Institution's 150th anniversary. Staff members 
also continued legislative negotiations to establish the Na- 



87 



tional African American Museum in the Arcs and Industries 
Building. 



Office of Planning, Management, 
and Budget 

L. Carole Wharton, Director 

The Office of Planning, Management, and Budget provides 
analytical and budgetary information to aid the secretary and 
other senior staff in decision making. Working with 
Smithsonian management, the office presents the Institution's 
budget request to the Congress, executes and monitors cur- 
rent-year funding, develops the Smithsonian's response to the 
second phase of the National Performance Review, and initi- 
ates studies to support the secretary's strategic planning pro- 
cess. The office is developing a network to allow the rapid 
exchange of information with all Smithsonian units and the re- 
trieval of documenrs central to the Institution's operations. 



Office of Telecommunications 

Paul B. Johnson, Director, Office of Telecommunications 

The Office of Telecommunications, the Smithsonian's elec- 
tronic media production center, accomplished several of its 
major goals by developing a wide range of programming in 
television, radio, and multimedia for new audiences. These 
Smithsonian-based programs involve the latest technologies, 
pan-institutional working relationships, and solid marketing 
plans to assure their success in broadening the Institution's 
reach. 

The Office, with the Smithsonian Institution Press, began 
developing a major children's television series for 8- to 12-year- 
olds, in conjunction with Lancit Media Productions, Ltd. As 
the first children's series to spotlight the Smithsonian, it aims 
to use the museums and collections as catalysts for exploration 
and adventure, and provide a new opportunity for the Institu- 
tion to reach young audiences nationwide. Plans include si- 
multaneous development of multimedia programs, games, 
and books as well as ancillary educational materials. 

Looking toward the Smithsonian's 150th anniversary cele- 
bration, Radio Smithsonian was awarded funding from the 
Corporation for Public Broadcasting to create Black Radio: 
Telling It Like It Was. the first radio series to document the his- 
tory of Black radio in America. The 13-part series, hosted by- 
Lou Rawls, will air on public radio in January 1996 and again 
in September 1996. The project received additional funding 
from the James Smithson Society. 



Two other Radio Smithsonian series, the multiple award- 
winning Folk Masters and popular Jazz Smithsonian continued 
their successful runs on srations in the U.S. and overseas. 
After an innovative marketing campaign, Folk Masters dou- 
bled its radio station carriage. Jazz Smithsonian, hosted by 
Lena Home, was heard on 185 stations and became the most 
successful jazz series ever distributed by Public Radio Interna- 
tional. The Office created a jazz calendar, Radio Smithsonian 
Presents Jazz ippf-ippd in cooperation with National Museum 
of American History's Cultural History Division and the 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES), 
to promote the radio series and the many jazz activities of the 
Institution. 

The Office continued to play a leadership role in multime- 
dia by establishing new relationships with two publishers for 
the production of CD-ROM titles. Programs in production in- 
clude: Information Age. a look at the social impact of technol- 
ogy, to be distributed by Philips Media; Insect World, a view of 
arthropods in a variety of habitats, to be distributed by The 
Voyager Company; and 150 Years of America's Smithsonian: Dis- 
covering. Imagining. Remembering, to be distributed by Macmil- 
lan Digital. A direct mail campaign promoting existing 
Smithsonian/Philips CD-i titles drew an excellent response 
from individuals requesting additional information on 
Smithsonian electronic media. 

A new contract between the Smithsonian and Hot 
Shots/Cool Cuts, Inc. of New York will greatly enhance licens- 
ing of the Office of Telecommunications' extensive library of 
film and video footage. This arrangement makes Smithsonian 
footage available to television and film producers in a system- 
atic manner, and promises a new source of revenue for the 
Institution. 

The Office produced videos for museum exhibitions includ- 
ing First Ladies: Political Role and Public Image, a video for the 
new theater in NMAH's First Ladies exhibition; Think Tank, a 
multi-screen video for the National Zoological Park's exhibi- 
tion examining animal intelligence; and six videos tor the Ex- 
ploring Marine Ecosystems hall at NMNH. Meet the Ellington 
Orchestra, the interactive video produced by the Office for the 
SITES' exhibition Beyond Category: The Musical Genius of Duke 
Ellington won a Silver Medal at the New York International 
Multimedia Festival. 

To expand distribution into the home video market of 
the film In Open Air: A Portrait of American Impressionists. 
the Smithsonian Women's Committee funded the repackag- 
ing and marketing of In Open Air to target markets of art 
enthusiasts, particularly National Museum of American 
Art members and museum shops. The campaign was suc- 
cessfully completed, and the video is now on sale in over a 
dozen museum shops nationwide, including Smithsonian 
museum shops. 

A James Smithson Society grant was awarded to the Office 
to purchase hardware to allow creation of high-quality video, 
graphics, and audio materials for the Smithsonian Home Page 
on the World Wide Web. This equipment will also be used to 



enhance development of web sites operated by individual mu- 
seums and offices throughout the Institution. 

In collaboration with the Filmmakers Collaborative of Bos- 
ton and KajimaVision Productions of Toyko, the Office began 
developing a four-part television series exploring music along 
the Mississippi River. Called River of Song, this project will 
travel through the heartland of America focusing on the musi- 
cians, storytellers, and writers who share the unique culture of 
their communities along the Mississippi. Other components 
of the project include a radio series produced by Radio 
Smithsonian and a book/CD package to be developed with SI 
Press. 



Office of the Senior Information Officer 

Arthur Denny. Director 

The Office of the Senior Information Officer was established 
this year to develop Smithsonian information technology pol- 
icy and coordinate strategic management. It incorporates the 
Office of Information Technology (formerly the Office of In- 
formation Resource Management). In this year of restructur- 
ing, the office began evaluating functional and organizational 
models and established a strategic planning advisory group. 
The office was also at the forefront of the Smithsonian's elec- 
tronic transformation. 

In April, the office cohosted the "21st-century Classroom" 
demonstration project, which showcased an array of educa- 
tional technology for the kindergarten through izth-grade au- 
dience. 

In May, the office launched the Smithsonian's home page 
on the World Wide Web (http://www.si.edu). The home page 
supplements the office's other online initiatives with extensive 
general information, colorful exhibitions, and research mate- 
rial. It attracted favorable notice in the general and trade press 
and remains one of the most popular World Wide Web sites. 



The Smithsonian Associates 



Mara Mayor, Director 

During 1995, The Smithsonian Associates (TSA) reached out 
to Smithsonian members and to the general public with an en- 
ticing array of educational and cultural programs that were 
carefully designed to highlight and complement the work of 
the Institution. The Resident Associate and Young Benefac- 
tors programs offered a wide array of events for those in the 
greater Washington, D.C., area. Opportunities to experience 
the Smithsonian's riches away from the National Mall were 



available to those who participated in special regional pro- 
grams and in national and international study tours and 
seminars. 

TSA's offerings provide audiences in the greater Washing- 
ton area with a Campus on the Mall that truly is unlike any 
other campus in the world. Participants were enthralled with 
lectures across a wide spectrum of subjects. Some of the more 
notable speakers included Nobel Peace Prize recipient Arch- 
bishop Desmond Tutu, playwright Neil Simon, British mys- 
tery writer P. D.James, Pulitzer Prize recipients David 
McCullough and Carl Sagan, and former Secretary of Defense 
Robert McNamara. The public's fascination with food and its 
cultural meaning was affirmed by the 1,600 people who at- 
tended a Smithsonian Gala Celebration featuring Master 
Chefs Julia Child and Jacques Pepin, with food critic Phyllis 
Richman as moderator. Associates were also dazzled by per- 
sonal appearances from such well-know personalities as Betty 
White, Charlton Heston, Lauren Bacall, Gregory Hines, and 
Carol Channing, each of whom discussed their life and art. 

TSA's Campus on the Mall also offered a wide variery of 
weekend seminars. This year's favorites included "The Spirit 
of Finland: A Celebration of the Senses," "Treasures from the 
Royal Tombs of Sipan," "Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Af- 
rica" and "Frank Lloyd Wright: Visionary Genius of Modern 
Architecture." 

For a still more penetrating examination of a sub]ect, TSA 
offered an expansive range of multi-week courses in rhe arts, 
humanities, and sciences. Popular courses included "Robert E. 
Lee: A Study in Leadership," "The Great Books of Western 
Civilizarion," "Whodunit — And How: Criminal Investiga- 
tion with Forensic Scientists," and "Interacting with the Inter- 
net: Its Impact on Society." Theater-lovers delved into the 
creation of the American musical as it evolved from a book to 
a full-blown, live production in "American Musical Theater: 
From the Page to the Stage," which was offered in conjunc- 
tion with Signature Theater. A five-week course celebrating 
the 75th anniversary of the National Football League featured 
NFL commissioner Paul Tagliabue, former Dallas Cowboy 
coach Tom Landry, ABC's Frank Giftord, and former players 
Gale Sayers, Mel Blunt, Ray Nitschke, Otto Graham, and 
Marion Motley. 

The ever-popular performers of the Emerson String Quartet 
played to sold-out audiences for the 15th straight year, while 
the Smithsonian Chamber Music Sociery presented a com- 
prehensive season of extraordinary music performed on origi- 
nal instruments from the National Museum of American 
History's prestigious collection. Additional performing artists 
gracing Smithsonian stages mirrored the cultural diversity of 
the nation including "Chinese Kunqu Opera Theater," "Boca 
Livre — Sounds of Brazil," "Altan: The Heartbeat of Ireland," 
the first U.S. performance by the Vietnamese "Perfume River 
Traditional Ensemble," "Con|unto Cespedes: Sizzling Sounds 
of Cuba," "Cuatro Tablas — Teatro de Protesta from Peru," 
"Jose Greco and Company." and the "T.S. Monk Sextet," to 
name just a few. 



So 



Young people and families participated in lectures, tours, 
classes, and special events. A Halloween party featured Spider- 
Man, who was joined by real-life cronies in the dynamic inter- 
active exhibition "Spiders!" at the National Museum of 
Natural History. International Children's Day, sponsored with 
the Embassy of Italy, offered children and their parents a 
chance to sing along with Italian actor Carlo Cicala as he 
taught holiday songs and told children's folktales. "The Mak- 
ing of the Lion King: From Film to Book" gave youngsters a 
chance to get behind the scenes of the movie that became an 
instant classic. Live theater was also en|oyed by over 75,000 
youngsters from elementary through middle school, thanks to 
the 12 different productions presented at Discovery Theater, 
including "When Lions Could Fly," "Coyote Walk and other 
Native American Tales," and the children's favorite classic, 
"Aesop's Fables." 

The Young Benefactors (YB), the Smithsonian membership 
group aimed at Washington-area professionals 25-45 years of 
age, continued their outreach and fundraising efforts by rais- 
ing a record $100,000 for the Institution during 1995. Young 
Benefactors hosted and participated in the following activi- 
ties: "Under the Sea," a YB extravaganza highlighting the 
Ocean Planet exhibit at the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory; "Boot, Scoot, and Boogie at the National Zoo;" and 
"Tour de YB," a bicycle excursion to Smithsonian's Conserva- 
tion and Research Center at Front Royal, Virginia. YB mem- 
bers celebrated their most successful year ever at the sixth 
annual Blast-Off Black Tie Gala and Silent Auction held at 
the National Air and Space Museum. 

Specially designed weekend programs brought Smithsonian 
scholars to locales beyond the National Mall. TSA concluded 
its 10-city sequence of educational events in California, begun 
the year before, with programs in San Francisco and Los Ange- 
les under the theme, "Many Cultures, One Nation." Working 
closely with the Arts Council of El Paso, Texas, and the Uni- 
versity of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, TSA presented a borderland 
series of events in both English and Spanish. In addition, an 
exceptionally well-received series was presented as part of the 
Scranton Preparatory School's 50th anniversary commemora- 
tion, in Scranton, Pennsylvania. 

Study tours and seminars were enjoyed by Associates who 
had the chance to experience the Smithsonian without having 
to come to Washington, D.C. Seminar participants traveled 
the globe from Indonesia to Ireland, from California to the 
District of Columbia, studying a variety of topics through 
four- and five-day intensive educational experiences. Some ot 
the most popular seminars introduced Associates to ecological 
issues in Yosemite National Park, to the history of the atomic 
bomb at Los Alamos, and to the beauty and imagery of 
Monet's art. To make it more convenient for Associates to 
learn about domestic travel with the Smithsonian, the listing 
of U.S. seminars was combined into one catalog with the na- 
tional study tours. 

Smithsonian national tours took Associates to breathtaking 
out-of-the-way places such as Alaska's spectacular fjords and 



glaciers on "Exploring Alaska's Coastal Wilderness." "Spring 
Gardens of the Delaware Valley" covered one of the most hor- 
ticulturally rich areas in the U.S., with visits to the duPont es- 
tate gardens of Longwood and Winterthur. New domestic 
study tours in 1995 included "Railroading the Appalachi- 
ans'and "Arizona History and Architecture." 

International study tours continued to lure Associates, offer- 
ing them a chance to see regions of the world through the 
unique perspectives that only the Smithsonian offers. After a 
four-year hiatus, Associates returned to Central Asia and the 
new countries of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (formerly of the 
U.S.S.R). The Smithsonian's first tour to Syria focused on the 
classical archaeological sites Palmyra and Apamea, while new 
tours to Vietnam provided an intimate look into this rapidly 
changing country. 

TSA also launched several important initiatives in 
1995. A very special collaboration with SITES and 
"Artrain: America's Museum in Motion" resulted in the 
development of a traveling exhibition highlighting 
works from The Smithsonian Associates' wonderfully 
varied commissioned art. In March 1996, the exhibition 
will begin a nationwide three-year trip via the railways 
to communities traditionally under-served by museums. 
TSA also started an audiotape collection of some of its 
well-regarded speakers. To be known as "Voices from 
The Smithsonian Associates," the collection will build 
over the coming years, making it possible for people 
around the country to enjoy a varied selection of the 
best Resident Associate programs. TSA also rook an 
important step in strengthening its ability to provide 
outstanding customer service with the implementation 
of new ticketing systems for all its events. 



Smithsonian Institution Press 



Daniel H. Goodwin, Acting Director 

In the more than 125 titles the Press publishes or distrib- 
utes each year, there is a range of scholarship from techni- 
cal science and academic subjects through general-interest 
illustrated works, classic recordings, historic videos, and 
high-volume works created with commercial partners. As 
the Institution's publisher, the Press is responsible for 
Smithsonian Year and Annals of the Smithsonian as well as 
other statute-mandated documents for distribution to 
Depository Libraries and the international academic com- 
munity. Books, recordings, and videos are printed and 
manufactured with nonfederal funds and are sold to the 
trade through commissioned sales representatives, 
direct response strategies, and copublishing 
agreements. 



90 



Smithsonian Institution University Press published 74 
books in 1995. Notable titles included Hajj Paintings: Folk 
Art of the Great Pilgrimage (also published as a German edi- 
tion); Ethics on the Ark. which launched a new book series in 
zoo and aquarian biology and conservation; The Civil War in 
Popular Culture, a History Book Club selection; In the Alleys: 
Kids in the Shadow of the Capitol: The Emergence of Pottery: Tech- 
nology and Innovation in A ncient Societies: African Nomadic A rchi- 
tecture: Space. Place, and Gender: Secrets of the Dark Chamber: The 
American Daguerreotype, published with NMAA; and prom Air- 
ships to Airbus: The History of Civil Aviation (in two volumes). 
Editorial work also began on America's Smithsonian: Celebrating 
150 Years, the companion volume to the planned exhibition of 
the best of the Institution's collections, which will travel to 
twelve U.S. cities in honor of the Smithsonian's sesquicenten- 
nial. Press books received numerous design and editorial 
awards. Prominent among the award-winners were Eakins 
and the Photograph. The Fossils of the Burgess Shale, and A 
Quest for Grandeur: Charles Moore and the Federal Triangle. 
Translations of SIUP books appeared in Japanese, French, 
Italian, German, Spanish, and Korean. Smithsonian Book 
Development copublished, with Dorling Kindersley, 
Smithsonian Timeline of Invention. The federal Series pub- 
lished more than 25 titles in the Contributions and Studies 
research volumes. 

Smithsonian Books published The Smithsonian: 
150 Years of Adventure. Discovery, and Wonder, in com- 
memoration of the founding of the Institution. The 
book will be sold in book stores by Alfred A. Knopf. 
Smithsonian Books also published Discover America: The 
Smithsonian Book of National Parks: copublished, with 
Random House, the first four volumes of The Smithso- 
nian Guides to Natural America: and oversaw production 
of the last three volumes in the Ancient Civilizations 
series. 

Smithsonian Collection of Recordings published the 
final four recordings in the American Songbook Series, 
music produced to honor twentieth-century American 
songwriters. Another series, the music of Great American 
Orchestras, began publication in February. A four CD/cas- 
sette set titled / Got Rhythm: The Music of George Gershwin. 
was released in June, followed by a two CD/cassette collec- 
tion of the love songs of World War II, You'd Be So Nice to 
Come Home To. Two coproductions were undertaken: with 
BMG Music, the three CD/cassette Victory Collection: The 
Smithsonian Remembers When America Went to War; and with 
Sony Music, the four CD/cassette Grammy Award-winning 
Louis Armstrong: Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, 1923- 
1934. The final release this year was Big Band Renaissance, 
another Grammy hopeful. 

Smithsonian Video released a thirteen-part series of selected 
segments of Smithsonian World: coproduced, with Station 
WGBH Boston, the Nova series entitled Human Origins: and 
released the five-part series Dreams of Flight to commemorate 
the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Apollo mission. 



Smithsonian Magazine 



Ronald C. Walker, Publisher 
Don Moser, Editor 

Since its founding in 1970, Smithsonian magazine has extended 
the Institution's message, expanded its influence, and m- 
creased its public visibility throughout the United States and 
abroad. Considered one of the greatest success stories in maga- 
zine publishing history, Smithsonian is now the 21st largest 
magazine in the country, with a circulation of 2.1 million. It 
continues to generate revenue for the Institution. 

Editorial subjects extend beyond the scope of the 
Institution's museums. Leading authors contribute articles 
about the arts, history, the environment, conservation and the 
sciences, always written with the layperson in mind. Monthly 
features include "Phenomena, comment, and notes," a com- 
mentary on nature and the natural wotld; "Smithsonian perspec- 
tives," a column by the Smithsonian secretary; and reviews of 
recently released nonfiction. Smithsonian activities are covered in 
three regular departments: "Around the mall and beyond," 
"Smithsonian highlights," and "The object at hand." 

Institution-related features included cover stories on the 
opening of the George Gustav Heye Center of the National 
Museum of the American Indian and the White House craft 
show, and articles or picture stories on the Mary Fraser batik 
show at the National Air & Space Museum, the Hiroshima 
Kazuo basket exhibition and the Painted Prayers exhibition at 
the Sackler Gallery; Smithsonian bamboo research in Peru; 
the Smithsonian Libraries' "Art and the Book" exhibition and 
the "Save Our Sculpture" program. 

Other subjects covered during the year reflected the 
magazine's broad and diverse interests. To name just a few: 
Frederick Douglass, Haida artist Robert Davidson, the art of 
the Hermitage, the controversy over the disposal or nuclear 
waste, crash dummies, the music of Motown, killer whales, 
the special world of left-handers, the history of trial by jury 
and the upcoming Pathfinder probe of Mars. 

In April the magazine published a special issue to mark its 
25th anniversary. The issue updated selected articles from each 
of the 25 years, and offered a varied menu of stones on unex- 
pected subjects — from the world inside a cubic foot of air to 
a selection of little-known museums. The magazine will pres- 
ent a special issue in the spring of 1996 to commemorate the 
Institution's 150th anniversary. 

In partnership with the American Society of Travel Agents 
(ASTA), the magazine awarded the fourth annual 
ASTA/Smithsoman Magazine Environmental Award to Intet- 
Continental Hotels Corporation and the Natal Parks Board of 
South Africa. The award recognizes outstanding achievements 
by individuals, corporations, and countries toward furthering 
the goals of environmental conservation, particularly within 
the tourism industry. 



01 



To further carry the goals of the Institution across America, 
in November, the magazine merged onto the information su- 
perhighway via America On Line. In May, it went a step fur- 
ther and established a home page on the World Wide Web. 
Through its electronic sites, Smithsonian now features each 
issue's columns and abstracts of feature stories, as well as infor- 
mation on Smithsonian Institution activities and events. 

Smithsonian magazine's Adopt-a-Library program, initiated 
in May 1995, by August had received more than 9,000 orders 
to donate gift subscriptions to libraries. Another new pro- 
gram, the Teachers' Membership instituted in the summer of 
1995, is geared to teachers and educators. 



When the Smithsonian Institution celebrates its 150th anni- 
versary in 1996, it will be even more special for Air & 
Space/Smithsonian, as this momentous occasion coincides with 
the magazine's loth anniversary. The magazine has been work- 
ing on a special issue to celebrate these unique anniversaries. 



Affiliated Organizations 

John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts 



Air & Space/Smithsonian Magazine 



Ronald C. Walker, Publisher 
George C. Larson, Editor 

Air & Space/Smithsonian is published bimonthly as a benefit of 
membership in the National Air and Space Museum. With a 
circulation of 320,000, it ranks in the top half of ma|or maga- 
zines in the United States and has the largest paid circulation 
of any aerospace periodical in the world. Since 1990, ]ust four 
years after its launch, the magazine has generated revenue for 
the Institution. 

Articles cover the range of air- and space-related topics that 
appeal to the magazine's general readership. Regular features 
include "In the Museum," a column about happenings in the 
museum; "Soundings," short takes on events in the aerospace 
community; "Above and Beyond," usually a first-person ac- 
count of personal experience; "Collections," a narrated tour of 
less-visited aerospace museums and collections; and "From the 
Field," a section in which scientists provide first-person ac- 
counts of their work. 

During the year, Air & Space/Smithsonian prepared its first 
contemporaneous editorial feature and video, "Runways of 
Fire." The subject is based on '50s Cold War advanced test 
flight experiments that involved launching fully loaded jet 
fighters from flat-bed trucks as deterrents to a first strike from 
the Soviets. Trucks were used to test the feasibility of launch- 
ing warheads in the event runways were damaged or non- 
existent. Although never put into action, the tests were 
successful. The one-hour video was produced throughout the 
year to be presented along with a related story in the 
Oct. /Nov. 1995 issue. 

A presence on the World Wide Web netted immediate suc- 
cess for Air & Space/Smithsonian. After only two months of op- 
eration, the magazine's on-line site was awarded Point 
Surveys 's Top 5% Award in July, based on surveys of World 
Wide Web users and experts in Internet design and content 
evaluation. 



James D. Wolfensohn. Chairman 
Lawrence J. Wilker, President 

As the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts en- 
tered its 25th anniversary season, it prepared to celebrate a 
quarter-century of achievement as a guiding force in the 
nation's cultural life. Its six theaters host the finest American 
and international artists for performances that attract nearly 2 
million people each year. Through television and radio broad- 
casts and nationwide outreach efforts, the center reaches mil- 
lions more people across the country. The center has a strong 
tradition of nurturing new works and young artists, serving 
young people through its Education Department, and offering 
exemplary art education programs for teachers and students. 

The Kennedy Center's new online network, ArtsEdge, pro- 
vided access to information about the center's innovative 
teacher education programs. Other national outreach pro- 
grams included a touring production of Alice in Wonderland 
and the center's third biannual "New Visions/New Voices" 
workshops for authors of new theatrical works for young 
people. 

The National Symphony Orchestra (NSO) commissioned 
25 new fanfares by American composers in honor of the Ken- 
nedy Center's 25th anniversary season — also the NSO's 65th 
season and its first programmed by Music Director Designate 
Leonard Slatkin. The NSO's third annual American Residency 
program took orchestra members to Maine for two weeks of 
performances, master classes, and other educational activities. 

The Kennedy Center celebrated the "Routes of American 
Music" during its annual Open House Arts Festival, which 
emphasized blues, jazz, gospel, and other genres of American 
popular music. An ambitious season of jazz programming in- 
cluded the second season of Billy Taylor's Jazz at the Kennedy 
Center, taped for broadcast on National Public Radio. 

The "Exploring Ballet with Suzanne Farrell" residency pro- 
gram was opened to dance students nationwide in 1995. To 
mark its 25th anniversary, the center launched a five-year retro- 
spective of American modern dance and extended the success- 
ful Kennedy Center Ballet Commissioning Project. 



92 



Meanwhile, the second year of the Kennedy Center/Dance 
Theatre of Harlem Community Residency initiative involved 
more than ioo local students and their families. 

The center's new production ot How to Succeed in Business 
without Really Trying, starring Matthew Broderick, played in 
the Opera House before beginning a successful Broadway run. 
Washington audiences had their first look at Angels in Amer- 
ica, the Pulitzer Prize— winning play by Tony Kushner devel- 
oped with financial support from the Kennedy Center Fund 
for New American Plays. 



The education division inaugurated a new annual series of 
lectures, gallery talks, and demonstrations exploring artists' 
materials and techniques. The division also published 75 gal- 
lery guides; expanded the annual National Teacher Institute; 
and offered a new program for students at three District of Co- 
lumbia public schools. 



Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. (RIF) 



National Gallery of Art 



Earl A. Pouell 111, Director 

The National Gallery of Art serves the United States in a na- 
tional role by preserving, collecting, exhibiting, and fostering 
the understanding of works of art at the highest possible mu- 
seum and scholarly standards. 

The temporary exhibition program continued to offer a 
selection of subjects and artists designed to appeal to 
widely diverse audiences. During the past year, exhibitions 
included original Italian Renaissance wooden architectural 
models of St. Peter's in Rome and the cathedrals of Flor- 
ence and Pavia; "The Glory of Venice: Art in the Eigh- 
teenth Century"; the work of 20th-century Dutch painter 
Piet Mondrian; a Claes Oldenburg survey; the mature work 
of Arshile Gorky; the most comprehensive gathering of 
work by James McNeill Whistler since 1904—05; and rare 
images by pioneers of photography. 

With the opening of new, small-scale exhibition space 
adjacent to the Dutch galleries, the Gallery now has an 
area suitable for the display of smaller Dutch and Flemish 
paintings and related objects such as drawings, prints, and 
small sculpture. 

Purchases for the collection are made possible by funds do- 
nated by private citizens. Outstanding among them were a 
major painting by the early-l7th-century Dutch artist Osias 
Beert the Elder; a Claes Oldenburg soft sculpture, Clarinet 
Bridge: and the Mary and David Robinson collection of early 
photographs. 

Gifts to the collection included a group of important 19th- 
and 20th-century French works from Paul Mellon; works by 
Jean Dubuffet, a partial gift from Stephen Hahn; and a 1981 
sculpture by Richard Long, Whitechapel Slate Circle, from the 
Collectors Committee. 

The gallery's ongoing efforts to find frames appro- 
priate to the period, style, and aesthetic character of its 
paintings are transforming the appearance of the perma- 
nent collection. Especially notable was the replacement of 
the frames of three paintings by the Dutch master 
Johannes Vermeer. 



Ruth Graves, President 

Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) began in 1966 as a small pilot 
literacy project in the District of Columbia. The success of 
this experiment sparked the imagination of communities 
across America and RIF quickly grew into a nationwide pro- 
gram spanning all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto 
Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. By the beginning of 
1995, RIF's grassroots network of local projects had put more 
than 152 million books into the hands of America's children. 

Today, community groups across the country rely on RIF's 
volunteer force of 184,000 local citizens to ensure that chil- 
dren in their neighborhoods grow up reading. RIF projects 
now operate at more than 18,000 sites and in all kinds of set- 
tings — elementary and secondary schools, Head Start centers 
and other early childhood sites, libraries, hospitals, clinics, 
housing projects, Native American reservations, schools for 
children with disabilities, migrant worker camps, juvenile de- 
tention centers, and homeless shelters. 

RIF not only brings books and reading activities to chil- 
dren, it also tries to see that parents make reading a priority 
in the home. Last year, RIF continued to reach out to parents, 
other family members, and community volunteers with publi- 
cations, workshops, a training video, and a network of family 
literacy programs. 

RIF also focuses public awareness on the importance of 
reading. In 1995, that goal was furthered as a number of na- 
tional leaders demonstrated their support for literacy. Here are 
but three examples: 

As RIF's new spokesperson, basketball superstar Shaquille 
O'Neal of the Orlando Magic talked to children about the im- 
portance of reading in a new Public Service Announcement 
for RIF. Produced and televised by the National Basketball 
Association, the new PSA was aired during the NBA playoffs 
last spring. 

Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge presided over a cere- 
mony honoring RIF children in Summit Township, Pa. for 
winning the Margaret McNamara Readers Cup. For three 
years in a row, the children at the project have read more on 
average than any other RIF pro|ect in the nation. The 
children's accomplishments were also noted by U.S. Senators 
Arlen Specter and Rick Santorum, who sent envoys from their 
offices to take part in the ceremony. 



93 



Another celebrity visitor was U.S. Attorney General Janet 
Reno, a frequent guest at a RIF project in the District of Co- 
lumbia. During a RIF Career Day last February, Ms. Reno 
read aloud to children and talked about African American 
scholars and statesmen. The children, in turn, quoted their fa- 
vorite poems and then took part in a RIF book event. 

Targeted Initiatives 

At each stage of a child's development, RIF works to promote 
reading: 

To ensure that children arrive at school ready to learn, RIF 
intensified its early childhood program for disadvantaged chil- 
dren through a collaborative agreement with the National 
Head Start Association (NHSA). Last year NHSA sent out 
questionnaires to 87 Head Start sites that had run RIF pro- 
grams and received an extremely positive response about the 
effect RIF has on children's emergent literacy: Volunteers said 
that RIF is the key to bringing the excitement of books to pre- 
schoolers. They also said that RIF is helping Head Start 
groups attract community support amd involve even the most 
reluctant parents in their children's literacy program. 

In the upper-elementary grades, children are learning that 
science can be fun through STAR Science Technology And 
Reading — a supplemental RIF curriculum that combines 
hands-on science activities with reading and a sci-tech mentot- 
ing program. Last year, Iowa publisher Kendall/Hunt pub- 
lished the series of eight STAR "labs" and the GE Fund 
provided a grant to extend STAR to children in upstate New 
York, western Massachusetts, and southern Vermont. A course 
on the STAR program was conducted by RIF last July, during 
a Smithsonian Summer Seminar for Teachers. 

Children who have not had exposure to books because they 
live in highly transitional settings are being reached through 
RIF's Project Open Book . Last year this privately-backed pro- 
gram for seriously at-risk children marked its fifth year by de- 
livering nearly 1. 5 million books to 823 shelters, prison 
waiting rooms, and similar settings in 43 states and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

RIF is also wotking with the private sector to bring books 
and reading activities to Native Amencan children from doz- 
ens of tribes and in all kinds of settings. Over the last 12 years, 
for example, the New York Life Foundation has helped fund 
RIF programs for more than 186,000 Native American chil- 
dren in dozens of states. 

Another growth area was RIF's program for children in hos- 
pitals and clinics. Last winter, for example, RIF established a 
new program in the Adolescent Wing and Pediatric AIDs 
Wards of the Harlem Hospital. The announcement was made 
following the dedication of two new RIF Reading Rooms in 
memory of the late Arthur Ashe, a longtime member of RIF's 
Advisory Council. 

The needs of young people who can't meet the minimum 
reading and writing demands of our society (such as filling 
out job applications or reading directions) led RIF to form al- 



liances with after-school programs and to stage book events 
that engage young people in reading adventures. In some 
cases, fun activities like these have completely turned young- 
sters around. One boy, while participating in a RIF activity or- 
ganized by the Boys and Girls Club RIF project in 
Milwaukee, changed his mind about books and began reading 
about pre-Columbian Indian tribes of the Southwest and ca- 
reers in paleontology and archeology. The boy even won a trip 
to Colotado to participate in a real archeological dig. The year 
1995 found that youngster in college, just one of many RIF 
success stories. 

Young people are also being trained to promote children's 
literacy through the RIF Youth Corps, modeled on the Club 
RIF project in Mesa, Ariz. Last year the Corps was operating 
in eight states: Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Indiana, Maryland, 
Minnesota, New Hampshire, and North Carolina. 

Highlights of the Year 

Last spring, the focus was on families reading together as RIF 
marked Reading Is Fun Week 1995 with a "Growing Up Read- 
ing" theme. During the National Awards Ceremony at the 
Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Juwan Howard, pro 
basketball star on the Washington Bullets team, spoke about 
how he had first discovered RIF books while attending a Chi- 
cago school. "Being a part of RIF has been a big inspiration to 
my life," Howard told the children. 

RIF cooperated with the U.S. Department of Education in 
launching a summer reading program for young people called 
READ*WRITE*NOW!, as a project of the Secretary's Family 
Involvement Partnership for Learning. Under the program, 
kits with lists of children's books and reading activities were 
sent out to RIF projects that operate during the summer 
months. 

RIF's largest program for preschoolers was spotlighted dur- 
ing the Education Department's Satellite Town Meeting. 
Cathy Gafford, who coordinates Jean Dean RIF, a Kiwanis- 
sponsored RIF program that reaches disadvantaged children 
throughout the State of Alabama, was a panelist on the 
videoconference. 

In June RIF coordinators from 12 large multi-site programs 
came to a workshop in Washington D.C. to discuss how to 
better meet the needs of children through their RIF pro- 
grams, which are currently serving nearly 130,000 children at 
some 500 sites. During the sessions, RIF gathered information 
that it plans to use in its technical assistance to multi-site pro- 
grams, and the volunteers came away with new ideas on how 
to run their RIF programs. 

Throughout the last three decades the publishing com- 
munity and RIF have worked together to bring books to 
children and provide special discounts and services to RIF 
projects. Last year, Waldenbooks and Borders continued 
that tradition, by announcing a new decade of support for 
RIF during a black tie benefit at the Waldorf-Astoria 
Hotel in Manhattan. The benefit raised $100,000 for 



94 



children'sbookprograms, thanks to the generosity of more 
than 300 publishing executives. 

Support for RIF from the book community was also demon- 
strated during the annual American Booksellers Association 
convention in Chicago, when the Ingram Book Co. sponsored 
a Chili Cook-Off to raise money for the literacy programs of 
Reading Is Fundamental, RIF in Chicago, and Literacy Chi- 
cago, a consortium of adult lireracy groups. 



Woodrow Wilson International 
Center for Scholars 

Charles Blitzer, Director 

The Woodrow Wilson Center honors the nation's 28th presi- 
dent by providing a place for free intellectual inquiry that 
strengthens links between the worlds of ideas and public af- 
fairs. Through an annual fellowship competition, scholars 
from around the world are invited to the center for extended 
periods of research and writing. The center also sponsors pub- 
lic meetings, generates publications, and produces broadcast 
programs that make individual scholarship accessible to pol- 
icy makers and a broad public. 

A distinguished group of scholars and policy experts dis- 
cussed the political and policy questions surrounding the affir- 
mative action debate in a program at the center. Juan 
Williams, Washington Post journalist and guest scholar, was 
the moderator. The panelists addressed beliefs about race, gen- 
der, equality, and opportunity and debated whether affirma- 



tive action is an essential policy tool for ameliorating the dam- 
age of legal slavery and segregation or a racial and gender 
spoils system that is unnecessary and divisive. 

Through its new Environmental Change and Security proj- 
ect, the center is playing an important role in addressing the 
international ramifications of environmental degradation. 
Workshops and seminars focused on the relationship between 
environmental degradation and violent conflict; the environ- 
mental consequences of war; environmental assistance to de- 
veloping countries; and international petspectives on how the 
environment affects security. 

Anthony Lake, the president's national security adviser and 
a trustee of the center, defended U.S. foreign aid policies in a 
speech at the National Press Club, given under the center's 
auspices. 

Speakers in a new series on international financial issues ad- 
dressed recent exchange rate crises and the lessons of currency 
and sovereign liquidity problems. The series analyzed current 
proposals to moderate or prevent international financial crises. 

The center is unique among research centers in bringing to- 
gether academics, policy makers, and journalists to benefit 
from and contribute ro the continuing dialogue between pub- 
lic affairs and scholarship. Academic participants during the 
past year included Russian economist Lilia Shevtsova; Roger 
Louis, general editor of the Oxford History of the British Empire: 
Yeats scholar Helen Vendler; and literary theorist Geoffrey 
Hartmann. Fellows participating from outside the academic 
community included Anatoly Dobrynin, former ambassador 
from the Soviet Union to the United States; author and femi- 
nist Betty Friedan; Japanese journalist Susumu Awanohara; 
French diplomat and journalist Eric Rouleau; counselor to the 
secretary of defense Larry K. Smith; and journalists E.J. 
Dionne, John J. Fialka, Elizabeth Pond, and Juan Williams. 



95 



Members of the Smithsonian 
Councils, Boards, and 
Commissions, 
September 30, 1995 



Smithsonian Institution 
Board of Regents 

The Honorable William H. Rehnquist, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Courr of 
the United States 

Vice President Albert Gore, Jr., Vice 
President of the United States 

Members of the Senate 

The Honorable Thad Cochran 
The Honorable Daniel P. Moynihan 
The Honorable Alan K. Simpson 

Members of the House of 
Representatives 

The Honorable Sam Johnson 

The Honorable Robert L. Livingston 

The Honorable Norman Y. Mineta 

Citizen Members 

The Honorable Barber B. Conable, Jr. 

Dr. Hanna Holborn Gray 

Dr. Manuel L. Ibanez 

Mr. Samuel C. Johnson 

Dr. Homer A. Neal 

Mr. Frank A. Shrontz 

Mr. Wesley S. Williams, Jr. 



Senior Officers 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

Mrs. Constance Berry Newman 

Dr. Robert S. Hoffmann 

Mr. M. John Berry 

Mr. Thomas D. Blair 

Dr. Miguel A. Bretos 

Ms. Alice Green Burnette 

Mr. James D. Douglas 

Mr. James C. Early 

Mr. Tom L. Freudenheim 

Mr. James M. Hobbins 

Dr. Thomas E. Loveioy 

Mr. Marc J. Pachter 

Mr. Ross B. Simons 

Ms. Nancy D. Suttenfield 

Mr. David J. Umansky 

Dr. L. Carole Wharton 



Anacostia Museum Board 



Mrs. Theresa Jones, Chair 
Dr. Caryl Marsh, Vice Chair 
Mrs. Delia Lowery, Secretary 
Mrs. Alenitha J. Quails, Secretary 
Mrs. Helen Allen 
Mr. Stanley Anderson 
Mr. Glover Bullock 
Ms. Irene Carter 
Mrs. Marie Dale 



Ms. Dianne Dale 

Mrs. Iris Harris 

Mrs. Concha Johnson 

Mr. Alton Jones 

Mr. David Lyons 

Mrs. Cynthia Clark Matthews 



Archives of American Art 
Board of Trustees 



Mrs. Eloise A. Spaeth, Chairman 

Emeritus 
Mrs. Nancy Brown Wellin, Chairman 
The Honorable Max N. Berry, President 
Mrs. Anna Marie Shapiro, Vice President 
Mr. Hugh Halff, Jr., Vice President 
Mrs. Rona K. Roob, Vice President 
Mrs. Ruth Feder, Vice President 
Mr. Frank Martucci, Treasurer 
Mrs. Josephine Raymond, Secretary 
Ms. Laura Lee Blanton 
Dr. Charles Bluzer 
Ms. Lori Blount 
Mr. Eli Broad 
Mr. Gerald E. Buck 
Dr. Irving F. Burton, Honorary Trustee 
Mr. Willard G. Clark 
Mrs. Barbara R. de Marneffe 
Mr. Donald J. Douglass 
Mr. Gilbert S. Edelson 
Mr. Lawrence A. Fleischman, Founding 

Trustee 
Mrs. Leslie S. Fogg 
Mrs. Edsel B. Ford (deceased), 

Founding Trustee 
Mrs. Rita Fraad 
Mr. Raymond J. Horowitz 
Mr. John K. Howat 
Dr. Helen I. Jessup, Trustee Council 
Mrs. Dona S. Kendall 
Mr. Werner H. Kramarsky 
Mr. Alan D. Levy 
Mr. Richard A. Manoogian 
Mrs. Lucille G. Murchison 
Mrs. Vivian Potamkin 
Mr. Edgar P. Richardson (deceased), 

Founding Trustee 
Mr. John R. Robinson 
Mrs. Marilyn B. Schlain, Trustee 

Council 
Mr. Richard J. Schwartz, Honorary 

Trustee 



96 



Mr. Alan E. Schwartz, Trustee Council 
Mr. A. Alfred Taubman 

Ex Officio 

Mr. William C. Agee 
Mr. Tom L. Freudenheim 
Mr. I. Michael Heyman 



Commission on the Future 
of the Smithsonian 
Institution 



Dr. Maxine F. Singer, Chair 

The Honorable Barber B. Conable, Jr. 

Prof. Paul J. DiMaggio 

Dr. Sandra M. Faber 

Prof. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. 

Prof. Stephen Jay Gould 

Mr. Robert E. Grady 

The Honorable Najeeb E. Halaby 

Prof. Neil Harris 

Ms. Irene Y. Hirano 

Mrs. Ruth S. Holmberg 

Mr. Roy M. Huhndorf 

Prof. Jorge Klor de Alva 

Mr. William H. Luers 

Dr. Michael A. Mares 

Dr. John S. Mayo 

Dr. Frank Press 

Mr. Wilbur L.Ross, Jr. 

Dr. John C. Sawhill 

Mr. Lloyd G. Schermer 

Dr. Harold K. Skramstad, Jr. 

The Honorable R. James Woolsey 



Cooper-Hewitt National 
Design Museum Board of 
Trustees 



Mr. Kenneth B. Miller, Chair 

Mr. Arthur Ross, Vice Chair 

Mrs. Kathleen Allaire 

Mr. Jorge L. Batista 

Ms. Agnes Bourne 

Mrs. Karen Johnson Boyd 

Mr. Donald Bruckmann 



Mrs. Betty Evans 

Mrs. Joanne Foster 

Mr. Tom L. Freudenheim, ex officio 

Mr. George J. Gillespie 

Mr. August Heckscher 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman, ex officio 

Mr. Harvey M. Krueger 

Mrs. Barbara Levin 

Mrs. Nancy A. Marks 

Mrs. Enid W. Morse 

Mr. Harry G. Robinson, III 

Mr. Robert Sarnoff 

Mr. Richard M. Smith 

Prof. Sue Jane Smock 



Council of Administrative 
and Service Directors 



Ms. Nancy Johnson, Chair 

Mrs. Lon H. Aceto 

Mr. Sudeep Anand 

Mr. John Berry 

Mr. F. William Billingsley 

Ms. Mary Leslie Casson 

Mr. John Cobert 

Mr. John F. Coppola 

Mr. James D. Douglas 

Dr. Cynthia Field 

Ms. Ardelle G. Foss 

Ms. Edie Hedlin 

Ms. Nikki Krakora 

Mr. Vincent J. Marcalus 

Ms. Era Marshall 

Mrs. Marie A. Matrson 

Mr. Patrick Miller 

Mr. Rick Rice 

Ms. Susan Roehmer 

Dr. Barbara J. Smith 

Mr. Michael Sofield 

Mr. William L. Thomas 

Ms. Carole Wharton 



Council of Bureau 
Directors 



Dr. Ira Rubinoff, Chair 
Dr. Milo Cleveland Beach 
Dr. Elizabeth Broun 



Dr. Carolyn Carr 

Dr. David L. Correll 

Dr. Spencer R. Crew 

Ms. Gwendolyn Kay Crider 

Mr. James T. Demetnon 

Ms. Lucy B. Dorick 

Mr. Douglas E. Evelyn 

Dr. Alan Fern 

Mrs. Patricia L. Fiske 

Ms. Susan A. Hamilton 

Dr. Robert S. Hoffmann 

Mr. McKinley Hudson 

Ms. Martha Morris 

Ms. Sarah L. Newmeyer 

Mr. Steven Newsome 

Dr. Donald J. Ortner 

Ms. Dianne H. Pilgrim 

Ms. Sharon Reinckens 

Mr. Charles J. Robertson, III 

Dr. Michael H. Robinson 

Dr. Irwin I. Shapiro 

Dr. Richard T. Wattenmaker 

Mr. Stephen E. Weil 

Mr. W.Richard West, Jr. 

Mrs. Sylvia H. Williams 



Council of Information 
and Education Directors 



Dr. Rex M. Ellis, Chair 

Ms. Ann P. Bay 

Ms. Nancy J. Bechtol 

Ms. Francine C. Berkowitz 

Mr. Joseph Carper 

Ms. Anna R. Cohn 

Dr. Zahava D. Doering 

Mr. Daniel H. Goodwin 

Ms. Anne R. Gossett 

Ms. Edie Hedlin 

Ms. Nancy Johnson 

Mr. Paul B. Johnson 

Dr. Richard Kurin 

Dr. Douglas M. Lapp 

Mr. Vincent J. Marcalus 

Ms. Mara Mayor 

Ms. Mary Grace Potter 

Dr. Barbara J. Smith 

Dr. Lambertus Van Zelst 

Mr. Ronald Walker 

Mr. James H. Wallace, Jr. 



97 



Folklife Advisory Council 



Dr. Roger Abrahams 

Dr. Jacinco Anas 

Dr. Jane Beck 

Dr. Pat Jasper 

Dr. Barbara Kirschenblatt-Gimblett 

Dr. Bernice Johnson Reagon 

Dr. John Roberts 

Dr. Carol Robertson 

Dr. Gilbert Sprauve 

Dr. John Kuo Wei Tchen 

Dr. Ricardo Tnmillos 

Dr. Carlos Velez-Ibanez 



Folkways Advisory Board 



Mr. Michael Asch 
Mr. Don Devito 
Ms. Ellajenkins 
Mr. Jon Kertzer 
Mr. John Nixdorf 



Freer Gallery of Art 
Visiting Committee 



Mr. Willard G. Clark, Chair 

The Honorable Norman Y. Mineta, 

Vice Chair 
Mrs. Jackson Burke 
Mr. Roger E. Covey 
Mr. Richard Danziger 
Prof. Marvin Eisenberg 
Dr. Robert S. Feinberg 
Mr. John Gilmore Ford 
Mrs. Katharine M. Graham 
Mrs. Richard Helms 
Sir Joseph E. Hotung 
Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney 
Mr. Rogerio S. Lam 
Dr. Sherman E. Lee 
Mr. Porter McCray 
Prof. Frederick W. Mote 
Mrs. Elizabeth Moynihan 
Prof. Martin Powers 
Prof. John M. Rosenfield 



Hirsbhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden 
Board of Trustees 



Mr. Robert T. Buck, Jr. 

Prof. Peggy C. Davis 

Mr. Jerome L. Greene 

Mr. Robert B. Lehrman 

Mr. Sydney L. Lewis 

Mrs. Camille Oliver-Hoffmann 

Prof. Robert Rosenblum 

Mr. Jerry I. Speyer 

Ex Officio 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

The Honorable William H. Rehnquist 



The John F. Kennedy 
Center for the 
Performing Arts 
Board of Trustees 

Honorary Chairs 

Mrs. Hillary Rodham Clinton 
Mrs. George H. W. Bush 
Mrs. Ronald Reagan 
Mrs. Jimmy Carter 
Mrs. Gerald R. Ford 
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 

Officers 

Mr. James D. Wolfensohn, Chairman 
Mr. James H. Evans, Vice Chairman 
Mrs. Alma Gildenhorn, Vice Chairman 
Mr. Lawrence J. Wilker, President 
Mrs. Jean Kennedy Smith, Secretary 
Ms. Charlotte A. Woolard, Assistant 

Secretary 
Mr. Paul G. Stern, Treasurer 
Mr. Henry M. Strong, Assistant 

Treasurer 
Mr. William Becker, General Counsel 



Members Appointed by the President 
of the V nited States 

Mrs. Margaret Archambauk 

Mrs. Anita Arnold 

Mr. Robert B. Barnett 

Mr. Stuart A. Bernstein 

Mrs. Anitamane Cafritz 

Mrs. Phyllis C. Draper 

Mr. Kenneth M. Duberscein 

Mr. James H. Evans 

Mrs. Marjone M. Fisher 

Mr. Craig L. Fuller 

Mrs. Mary Galvin 

Mrs. Alma Gildenhorn 

Mr. Lionel Hampton 

Mrs. Phyllis Middleton Jackson 

Mr. Donald M. Koll 

The Honorable James A. McClure 

Mr. William F. McSweeny, Jr. 

Mr. Frank H. Pearl 

Mr. Ronald O. Perelman 

Mrs. Alma Johnson Powell 

Mrs. Casey Ribicoff 

Ms. Joy A. Silverman 

Mrs. Jean Kennedy Smith 

Mr. Joshua I. Smith 

Mr. Jay Stein 

The Honorable Roger L. Stevens 

Mr. Lew R. Wasserman 

Mr. Jerry Weintraub 

Mr. Thomas E. Wheeler 

Mr. James D. Wolfensohn 

Members Ex Officio Designated by 
Act of Congress 

The Honorable Donna E. Shalala, 

Secretary of Health and Human 

Services 
The Honorable Richard W. Riley, 

Secretary of Education 
The Honorable Joseph D. Duffey, 

Director, U.S. Information Agency 
Senator Edward M. Kennedy 
Senator Mark O. Hatfield 
Senator Max Baucus 
Senator John Hubbard Chafee 
Senator Robert Joseph Dole 
Rep. Joseph M. McDade 
Rep. Charles Wilson 
Rep. Sidney R. Yates 
Rep. Norman Y Mineta 
Rep. Bud Shuster 



9 S 



Mr. Marion Barry, Mayor, District of 

Columbia 
Mr. I. Michael Heyman, Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution 
Dr. James H. Billington, Librarian of 

Congress 
Mr. J. Carter Brown, Chairman of the 

Commission of Fine Arts 
Mr. Roger G. Kennedy, Director, 

National Park Service 

Founding Chairman 

The Honorable Roger L. Stevens 

Honorary Trustees 

Mr. Philip F. Anschutz 

Mrs. Kathnne D. Folger 

The Honorable Melvin R. Laird 

Mrs. Alice Marriott 

The Honorable Leonard L. Silverstein 

Mr. Dennis Stanfill 

Mr. Henry M. Strong 



National Air and Space 
Museum Advisory Board 



Rear Admiral Brent M. Bennitt 
Mr. Thomas L. Blair 
Lieutenant General Harry Blot 
General John R. Dailey 
Mrs. Linda Hall Daschle 
Rear Admiral William C. Donnell 
General Ronald R. Fogleman 
Mr. Thomas W. Hoog 
Brigadier General John M. Riggs 
Dr. Y.C.L. Susan Wu 

Public Programming Advisory 
Committee 

Dr. Hans O. Andersen 

Lieutenant General Benjamin O. Davis 

Mr. Thomas Hoving 

Ms. Linda M. Johnson 

Mr. Louis R. Purnell 

Dr. Harold K. Skramstad, Jr. 

Mr. Michael Spock 

Ms. Marie Tibor 

Dr. Mitchell Waldrop 



Smithsonian National 
Board 



Mr. Wilbur L. Ross, Jr., Chair 
Mrs. Jean B. Kilborne, Vice Chair 

Current Members 

Sir Valentine Abdy 

Mr. Lester M. Alberthal, Jr., ex officio 

Mrs. Margaret D. Ankeny 

Mrs. Robert M. Bass 

The Honorable Max N. Berry 

Mrs. John M. Bradley 

Mr. Stephen F. Brauer 

Mr. Charles T Brumback 

Mr. Cason J. Callaway, Jr. 

Mr. Ivan Chermayeff 

Mr. Landon T Clay 

Mrs. Dollie A. Cole 

Mr. Peter R. Coneway 

Mr. Thomas Edward Congdon 

Mrs. William H. Cowles, III 

Ms. Joan Dillon 

Mrs. Patricia Frost 

Ms. Nely Galan 

Mr. Bert A. Getz 

Mrs. Gloria Shaw Hamilton, ex officio 

Mrs. Marguerite Harbert 

Marion Edwyn Harrison, Esq. 

Mr. Paul Hertelendy 

Mrs. Ruth S. Holmberg 

Mr. S. Roger Horchow 

Mr. Richard Hunt 

Mr. Robert L. James 

Mr. Edward C. Johnson, III 

Mrs. James W. Kinnear 

Mrs. Marie L. Knowles 

The Honorable Marc E. Leland 

Mr. Donald G. Lubin 

Mr. Frank N. Magid 

Mrs. John F. Mars 

Mr. Michael Peter McBride 

Mrs. Nan Tucker McEvoy 

Dr. George E. Mueller 

Mr. Thomas D. Mullins 

Mr. John N. Nordstrom 

Mrs. Lucio A. Noto 

Mrs. Vivian W Piasecki 

Mr. Heinz C. Prechter 

Mr. David S. Purvis 

Mr. Alvin Puryear 

Mr. Robert Redford 

Mr. Clive Runnells 



Ms. Jill Sadder 

Mr. Leveo V. Sanchez 
Mr. Ivan Selin 
Mrs. Esther Simplot 
Mr. Kenneth L. Smith 
Ms. Kathy Daubert Smith 
Mrs. E. Maynard Smith 
Mr. Kelso F. Sutton 
Mr. Jack W. Warner 
Mr. Jeffrey N. Watanabe 
Mr. Frank A. Weil 
Mr. William R. Wiley 

Honorary Members 

Mr. Robert McC. Adams 

Mr. William S. Anderson 

Mr. Richard P. Cooley 

Mr. Joseph F Cullman, III 

Mr. Charles D. Dickey, Jr. 

The Honorable Leonard K. Firestone 

Mr. Alfred C.Glassell, Jr. 

Mr. W.L. Hadley Griffin 

The Honorable William A. Hewitt 

Mr. James M. Kemper, Jr. 

Mr. Seymour H. Knox, III 

Mr. Lewis A. Lapham 

The Honorable George C. McGhee 

Justice Sandra Day O'Connor 

The Honorable S. Dillon Ripley, II 

Mr. Francis C. Rooney, Jr. 

Mr. Lloyd G. Schermer 

Mrs. Gay F. Wray 



National Gallery of Art 
Board of Trustees 



Mr. Robert F. Erburu 

Mr. Alexander M. Laughlin 

Mrs. Louise W. Mellon 

Mr. Robert H. Smith 

Mrs. Ruth Cattet Stevenson 

Ex Officio 

The Honorable William H. Rehnquist, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ot 
the United States 

The Honotable Warren M. Christopher, 
Secretary of State 



99 



The Honorable Robert E. Rubin, 

Secretary of the Treasury 
Mr. I. Michael Heyman, Secretary of the 

Smithsonian Institution 

Trustee Emeritus 

John R. Stevenson, Esq. 



National Museum of 
African Art Commission 

Prof. David C. Driskell, Chair 

James L. Hudson, Esq., Vice Chair 

Mrs. Frieda Rosenthal, Vice Chair 

Mr. Tom L. Freudenheim, ex officio 

Mr. John A. Fnede 

Mr. Joseph M. Goldenberg 

Dr. Joseph E. Harris 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman, ex officio 

Mrs. Frances Humphrey Howard 

Mrs. Helen Kuhn 

Mr. Brian S. Leyden 

Mr. Robin B. Martin 

The Honorable Frank E. Moss 

Mr. Robert H. Nooter 

Prof. Robert Farris Thompson 

The Honorable Walter E. Washington 



National Museum of 
American Art Commission 



Mrs. Patricia Frost, Chair 

Mr. Ronald D. Abramson, Vice Chair 

Mr. Norman Bernstein 

Mr. Frederick Brown 

Mr. Edwin I. Colodny 

Dr. Wanda M. Corn 

Mrs. Ann Cousins 

Mr. James T. Demetrion 

Mr. Barney A. Ebsworth 

Mrs. Rita Fraad 

Mr. HughHalff.Jr. 

Mr. Walker Hancock 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

Mr. Raymond J. Horowitz 

Mrs. Linda Lichtenberg Kaplan 

Mr. R. Crosby Kemper, Jr. 



Mr. Jacob Lawrence 
Mr. Melvin Lenkin 
Mr. Peter H. Lunder 
Dr. Paul D. Parkman 
Mr. Gerald L. Pearson 
Mr. David S. Purvis 
Mrs. Francoise Rambach 
Mr. Frank K. Ribelin 
Mr. Charles Sawyer 
Mr. Richard J. Schwartz 
Mr. Samuel A. Yanes 



National Museum of the 
American Indian Board of 

Trustees 



Dr. Keith Basso 

Mr. Manley Alan Begay, Jr. 

Dr. Ernest L. Boyer 

The Honorable Barber B. Conable, Jr. 

Mr. George L. Cornell 

Mr. Billy L. Cypress 

Mr. Tom L. Freudenheim 

Mr. Dwight Gourneau 

Ms. Suzan Shown Har]0 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

Dr. NorbertS. Hill, Jr. 

Dr. Frederick E. Hoxie 

The Honorable Daniel Inouye 

Dr. Jennie Joe 

Mr. Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. 

Mr. Gerald R. McMaster 

Ms. Joann Sebastian Morris 

Mr. Waldemar A. Nielsen 

Mr. Allen V. Pinkham, Sr. 

Ms. Nancy Clark Reynolds 

Ms. Ann R. Roberts 

Mr. David Rockefeller, Sr. 

Dr. Helen M. Scheirbeck 

Dr. David Hurst Thomas 

Ms. Rosita Worl 

Ms. Phyllis Young 



National Museum of the 
American Indian Ntional 
Campaign International 
Founders Council 



Mr. Gene A. Keluche, Co-Chair 

Secretary I. Michael Heyman, Co-Chair 

Mr. Robert McC. Adams 

Ms. Ann Simmons Alspaugh 

Mrs. Barbara H. Block 

Mr. James A. Block 

The Honorable Barber B. Conable, Jr. 

Mr. Charles M. Diker 

Mrs. Valerie T. Diker 

Mrs. Joan C. Donner 

Mr. John L. Ernst 

Mrs. Margot P. Ernst 

Ms. Jane Fonda 

Mr. George Gund III 

Mr. Brian C. McK. Henderson 

Mrs. Loretta A. Kaufman 

Mr. Victor A. Kaufman 

Mrs. Seymour H. Knox III 

Mr. Gerald M. Levin 

Mr. Ivan Makil 

Mrs. Nancy Fields O'Connor 

Mr. Lewis S. Ranieri 

Mr. David Rockefeller 

Mrs. Ellen Napiura Taubman 

Mr. William S. Taubman 

Mr. Eugene Victor Thaw 

Mr. R.E. Turner 

Mr. Peterson Zah 

Mrs. Rosalind Begay Zah 



National Museum of 
Natural History Board 

Dr. Isabella CM. Cunningham 

Dr. William B. Ellis 

Mr. Arthur Gray, Jr. 

Mr. John S. Hendricks 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

Mr. David M. Hicks 

Dr. Stanley O. Ikenberry 

Mr. Gilbert S. Kahn 

Dr. Andrew H. Knoll 

Mrs. Jean Lane 

Mr. Quentin R. Lawson 

Mr. Robert H. Malott 



The Honorable James A. McClure 

Mr. Jeffery W. Meyer 

Dr. Nancy R. Morin 

Dr. Donald J. Orrner 

Mr. James R. Patron, Jr. 

Dr. David R. Pilbeam 

Mr. Elmer E. Rasmuson 

Mr. Donald M. Simmons 

The Honorable Alan K. Simpson 

Mr. Alan G. Spoon 

Dr. David B. Wake 

Mr. Milton H. Ward 

Mr. Howard H. Williams, III 

Dr. E-an Zen 



National Portrait Gallery 
Commission 



The Honorable Jeannine Smith Clark, 

Chair 
The Honorable Anthony C. Beilenson 
Mr. Thomas M. Evans 
Prof. Stephen Jay Gould 
Ms. Julie Harris 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman, ex officio 
Mrs. Rurh S. Holmberg 
Prof. David Levering Lewis 
Prof. R.W.B. Lewis 
Ms. Bette Bao Lord 
The Honorable Robert B. Morgan 
Prof. Barbara Novak 
Dr. Earl A. Powell III, ex officio 
The Honorable William H. Rehnquist, 

ex officio 



National Postal Museum 
Advisory Commission 

Mr. Cary H. Baer 

The Honorable Winton M. Blount 

The Honorable William L. Clay 

Mrs. Lovida Coleman 

Ms. Amina Dickerson 

Mr. Azeezaly Jaffer 

Mr. James Michener 

Mr. John J. O'Connor, III 

Ms. Elizabeth C. Pope 

Mr. Douglas A. Riggs 



Mrs. Jeanette Cantrell Rudy 
Mr. Edwin M. Schmidt 
The Honorable Robert Setrakian 
The Honorable Ted Stevens 



National Postal Museum 
Coordinating Committee 



The Honorable Susan E. Alvarado 

Mr. Richard H. Arvonio 

Mr. Ronald E. Becker 

Dr. Spencer R. Crew 

Mr. Tom L. Freudenheim 

Mr. Angus Maclnnes 

The Honorable Marvin T Runyon 

Ms. Nancy D. Suttenfield 



National Science Resources 
Center Advisory Board 

Dr. Robert M. Fitch, Chair 

Dr. Russell Aiuto 

Dr. Mariory Baruch 

Ms. Ann P. Bay 

Ms. DeAnna Banks Beane 

Dr. F. Peter Boer 

Mr. Douglas K. Carnahan 

Dr. William Colglazier 

Dr. Fred P. Corson 

Dr. Goery Delacote 

Ms. JoAnn DeMaria 

Dr. Hubert M. Dyasi 

Mr. James C. Early 

Dr. Bernard S. Finn 

Dr. Gerald David Fischbach 

Mr. Samuel H. Fuller 

Dr. Jerry P. Gollub 

Dr. Ana M. Guzman 

Dr. Robert M. Hazen 

Dr. NorbertS. Hill, Jr. 

Mr. Manert Kennedy 

Dr. John W. Layman 

Ms. Sarah A. Lindsey 

Dr. Thomas E. Love joy 

Dr. Lynn Margulis 

Dr. Mara Mayor 

Dr. Shirley M. McBay 

Dr. Joseph A. Miller, Jr. 



Dr. John A. Moore 
Dr. Philip Needleman 
Dr. Carlo Parravano 
Ms. Ruth O. Selig 
Dr. Maxine F. Singer 
Dr. Paul H. Williams 
Ms. Karen L. Worth 



National Zoological Park 
Resource Council 



Mr. Peter C. Andrews 

Mr. Robert A. Bartlett, Jr. 

Dr. David Challinor 

The Honorable Jeannine Smith Clark 

Mr. George A. Didden, III 

Mrs. Joan C. Donner 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Frazier 

Ms. Caroline D. Gabel 

Mr. Paul B. Green 

Mrs. Ruth S. Holmberg 

Mrs. Laura Howell 

Mrs. John F. Mars 

Mrs. Withrow Weir Meeker 

The Honorable S. Dillon Ripley, II 

Mr. Jeffrey R. Short, Jr. 

Mrs. Judith Stockdale 

Mr. Henry M. Strong 

Mr. M. Lee Sutherland 

Mrs. Beatrix von Hoffmann 



Reading is Fundamental, 
Inc. , Board of Directors 

Mrs. Anne Richardson, Chairman 

Mrs. Ruth Graves, President 

Mr. Arthur White, Vice President 

Mr. Samuel B. Ethndge, Secretary 

Mrs. Jean Head Sisco, Treasurer 

Ms. Alexandra Armstrong 

Ms. Loretta Barrett 

Mr. Leo Beebe 

Mr. William D. Budinger 

Mr. Robert W Coy, Jr. 

Mr. James C. Curvey 

Ms. Patricia Diaz Dennis, Esq. 

Mr. Lloyd Dernckson, Esq. 

Mr. Robert S. Diamond 



IOI 



Mr. Lawrence A. Hough 
Mrs. Karhryn W. Lumley 
Dr. Floretta McKenzie 
Mrs. Lois D. Rice 
Mrs. Lynda Johnson Robb 
Mr. James A. Sutton 



Arthur M. Sackler 
Gallery Visiting 
Committee 

Mrs. John B. Bunker, Chair 

The Honorable Norman Y. Mineta, 

Vice Chair 
Mr. George J. Fan 
Mrs. Hart Fessenden 
Dr. Kurt A. Gitter 
Dr. Florence Cawthorne Ladd 
Mrs. James R. Lilley 
Mrs. Jill Hornor Ma 
Mr. Porter McCray 
Dr. Kenneth X. Robbins 

Mrs. Arthur M. Sackler 

Mr. Sichan Siv 

Mr. Michael R. Sonnenreich 

Mr. Aboulala Soudavar 

Dr. John Kuo Wei Tchen 

Dr. Frederic Wakeman 

Mr. Paul F. Walter 



Smithsonian Institution 
Archives and Special 
Collections Council 



Dt. Thomas F. Soapes, Chair 

Mrs. Rachel M. Allen 

Mr. Alan L. Bain 

Mr. John D. Barbry 

Mr. James B. Byers 

Mr. Timothy Carr 

Ms. Cecilia H. Chin 
Ms. Maygene Daniels 
Dr. John A. Fleckner 
Ms. Christraud Geary 
Ms. Marilyn Graskowiak 
Mrs. Nancy E. Gwinn 
Mr. RobertS. Harding 
Ms. Edie Hedlin 



Ms. Colleen A. Hennessey 

Dr. Pamela M. Henson 

Mr. John Homiak 

Ms. Janet Kennelly 

Ms. Julia Lewis 

Ms. Gail Lowe 

Dr. Lillian B. Miller 

Ms. Lauranne C. Nash 

Mr. C. Jeffrey Place 

Ms. Kathleen Robinson 

Dr. Marc Rothenberg 

Mr. Ross B. Simons 

Dr. Barbara J. Smith 

Ms. Joan R. Stahl 

Mr. Paul H. Theerman 

Mr. Bill Thompkins, Secretary 

Ms. Linda A. Thrift 

Mr. James H. Wallace, Jr. 

Mrs. Beverly Westermeyer 

Mr. Mark A. Wright 

Dr. Judith K. Zilczer 



Smithsonian Institution 
Council 



Dr. Ariun Appadurai 

Dr. Joyce Oldham Appleby 

Dr. Mary Frances Berry 

Mr. Luis R. Cancel 

Dr. George R. Carruthers 

Dr. Linda S. Cordell 

Dr. Ruth Schwartz Cowan 

Prof. Freeman J. Dyson 

Mr. David R. Gergen 

Dr. Arturo Gomez-Pompa 

Dr. Daniel H. Janzen 

Dr. Michael Kammen 

Dr. J. Jorge Klor de Alva 

Dr. Shirley M. McBay 

Mrs. Cheryl McClenney-Brooker 

Dr. Gordon H. Orians 

Dr. Richard J. Powell 

Dr. Lauren B. Resnick 

Dr. Beryl B. Simpson 

Dr. John Kuo Wei Tchen 

Dr. Susan Mullin Vogel 

Dr. Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr. 

Dr. John Walsh 

Dr. Katharine J. Watson 

Dt. Tomas Ybarra-Frausto 



Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries Users Advisory 
Committee 



Dr. Lisa Ceryle Barnett 
Ms. Bryna M. Freyer 
Dr. Conrad Labandiera 
Dr. Brian Marsden 
Dr. Nancy L. Matthews 
Dr. Jess Parker 
Mr. Dominick A. Pisano 
Ms. Michelle K. Smith 
Dr. Barbara J. Smith 
Dr. Deborah Jean Warner 
Mr. Edmund Worthy 



Smithsonian Institution 
Women's Council 



Ms. Heidi L.R. Schwartz, Chair 

Ms. Donna J. Coletti 

Mr. William Gaghan 

Ms. Ann R. Garvey 

Ms. Marilyn Graskowiak 

Ms. Kristine Money 

Ms. Judy Ryan 

Ms. Melissa Snodgrass 

Ms. Donna M. Tillman 



Smithsonian Internship 
Council 



Mrs. Lori H. Aceto 

Ms. Frederica Adelman 

Ms. Wendy Aibel-Weiss 

Ms. Victoria Avera 

Mr. Daryl Ayers 

Ms. Myra Y. Banks 

Ms. Ann M. Bissell 

Mr. Arthur J. Breton 

Ms. Teresia Bush 

Ms. Susan Mond Carpenter 

Ms. Barbara Casana 

Ms. Fay a Causey 

Ms. Montrose R. Cones 

Mr. William E. Cox 

Ms. Deirdre Cross 



102 



Ms. Georgina de Alba 

Dr. Zahava D. Doenng 

Ms. Kimberly L. Dow 

Ms. Mary W. Dyer 

Ms. Berry Epps 

Ms. Leasa Farrar-Frazer 

Ms. Paula Fleremeyer 

Ms. Ann R. Garvey 

Mr. Mark Hadden 

Mr. Robert L. Hall 

Mrs. Judith H. Houston 

Ms. Pamela Elizabeth Hudson 

Mrs. Eileen Jones 

Mr. Perer Kibbee 

Ms. Nancy Lewis 

Ms. Nina Leyva-Gutierrez 

Ms. Sherri Manning 

Ms. Cathy Maree 

Ms. Elena Mayberry 

Ms. Hannah Mullin 

Ms. Lauranne C. Nash 

Mr. Jay Orr 

Ms. Karen Otiji 

Mr. Mark Ramella 

Ms. Arlene Reiniger 

Ms. Phyllis Rosenzweig 

Dr. Marc Rothenberg 

Mr. Jim Rubenstein 

Ms. Alyce Sadongei 

Ms. Mary Sangrey 

Mrs. Magdalene C. Schremp 

Mr. Tim Smith 

Mr. William G. Tompkins 

Mr. Bruce Underwood 

Ms. Esrher Washington 

Ms. Mari Lu White 

Ms. Alison Wickens 

Mr. Donald C. Williams 

Mr. Michael Wilpers 

Mr. Howard Youth 



Woodrow Wilson 
International Center for 
Scholars Board of Trustees 

Joseph H. Flom, Esq., Chair 

Mr. Dwayne O. Andreas, Vice Chair 

The Honorable James A. Baker, III 

Dr. James H. Billington 

Joseph A. Can, Jr., Esq. 

The Honorable John W. Carlin 

The Honorable Warren M. Christopher 

The Honorable Joseph D. Duffey 

The Honorable Sheldon Hackney 

Ms. Jean L. Hennessey 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

Dr. Gertrude Himmelfarb 

Dr. Carol Iannone 

Mr. Eli S. Jacobs 

The Honorable Anthony Lake 

Mr. Paul Hae Park 

The Honorable Richard W. Riley 

The Honorable S. Dillon Ripley, II 

The Honorable Donna E. Shalala 



The Smithsonian Women's 
Committee 

Mrs. Gloria Shaw Hamilton, Chair 

Mrs. Parker S. Oliphant, Vice Chair 

Mrs. Doniphan Carter, Treasurer 

Mrs. John Franklin, Secretary 

Mrs. Gloria Allen 

Mrs. James M. Beggs 

Mrs. Christine Blazina 

Mrs. Philip S. Bowie 

Mrs. I. Townsend Burden, III 



Mrs. Margaret Bush 

Mrs. Thomas J. Camp, Jr. 

Mrs. John F. Clark 

Mrs. Lloyd E. Clayton 

Mrs. Richard Cobb 

Mrs. Margaret Collins 

Mrs. Louis J. Cordia 

Mrs. William Gruman Cox 

Mrs. Willis D. Cnttenberger, Jr. 

Mrs. Allen R. Cross, Jr. 

Mrs. J. Edward Day 

Mrs. Philip S. Dickson 

Mrs. Alan P. Dye 

Mrs. Rockwood H. Foster 

Mrs. Harriet Sweeney Fraunfelter 

Mrs. Paul R. Gibson 

Mrs. John W. Gill 

Mrs. Walter Y.K. Goo 

Ms. Allison Butler Hernck 

Mrs. Omer L. Hirst 

Mrs. Anne Stevens Hobler 

Mrs. James P. Holden 

Mrs. George H. Hughey 

Mrs. John Hunnicurt 

Mrs. Aaron G. Jackson 

Mrs. Donald W Jeffries 

Mrs. George W. Jones 

Ms. Patricia Larkin 

Mrs. Bruce K. MacLaury 

Mrs. Middleton A. Marnn 

Mrs. Arthur K. Mason 

Mrs. James K. Mitchell 

Mrs. Suzanne Moore 

Mrs. Horace White Peters 

Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 

Mrs. Peter Talbot Russell 

Mrs. William C. Thompson 

Mrs. Joy Vige 

Mrs. James Bud Ward 

Mrs. John R.Webster 

Mrs. Philip C. White 



103 



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104 



Arts and Humanities 



Academic, Research 
Training, and Internship 
Appointments and 
Research Associates in 
Fiscal Year 1995 



The first section lists recipients of fellowships and 
other appointments awarded to scholars and advanced 
students under the auspices of the Office of Fellowships 
and Grants. Students and museum professionals who 
held museum internships or participated in special pro- 
jects administered by the Office of Museum Programs 
are listed in the second section. The third section con- 
tains a listing of Smithsonian Research Associates. 



Academic and Research 
Training Appointments 

The Smithsonian offers, through the Office of Fellow- 
ships and Grants, research and study appointments to 
visiting scientists, scholars, and students. The ap- 
pointees are provided access to the Institution's facili- 
ties, staff specialties, and reference resources. The 
persons — listed by bureau or office — in this Appendix 
began their residencies between October i, 1994, and 
September 30, 1995, and have been in residence for three 
months or longer. Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Fellows, 
Visiting Scientists or Scholars, and other awardees and 
participants in special programs are so listed. Listed for 
each Fellow or Visitor is the institution where each 
received, or expects to receive, a degree or the home 
university or institution; a brief description of the 
project undertaken at the Smithsonian; the Smithsonian 
advisor; and dates of residency. 



Anacostia Museum 



Audrey Brown, SI Graduate Fellow, American University. 
"Women of African Descent, Religion, Cultural Continuity 
and Change," with Portia James and Gail Lowe, from Sep- 
tember I, 1995 to November 15, 1995. 



Center for Museum Studies 



Teresa Morales, Fellow in Museum Practice, Programa de 
Museos Comunitarious y Ecomu. "The Cultural Appropria- 
tion and Community Museums," with Nancy Fuller, from 
August I, 1995 to October 31, 1995. 



Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 



Tracy Ehrlich, Peter Kruger/Chnstie's Fellow, Columbia Uni- 
versity. "The Villa Mondragone and Early Seventeenth- 
Century Villeggiatura at Frascati," with Marilyn Symmes 
and Maria Ann Conelli, from September I, 1995 to May 31, 
1996. 

Enrique Limon, SI Graduate Fellow, The Architectural Associ- 
ation. "Art Theory and Urbanism and its Relationship to 
City Making," with Susan Yelavich, from August I, 1995 to 
October 15, 1995. 



Freer Gallery of Art 



Quanyu Wang, Forbes Fellow, Peking University. "Systematic 
Research on the Corrosion of Qucun's Bronzes," with W. 
Thomas Chase, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 



Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 



Mansa Kayyem, SI Predoctoral Fellow, Columbia University. 
"Thomas Eakins' Late Bust Portraits: Identity and Topol- 
ogy in Turn of the Century Portraiture," with Phyllis 



105 



Rosenzweig and Mary Panzer, from September I, 1995 to 
August 31, 1996. 



Mark Wolfire, Senior Research Fellow, NASA. "Infrared Emis- 
sion from ISO," with Howard Smith, from September II, 
1995 to September 10, 1996. 



Institutional Studies Office 



Helen Glazer, Fellow in Museum Practice, Goucher College. 
"Creation and Test of a Prototype for a Self-Guided Walk- 
ing Tour of Works in the Permanent Collections of the 
Smithsonian Institution Musems," with Zahava Doering, 
from November 14, 1994 to July 15, 1995. 



National African American 
Museum Project 



Bob Myers, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of California, 
Los Angeles. "Do You See What I See v : Wild Communica- 
tion in Darkness," with Deborah Braithwaite and Claudine 
Brown, from July I, 1995 to September 30, 1995. 



National Museum of African Art 



Aisha Fadhil Ali, International Exchange Fellow, Fort Jesus 
Museum. "Study of Exhibition Development and Design in 
Preparation for a Re-Installation of the Major Exhibition 
Hall at Fort Jesus Museum in Mombasa, Kenya," with 
Philip Ravenhill, from January 15, 1995 to March 10, 1995. 

Amanda Carlson, SI Graduate Fellow, Indiana University. 
"Ob|ect Photography: Representing African Art," with 
Christraud Geary, from May 8, 1995 to July 14, 1995. 

Helen Shannon, Columbia University, "The Reception of Afri- 
can Art in the United States From 1905 to 1945 and Its In- 
fluence on American Modenst Art," with Philip Ravenhill, 
from April I, 1995 to February 28, 1996. 



National Museum of American Art 



National Air and Space Museum 



Mark Bulmer, Gaber Fellow, University of London. "An Inves- 
tigation into the Possible Reasons for Apparent Mobility of 
Debris Aprons on Venus and the Mechanisms of Caldera 
Formation," with Thomas Watters, from June I, 1995 to 
May 31, 1996. 

Donald Engen, Ramsey Fellow, Alexandria, Virginia, "The 
History of United States Naval Flight," with Thomas 
Crouch, from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. 

Sarah Fagents, Lancaster University, England, "Basaltic Lava 
Fountains on Earth, Venus, and Mars," with James Zimbel- 
man, from January 20, 1995 to January 19, 1996. 

Erik Rau, Guggenheim Predoctoral Fellow, University of 
Pennsylvania. "PERT and the Culture of Integration: Oper- 
ations Research, Systems Engineering, and American Soci- 
ety form the Cold War to the Great Society," with Robert 
Smith, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Jill Snider, Verville Fellow, University of North Carolina. 
"The Lone Eagle and African- American Visions of America, 
1927-1941," with Dominick Pisano and Cathleen Lewis, 
from August I, 1995 to July 31, 1996. 

Vladimir Strelnitski, Visiting Scientist, Institute for Astron- 
omy, Russian Academy of Sciences. "Hydrogen Maser Emis- 
sion from the Infrared Galaxy M82," with Howard Smith, 
from June I, 1995 to September 30, 1995. 



Jack Becker, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Delaware. "A 
Taste for Landscape: Tonalism in America, 1880-1920," with 
William Truettner, from September 1, 1995 to May 31, 1996. 

Neil Harris, Distinguished Scholar of American Art, Univer- 
sity of Chicago. "Research on Twentieth Century Land- 
scape; Attitudes Toward Visual Culture; and Building 
Rituals, Museums, and Newspaper Buildings ," with Eliza- 
beth Broun, from September I, 1995 to May 31, 1996. 

Janet Headley, Loyola College, "Structuring Urban Space: 
Public Sculpture in Boston, 1825— 1900," with George 
Gurney, from June 1, 1995 to May 31, 1996. 

Cynthia Mills, University of Maryland, College Park, "The 
Adams Memorial and Its Impact: American Funerary Sculp- 
ture, 1891-1925," with George Gurney, from November I, 
1994 to April 30, 1995. 

Jonathan Yorba, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Califor- 
nia, Berkeley. "Picturing Miscegenation: Multiracial Imag- 
ery in American Art, 1848-1967," with Andrew Connors, 
from September n, 1995 to September 10, 1996. 



National Museum of American History 



Barbara Allen, SI Graduate Fellow, Resselaer Polytechnic In- 
stitute. "Environmental History of the Chemical Corridor 



106 



in Louisiana," with Jeffrey Seine, from July 17, 1995 to Sep- 
tember 22, 1995. 

Angela Blake, SI Graduate Fellow, American University. 
"Street Advertising and the Construction of Urban Con- 
sumer Geographies in New York City, 1880-1930," with 
Charles McGovern, from June 5, 1995 to August II, 1995. 

Martha Burns, SI Predoctoral Fellow, Brown University. "A 
Piano in the Parlor: Music and the Making of Victorian 
Culture in America, 1790-1860," with Cynthia Hoover, 
from September I, 1995 to May 31, 1996. 

Valentijn Byvanck, SI Graduate Fellow, New York University. 
"The Making of American Nationalism, 1820-1860," with 
Charles McGovern and Larry Bird, from June 15, 1995 to 
July 15, 1995. 

Arlene Davila, The Graduate Center, CUNY, "From the Center 
ro the Centros: Dynamics of Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico," 
with Marvette Perez, from April 15, 1995 to April 14, 1996. 

Laura Edwards, University of South Florida, "The Politics and 
Power of Womanhood and Manhood: Reconstruction in 
the U.S. South," with Pete Daniel, from February I, 1995 to 
October 31, 1995. 

Sungook Hong, University of Toronto, "Research on the Early 
History of Vacuum Tube Engineering: The Triode Revolu- 
tion and the Development of Amplifiers-Oscillators," with 
Bernard Finn, from June 1, 1995 to May 31, 1996. 

Janet Hutchison, Visiting Scholar, Appalacian State Univer- 
sity. "Housing Identify: Gender, Architecture and Ameri- 
can Culture," with Rodris Roth, from January I, 1994 to 
August 30, 1995. 

Meg Jacobs, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Virginia. 
"The Politics of Purchasing Power: The Rise of Mass Con- 
sumption and the Evolution of a Modern American Politi- 
cal Economy, 1919-1959," with Harry Rubenstein and Larry 
Bird, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Shelley Kaplan, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Virginia. 
"Object Lessons: Designing Household Appliances, 1920- 
60," with Steve Lubar, from September 15, 1995 to Septem- 
ber 14, 1996. 

Craig Keller, SI Predoctoral Fellow, George Washington Uni- 
versity. "Civil Religion During the Cold War: A Study of 
Civil Religious Symbolism and Material Culture," with 
Larry Bird and James Bruns, from June I, 1995 to August 

31. 1995- 

Anna McCarthy, Northwestern University, "Early American 
Television and Public Space: The Tavern and the Depart- 
ment Store in the Late Forties," with Larry Bird, from Janu- 
ary IO, 1995 to April 10, 1995. 

Lynn McRainey, Fellow in Museum Practice, Chicago Histoti- 
cal Society. "Interpreting History Through Interactive Ex- 
periences," with Lonn Taylor and Nancy McCoy, from 
October 21, 1994 to February 28, 1995. 

Tey Nunn, SI Graduate Fellow, University of New Mexico. 
"Hispana/o Artists of the Works Progress Administration 
(WPA) in New Mexico," with Richard Ahlborn, from June 
I, 1995 to August IO, 1995. 



Barry Shank, University of Kansas, "Design and Sentiment: 
Cultural Production in the American Greeting Card Indus- 
try," with Charles McGovern, from January 15, 1995 to July 

•4. 1995 

Deborah Steinbach, SI Predoctoral Fellow, New York Univer- 
sity. "Lines of Scrimmage: A Gender History of American 
Sports 1915-1940," with Ellen Hughes, from June 15, 1995 to 
June 14, 1996. 

Stefan Timmermans, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, University of 
Illinois. "Saving Lives: Mechanical Versus Manual Resusci- 
tation Techniques," with Ramunas Kondratas, from June I, 
1995 to August 31, 1995. 

Terence Young, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, Ciemson University. 
"Heading Out: Camping in America, 1870-1990," with 
Jeffrey Stine, from August I, 1995 to July 31, 1996. 



National Museum of the 
American Indian 



Nigel Holman, Fellow in Museum Practice, A:shiwi A:wan 
Musuem & Heritage Center. "Debating the Curation and 
Use of Historic Photographs in Museums and Archives," 
with Clara Sue Kidwell and Eulalie Bonar, from March I, 
1995 to May 30, 1995. 

Emily Kaplan, Postgraduate Conservation Fellow, Queen's 
University, Canada. "Conservation of Archaeological and 
Ethnographic Materials," with Marian A. Kaminitz, from 
November I, 1994 to October 31, 1995. 

Rose Wyaco, Visiting Scholar, Zuni, New Mexico. 
"Photographs for the Hedncks-Hodge Expedition at 
Hawikuh," with Alyce Sadongei, from March I, 1995 to 
May 31, 1995. 



National Portrait Gallery 

Julie Brown, SI Senior Fellow, University of Texas, San Anto- 
nio. "Making Photography Public: Exposition, Fairs, Exhi- 
bitions, and Displays in the United States," with Mary- 
Panzer and Deborah Warner, from June 19, 1995 to October 
20, 1995. 

Stephanie Cassidy, SI Ptedoctoral Fellow, University of Cali- 
fornia, San Diego. "Reconstructing the Artist: The Rise of 
the Art Students League, 1875— 1915," with Lillian Miller, 
from September 1, 1995 to August 30, 1996. 



107 



Education and Public Service 



Center for Folklife Programs and 
Cultural Studies 



Gina Sanchez, SI Graduate Fellow, University of Texas. "Di- 
versifying Cape Verdan American Scholarship," with John 
Franklin and Raymond Almeida, from June I, 1995 to Au- 
gust 20, 1995. 

Wendy Walters, SI Graduate Fellow, Cornell University. 
"Labor's Lost and Other Sad Songs: Dislocation and Dispos- 
session in the Blues," with Anthony Seeger and Diana 
Band N'Diaye, from May 22, 1995 to July 28, 1995. 



Finance and Administration 



Horticultural Services Division 



Judy Wells, Enid A. Haupt Fellow in Horticulture, Univer- 
sity of Maryland. "Pest Management in the Haupt Garden; 
Developing and Implementing an Integrated Management 
Program," with Nancy J. Bechtol, from June 1, 1995 to May 
31. 1997- 



Paul Koening, Graduate Fellow in Furniture Conservation, 
Antioch University. "Study of the Relationship Between 
'Original' Coating and Barrier Coats with Synthetic Poly- 
mers on Furniture," with Melvin Wachowiak, from Septem- 
ber I, 1995 to August 30, 1996. 

Mark Kutney, Graduate Fellow in Furniture Conservation, An- 
tioch University. "Study of the Affects of the Manufactur- 
ing Process on Shellacs Performance as a Furniture 
Coating," with Melvin Wachowiak, from September 1, 1995 
to August 30, 1996. 

Catherine McGee, Postgraduate Conservation Intern, University 
of Delaware. "Archaeological Conservation Training," with 
Carol Grissom, from September 4, 1995 to September 3, 1996. 

Charles Moore, Graduate Fellow in Furniture Conservation, 
Antioch University. "Identification and Study of Materials 
Used to Emulate Gold Leaf in High-Style Architectural El- 
ements from 1880-1920," with Melvin Wachowiak, from 
September I, 1995 to August 30, 1996. 

Andrew Robb, University of Delaware, "Investigation of the 
Consolidation of Flaking Gelatin Binder on Glass Plate 
Negatives; The Investigation of Exhibition on Photo- 
graphs," with Diane van der Reyden, from October 17, 1994 
to October 16, 1995. 

Ellen Rosenthal, Post-graduate Fellow, Archaeological Conser- 
vation, University of London. "Archaeological Conservation 
Training," with Carol Grissom, from September I, 1995 to 
August 30, 1996. 

Daniela Triadan, Postdoctoral Fellow, Freie Universitat, Ber- 
lin. "Provenance and Production of White Mountain Red- 
ware from Kinishba Pueblo, East-central Arizona," with 
Ronald Bishop, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 



Sciences 



Conservation Analytical Laboratory 



Patrick Albert, Conservation Internship, Antioch University, 
Canada. "Literature Search on Shellac Based Period Furni- 
ture Varnishes," with Donald Williams, from June 12, 1995 
to June II, 1996. 

Holly Anderson, CAL Third Year Intern, Buffalo State Col- 
lege. "Scientific and Historic Research in the Use of Red 
Chalk in Drawings," with Diane van der Reyden, from Oc- 
tober 2, 1994 to September 2, 1995. 

John Courtney, Conservation Internship, Antioch University, 
Canada. "A Survey of Gilt Stenciling on Philadelphia Furni- 
ture," with Donald Williams, from June 15, 1995 to June 14, 
1996. 



National Museum of Natural History 



Debra Bemis, SI Graduate Fellow, University of California, 
Santa Barbara. "Characterization of the Enzymatic Oxida- 
tion of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in an Isolated Chloro- 
plast Fraction from Anadyomene stellata," with James 
Norris, from June 1, 1995 to August 15, 1995. 

Cynthia Caplen, Mellon Visiting Student, Old Dominion 
University. "Genetic Relationships in the Blechnum 
Occidentale Group," with Charles Werth and W.John 
Kress, from January I, 1995 to July I, 1995. 

Joseph Dineen, University of Maryland, College Park, "Trans- 
port of Brachyuran Larvae in a Coastal Lagoon," with 
Anson Hines, from October I, 1994 to April 30, 1995 

Don Dumond, University of Oregon, "Archaeology of the 
Hillside Site, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska," with William 
Fitzhugh, from January 16, 1995 to May 15, 1995. 

Michael Dillon, Field Museum of Natural History, "Generic 
Flora of the Paramos," with Laurence Dorr, from November 
I, 1994 to November 30, 1994. 



108 



Patricia Erikson, University of California, Davis, "The Role of 
the Smithsonian Institution in the Professionalization of 
Tribal Museology," with William Merrill, from January I, 
1995 to March 21, 1995. 

Jennifer Frick, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, Clemson University. 
"Establishment of Larval Polarity," with Mary Rice, from 
Seprember I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Debra Gold, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Michigan. 
"Subsistence, Health and Emergent Social Inequality: Oste- 
ological Analysis of Three Late Woodland Sites in Interior 
Virginia," with Douglas Ubelaker, from August 15, 1995 to 
June 15, 1996. 

William Hahn, Visiting Scientist, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison. "Molecular Phylogenetics of the Monocots," with 
Elizabeth Zimmer, from July I, 1995 to November 1, 1995. 

Gregory Kallemeyn, SI Senior Fellow, University of Califor- 
nia, Los Angeles. "Compositions of Chondrites," with Eu- 
gene Jarosewich, from September I, 1995 to November 30, 

1995- 

Eija-Maija Kotilainen, Academy of Finland, "Gender and Ma- 
terial Culture in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia," with Paul 
Taylor, from January I, 1995 to June 30, 1995. 

Marion Kotrba, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Regens- 
burg, Germany. "Comparative Morphology of the Internal 
Female Reproductive Tract: A Contribution to our Under- 
standing of Schizophoran (Diptera) Phylogeny," with 
Wayne Mathis, from July 1, 1995 to June 30, 1996. 

Paul Kramer, SI Predoctoral Fellow, Princeton University. 
"U.S. Anthropology in the Occupied Philippines, 1899— 
1914," with Paul Taylor and Charles McGovern, from Sep- 
tember I, 1995 to June 30, 1996. 

Robert Kuzoff, Visiting Student, Washington State Univer- 
sity. "Molecular Phylogenetics of Plants: New Approaches 
for Studies of Molecular and Morphological Divergence," 
with Elizabeth Zimmer, from January 15, 1995 to June 30, 

1995- 

Paul Lewis, North Carolina State University, "Robustness of 
Maximum Likelihood Phylogeny Inference to Departures 
From Model Assumptions," with David Swofford, from No- 
vember 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. 

Leigh Johnson, Visiting Student, Washington State Unvers- 
ity. "Molecular Phylogenetics of Plants: New Approaches 
for Studies of Molecular Divergence," with Elizabeth Zim- 
mer, from January 15, 1995 to June 30, 1996. 

Mary Muungu, Visiting Museum Professional, National Mu- 
seums of Kenya. "Study of Conservation and Collections 
Policy at the National Musuem of Natural History," with 
Richard Potts, from April 30, 1995 to June 30, 1995. 

Sandra Romano, Kewalo Marine Laboratory, "Molecular Anal- 
ysis of Phylogenetic relationships of Families of Corals 
(Phylum Cnidana, Order Scleractinia)," with Stephen 
Cairns and Michael Braun, from April 20, 1995 to April 19, 
1996. 

Tod Reeder, American Museum of Natural History, "The Use 
of Multiple Data Sets in Phylogenetic Analysis and the 



Phylogenetic Placement of the Limbless Squamates," with 
Kevin de Queiroz, trom November 14, 1994 to November 

13. <995- 
Stephen Reyes, Snow Entomological Museum, "Cladistic 
Analysis and a Study of the Evolution of Social Behavior of 
the Exoneura Bees (Apidae: Xylocopinae Allodapini)," with 
Ronald McGinley, from January I, 1995 to December 31, 

1995- 

Sara Russell, Visiting Scientist, California Institute of Tech- 
nology. "The Distribution of 26AI in Early Solar System: 
Constraints on Solar System Chronology," with Glenn Mac- 
Pherson, from February I, 1995 to January 31, 1996. 

Gregory Scheib, Visiting Student, George Washington Uni- 
versity. "Associating Archival Information with Museum 
Collections Using CD-ROMs and Virtual Museums," with 
Paul Taylor and Bruno Frohlich, from June 26, 1995 to Jan- 
uary 5, 1996. 

John Skillman, Visiting Scientist, Duke University. "Conse- 
quences of Seasonal Changes in Light and Water Resources 
for Photosynthetic Physiology and Plant Productivity in 
Aechmea magdaknae , a CAM Species Native to the Rain- 
forest Floor in Panama," with Klaus Winter, from October 
I, 1994 to September 30, 1995. 

Scott Steppan, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Chicago. 
"Development Constraints and Tail Evolution in Mam- 
mals," with Michael Carleton and Richard Thonngton, 
from October 15, 1995 to October 14, 1996. 

Ljubov Tjukova, Visiting Scientist, Institute of Zoology. "Sys- 
tematic Studies of the Fossil Rodents and Lagomorphs 
from the Tertiary Deposits of the Zaysan Basin in North- 
eastern Kazakhstan," with Robert Emry, from January 1, 
1995 to May 31, 1995. 

Lucy Thomason, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Texas, 
Austin. "An Investigation of Discourse Structure in Fox," 
with Ives Goddard, from August 10, 1995 to August 9, 
1996. 

Christopher Tudge, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, University of 
Queensland. "Phylogeny of Anomuran Crustaceans 
(Decapoda) Based on the Gross Morphology and Ultra- 
structure of Spermatophores and Spermatozoa," with Rafael 
Lemaitre, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Peter Wagner, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Chicago. 
"Phylogenetic and Motphometric Analysis of Paleozoic 
Gastropods," with Douglas Erwin, from September I, 1995 
to August 31, 1996. 

Banyue Wang, Visiting Scholar, Academia Sinica. "Compari- 
son of the Small Rodents found in Kazakhstan to Rodents 
of a Similar Age found in China," with Robert Emry, from 
March I, 1995 to May 1, 1995. 

Jill Weber, SI Graduate Fellow, University of Pennsylvania. 
"Animal Exploitation at 3rd/2nd Millennium Tell-es- 
Sweyhat," with Melinda Zeder, from September 18, 1995 to 
November 24, 1995. 

Charles Werth, Mellon Senior Fellow, Texas Tech University. 
"Genetic Relationships in the Blechnum Occidentale 



109 



Group, A Neotropical Hybrid/Polyploid Species Complex of 
Ferns," wirh John Kress, from January I, 1995 to June 30, 1995. 

Matthew Wills, University of Bristol, "Phylogeny and Mor- 
phological Disparity of Fossil and Recent Ctustacea," with 
Douglas Erwin and Conrad Labandeira, from January 10, 
1995 to January 9, 1996. 

Liling Xiang, Visiting Student, Beijing Natural History Mu- 
seum. "Genetic Relationships in the Blechnum Occidentale 
Group," with Charles Werth and John Kress, from January 
15, 1995 to May 14, 1995. 

Jin Yugan, Visiting Scientist, Academia Sinica. "End-Permian 
Mass Extinction," with Douglas Erwin, from September 3, 
1995 to October 17, 1995. 

Jutta Zipfel, "Origin of Olivine in Pallasitic Meteorites: Evi- 
dence from Trace Elements in Olivine," with Glenn Mac- 
Pherson, from October I, 1994 to September 30, 1995. 



National Zoological Park 



Janette Boughman, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Mary- 
land. "Group Recognition, Vocal Learning and Information 
Transfer in a Group-Foraging Bat, Phyllostomus hastatus," 
with Eugene Morton, from June 1, 1995 to May 31, 1996. 

Kathy Carlstead, Visiting Scientist, Takoma Park, Maryland. 
"Methods of Behavioral Assessment for the Captive Propa- 
gation of Endangered Species," with Devra Kleiman, from 
January I, 1995 to March 31, 1995. 

Adriana Grativol, Visiting Student, University of Maryland, 
College Park. "Population Genetics and Evolution of the 
Genus Leontopithecus," with Robert Fleischer, from Sep- 
tember I, 1995 to August 30, 1996. 

Matthew Hamilton, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, Brown Univer- 
sity. "The Influence of Forest Reserve Size on Standing Ge- 
netic Variation and Paternity Pool Diversity in Tropical 
Forest Plants," with Robert Fleischer, from September 15, 
1995 to September 14, 1996. 

Thomas Hildebrandt, Short Term Visitor, Institut fur Zoo- 
und Wildtierforschung. "An Examination of Various Ani- 
mal Species Using Ultrasonic," with Dick Montali, from 
July I, 1995 to January 30, 1996. 

Peter Leimgruber, Visiting Student, University of Oklahoma. 
"Abundance and Diversity of Songbirds and Small Mam- 
mals in Managed Forest Mosaics," with William McShea, 
from May 15, 1995 to August 15, 1995. 

Catherine Morrow, Visiting Student, George Mason University. 
"Understanding Reptoductive Mechanisms to Conserve the 
Endangered Scimitar-Horned Oryx (Oryx dammah)" with Ste- 
ven Monfort, from May 1, 1985 to July 31, 1997. 

Linda Penfold, Visiting Scientist, United States Department 
of Agriculture. "Crisis in Parrot Conservation: The Poten- 
tial of 'Assisted' Breeding," with David Wildt, from July I, 
1995 to June 30, 1996. 



Ellen Paxinos, SI Predoctoral Fellow, Brown University. 

"Using Ancient DNA Techniques to Determine the Effects 
of a Population Bottleneck on Genetic Variability and Pop- 
ulation Structure in the Hawaiian Goose," with Robert 
Fleischer, from August 15, 1995 to August 14, 1996. 

Jay Schulkin, Visiting Scientist, National Institute of Mental 
Health. "Self-Selection of Minerals in the Desert Tortoise 
(Gopherus Agassizii)," with Olav Oftedal, from April I, 
1995 to September 30, 1995. 

Michael Schwartz, SI Graduate Fellow, American University. 
"An Examination of the Breeding Biology of the Hum- 
boldt Penguin Using Molecular Genetic Techniques," with 
Daryl Boness, from June 19, 1995 to August 25, 1995. 

Daniel Shilhto, SI Graduate Fellow, State University of New 
York, Albany. "Attribution of False Knowledge States in 
Orangutans," with Benjamin Beck, from June I, 1995 to 
August 10, 1995. 

Katerina Thompson, Visiting Scientist, University of Mary- 
land, College Park. "Olfactory Control of Reproduction in 
Female Sable Antelope: Behavioral and Physiological Mech- 
anisms of Estrous Synchrony," with Christen Wemmer, 
from June 1, 1995 to August 31, 1995. 

Lisa Wooninck, University of California, Santa Barbara, "Mea- 
surements of Relative Sperm Contribution Correlated with 
Distribution of Paternity in an External Fertilizing Spe- 
cies," with Robert Fleischer, from January 2, 1995 to March 
10,1995. 



Office of Smithsonian Institution Archives 



Hae-Gyung Geong, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison. "Exerting Control: Biology and Bureau- 
cracy in the Development of American Entomology, 
1870-1930," with Pamela Henson, from August 15, 1995 to 
April 14, 1996. 

Elizabeth Hanson, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Penn- 
sylvania. "American Zoos: A Cultural History," with Pa- 
mela Henson, from Septembet 15, 1995 to March 15, 1996. 

Joseph Taylor, SI Predoctoral Fellow, Univetsity of Washing- 
ton. "Making Salmon: Transcontinental Discourse in Fish 
Culture, 1870— 1941," with Pamela Henson, from June 15, 
1995 to September 14, 1995. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 



Joao Alves, Visiting Student, University of Lisbon. "A Study 
of the Clustering Properties of Young Stars and its Relation 
to Dense Molecular Cloud Cores," with Charles Lada, from 
February 6, 1995 to February 5, 1996. 



no 



MinQi Bao, Visiting Student, University of Nebraska. "Multi- 
photon Detachment (MPD) of Negative Ions in a Static 
Electric Field," with Eric Heller, from August 28, 1995 to 
November 30, 1995. 

Cesar Briceno, Predoctoral Fellowship, Universidad Central 
de Venezuela. "Search for Very Low Mass Pre-Main Se- 
quence Stars in Nearby Star Forming Regions," with Lee 
Hartman, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Patrick Boyle, Visiting Student, University College, Dublin. 
"Extracting the Spectra of TeV X-Ray Sources and Electronic/ 
Optical Upgrading of the 10 meter Relfector," with Trevor 
Weekes, from September 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. 

Nuria CaJvet, Visiting Scientist, Centra de Investigaciones de 
Astomomia. "Infalling Envelopes; Magnetospheres in T 
Tauri Stars; Near Infrared Bands of CO from Accretion 
Disks," with Lee Hartmann, from March I, 1995 to August 
31, 1996. 

Ming-Tang Chen, Visiting Scientist, Academia Sinica, Taipei. 
"Engineering and Operation of the Ongoing Sub-MM 
Array Project," with Paul Ho, from July I, 1995 to Decem- 
ber 31, 1995. 

Junfeng Chen, Short Term Visitor, Shanghai Jiao-Tong Uni- 
versity. "Calculations of Energy Transfer in the Elastic Col- 
lisions of Fast Nitrogen and Oxygen Atoms," with 
Alexander Dalgarno, from October 1, 1994 to December 31, 
1994. 

Eduardo Hector Colombo, Visiting Student, Buenos Aires 
University. "Observation of AE Aqi and PSR1752 with the 
use of the Whipple 10m Gamma-Ray Telescope," with 
Trevor Weekes, from July 12, 1995 to October 15, 1995. 

Valerie Connaughton, Visiting Student, University College, 
Ireland. "Search for Gamma-Ray Bursts in the 10m Reflec- 
tor Data-Base," with Trevor Weekes, from March 15, 1995 
to June 15, 1995. 

Manuel Ruiz Delgado, Visiting Student, Universidad 

Politecnica de Madrid. "Dynamics of Multi-Probe Tethered 
Satellites Deployed into the Relatively Dense Layers of the 
Earth's Atmosphere," with Enrico Lorenzini, from July I, 
1995 to September 30, 1995. 

Antonaldo Diafeno, Visiting Scientist, University of Milano. 
"Investigation of Interacting Galaxies and Galaxy Meging 
in the Current Epoch," with Margaret Geller, from Novem- 
ber I, 1995 to September 30, 1996. 

Charles Gammie, Postdoctoral Fellow, Virginia Institution for 
Theoretical Astronomy. "Galactic Structure: How Mixed 
Star and Gas Disks Differ From the Single-Component 
Models Studied in Classical Density Wave Theory and The 
Magnetic Instability in Accretion Disks," with Ramesh 
Narayan, from February I, 1995 to August 31, 1995. 

Jose Miguel Girart, University of Bareclona, "High Angular 
Resolution Radio Observations of Molecular and Herbig- 
Haro Outflow Regions," with Paul Ho, from October 1, 
1994 to September 30, 1996. 

Mark Gurwell, Postdoctoral Fellow, California Technical Insti- 
tute. "Research related to the Submillimeter Wavelength 



Interferometry," with Paul Ho, from September I, 1995 to 
August 31, 1995. 

Lambertus Hartmann, Visiting Scientist, University of Leiden. 
"Use of the Clean HI Sky Maps from Data Collected with the 
Dwingeloo Single-Dish Radio Telescope to Instigate New CO 
Observations with the 1.2m Radio Telescope," with Patrick 
Thaddeus, from December 1, 1994 to November 30, 1995. 

Luis Ho, CfA Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, 
Berkeley. "The Properties and Luminosity Function of Low- 
Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei," with Mark Reid and 
Alan Knezevich, from August 15, 1995 to August 14, 1996. 

William Hoston, Visiting Student, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. "Study of the Bose-Einstem Condensation," 
with Eric Heller, from Octobet I, 1994 to January 31, 1995. 

Mahir Hussein, Visiting Scientist, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. "Study of Semiclassical Coupled-Cannels De- 
scription of the Electron-Molecule Scattering within the 
Vibron Model of Diatomic Molecules," with Eric Heller, 
from February I, 1995 to July 31, 1995. 

Rolf Jansen, Predoctoral Fellowship, Kapteyn Astronomical 
Institute. "Theories of Galaxy Evolution," with Daniel Fab- 
ricant, from September 1, 1995 to February 29, 1996. 

Vasili Kharchenko, Visiting Scientist, St. Petersburg Techni- 
cal University. "Thermalization of Fast Nitrogen Atom in 
the High Thermosphere and NO Production by Energetic 
N Atoms," with Alexander Dalgarno, from January I, 1995 
to October 31, 1995. 

Richard Kiely, Visiting Student, St. Patrick's College. "Im- 
plementation and Testing of a Low-Cost Cherenkov Imag- 
ing Telescope," with Trevor Weekes, from August 12, 1995 
to February 12, 1996. 

Rodney Lessard, Visiting Student, University College, Dub- 
lin. "Observations with the Whipple Telescopes Aimed at 
Extending the EGRET Observations on Supernova Rem- 
nants to Higher Energies," with Trevor Weekes, from May 
I, 1995 to June 20, 1995. 

Chien-Nan Liu, Visiting Student, University of Nebraska. 
"Photodetachment of Li- Below the Li(3s) Threshold and 
Multiphoton Detachment of Li-," with Eric Heller, from 
August 28, 1995 to December 31, 1995. 

Omar Lopez-Cruz, Visiting Student, University of Toronto. 
"Study of History of the Inttacluster Medium (ICM)and 
the Galaxies within the Cluster," with Chtistine Jones For- 
man, from April I, 1995 to June 4, 1995. 
Isaac Lopez-Fernandez, Visiting Scientist, Yebes Astronomical 
Center. "Estimation of VLBI Observing Session, Ampli- 
tudes of Diurnal and Semidiurnal In-Phase ad Out-of- 
Phase Radial and Horizontal Site Motions," with James 
Davis, from January 15, 1995 to April 15, 1995. 
Michael McCarthy, Visiting Scientist, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. "Electronic Spectroscopy of Astrophysical 
Carbon Chains," with Patrick Thaddeus, from August I, 
1995 to July 31, 1996. 
Julie McEnery, Visiting Student, University College Dublin. 
"Methods of Discriminating the Gamma-Ray Signal From 



III 



the Background Muons," with Trevor Weekes, from Janu- 
ary 3, 1995 to April 3, 1995. 

Brian McLeod, University of Arizona, "Evolution of Faint 
Field Galaxies," with John Huchra, from October 1, 1994 to 
September 30, 1996. 

Joan Najita, University of California, Berkeley, "Mag- 
netocentrifugally Driven Winds from Rapidly Rotating 
Protostars," with Mark Reid, from October 15, 1994 to Oc- 
tober 13, 1995. 

Maxim Ol'Shanii, Visiting Scientist, Ecole Normale Superie- 
ure. "Atomic Lithography Aided by Velocity Selective 
Cohernent Population Trapping and Atomic Beam Splitter 
Based on Multiple Adiabanc Population Transfer," with 
Eric Heller, from August 15, 1995 to August 14, 1996. 

Rachel Pildis, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Michigan. 
"Deep X-Ray and Optical Observation of Compact Groups 
of Galaxies," with Stephen Murray, from September I, 1995 
to August 31, 1996. 

John Quinn, Visiting Student, University College, Belfield. 
"Observation of Whipple Telescopes Aimed at Extending 
the EGRET Catalog to Higher Energies," with Trevor 
Weekes, from October 10, 1994 to September 30, 1995. 

Alastair Rodgers, Visiting Student, University of Leeds. 
"Methods of Detection of Gamma-Rays Using Stereo Sys- 
tems," with Trevor Weekes, from January 29, 1995 to April 
28, 1995. 

Juan Ramon Sanmartin, Visiting Scientist, University 

Politecmca de Madrid. "Theoretical Research on the Prob- 
lems Related to Propagation of Plasma Waves in the Iono- 
sphere and Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide," with Robert 
Estes, from July 21, 1995 to September 2, 1995. 

Uros Sel]ak, CfA Postdoctoral Fellow, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. "Light Propagation in a Weakly Perturbed 
Expanding Universe," with Alastair G.W. Comeron, from 
July I, 1995 to June 30, 1996. 

Anthony Starace, Visiting Scientist, University of Nebraska. 
"Electron-Atom Scattering Effects on Laser Detachment of 
H- in a Static Electric Field," with Eric Heller, from Au- 
gust 28, 1995 to January 2, 1996. 

Darian Stibbe, Visiting Student, University College, London. 
"Quantum Mechanical Solution to the Problem of (Large 
Amplitude) Nuclear Motion in Molecules and the Collision 
of Electrons (Positrons) With Molecules," with Eric Heller, 
from September 15, 1995 to June 15, 1996. 

Jonathan Tennyson, Visiting Scientist, University College, 
London. "Quantum Mechanical Solution to the Problem of 
(Large Amplitude) Nuclear Motion in Molecules and Colli- 
sion of Electrons (Positrons) with Molecules," with Eric 
Heller, from September 15, 1995 to June 15, 1996. 

Jathindas Tharamel, Visiting Scientist, University of New 
Hampshire. "Relaxation Process of Nonequilibnum Sys- 
tems," with Alexander Dalgarno, from January I, 1995 to 
October 31, 1995. 

Anne Thorne, Visiting Scientist, Imperial College of Science, 
Technology and Medicine, England. "Measuring the Abso- 



lute Absorption Cross Sections of O.S-R Bands with V 12 
by using the VUV-FT Spectrometner with Synchrotron 
Source at the Photon Factory, Japan," with Koshino 
Yoshino, from March I, 1995 to March 31, 1995. 

Eddy Timmermans, Postdoctoral Fellow, Rice University. 
"Spin Holography and Quantum Statistical Effects in Reso- 
nant Photon Scattering," with Eric Heller, from September 
I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Ching-Hua Tseng, Visiting Scientist, Harvard University. "In- 
vestigations of a New Biomedical Diagnostic Technique: 
The Inhalation and Magnetic Resonance (MR) of Laser- 
Polanzed' 29 XE (Xenon) Gas," with Ronald Walsworth, 
from June I, 1995 to October 31, 1995. 

Petri Vaisanen, Predoctoral Fellowship, Helsinki University. 
"Observational Cosmology in the Infrared, Doing Number 
Count Modelling," with Giovanni Fazio, from August 15, 
1995 to August 14, 1996. 

Carl Williams, Visiting Scientist, National Institute of Stan- 
dards and Technology. "Problems With Ultracold Atomic 
Collisions," with Eric Heller, from February I, 1995 to May 

13. 1995- 
Jennifer Wiseman, Visiting Scientist, Harvard University. 
"Study of Staf Forming Molecular Clouds," with Pual Ho, 
from June I, 1995 to August 31, 1995. 



Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center 



Anastazia Banaszak, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Cali- 
fornia, Santa Barbara. "UV Photobiology of Phytoplankton 
in the Rhode River, Chesapeake Bay," with Patrick Neale, 
from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Damian Barrett, Mellon Visiting Scientist, CSIRO Division 
of Plant Industry. "The Effects of Rising Atmospherici CO : 
and Climate Change," with Bert Drake, from May I, 1995 
to October 31, 1995. 

Paul Bushmann, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, Boston University. 
"Chemical Urine Signals, Vision, and Current Generation 
in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus," with Anson Hines, 
from July I, 1995 to June 30, 1996. 

Kelton Clark, SI Graduate Fellow, University of Maryland, 
College Park. "The Response of Prey to Variability in Pred- 
ator Guild Composition and Refuge Habitat Value: An Ex- 
ample from the Chesapeake Bay," with Anson Hines, from 
June I, 1995 to August 31, 1995. 

Ilka Feller, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, Georgetown University. 
"Effects of Light Levels, Gender, Mineral Nutrients, Ele- 
vated CO; on Herbivory in the Woody Deciduous Shrub, 
Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume (Lauraceae)," with James Lynch 
and Dennis Whigham, from August 1, 1995 to July 31, 1996. 

Jennifer Gavin, Visiting Student, University of North Caro- 
lina. "Mating Display of Male Blue Crabs: Role of a Male 



112 



Pheromone," with Anson Hines, from June 12, 1995 to Au- 
gust 18, 1995. 

Roger Gifford, Mellon Senior Fellow, CSIRO Division of 
Plant Industry, Australia. "The Effects of Rising Atmo- 
spheric CCK and Climate Change," with Berk Drake, from 
February 1, 1995 to January 31, 1997- 

Miguel Gonzalez-Meier, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, University of 
Barcelona. "Regulation ot Respiration by Athospheric CO, 
Concentration," with Bert Drake, from June 15, 1995 to 
December 14, 1995. 

L. David Smith, University of Maryland, College Park, 

"Understanding Ballast-Mediated Invasions: The Effects of 
Transoceanic Transport and Prolonged Darkness on Plank- 
tonic Survival and Development," with Gregory Ruiz, 
from November 1, 1994 to October 30, 1995. 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 



Kenneth Caneva, Dibner Library Resident Scholar, University 
of Norch Carolina. "Orsted, Colding, and the Meanings of 
Force in Nineteenth Century Physics," with Nancy Gwmn, 
from June I, 1995 to June 30, 1995. 

Bruce Janacek, Dinber Libaray Resident Scholar, University of 
California, Davis. "Redemption and Reformation: The Reli- 
gious Significance of Alchemy in Early Modern England," 
with Nancy Gwinn, from September 12, 1995 to December 

I2> 1995- 
Helen Rozwadowski, University of Pennsylvania, "Fruits of 

the Sea: The Literary Products of Nineteenth-Century 

Ocean Travel," with Ellen Wells, from February 1, 1995 to 

April 30, 1995. 
Steven Walton, University of Toronto, "Engineering the 

Body: Mechanical Beings 1600-1900," with Ellen Wells, 

from May 15, 1995 to August 15, 1995. 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Center 



Mitchell Allen, Visiting Student, University of Kansas. 
"Photosynthesis and Whole Plant Performance in the 
Understory at Barro Colorado Island," with S. Joseph Wright 
and Robert Pearcy, from July 1, 1995 to March 31, 1997. 

Nigel Asquith, SI Predoctoral Fellow, Duke University. "Abi- 
otic and Biotic Control of Tree Regeneration: An Experi- 
mental Comparison of Sites Around Gatun Lake, Panama," 
with S.Joseph Wright, from February I, 1996 to January 

31, 1997- 
Henrik Balslev, Senior Mellon Fellow, Aarhus University, 
Denmark. "Study of the Structure and Evolution of Terres- 



trial Ecosystems," with Robin Foster, from March I, 1995 to 
February 28, 1997. 

Heidi Banford, SI Graduate Fellow, College of William and 
Mary. "Historical Zoogeography o(Scomheromorus (Teleostei: 
Scombridae) From the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific: A Mo- 
lecular Approach," with Eldredge Bermingham, from Sep- 
tember 1, 1995 to November 9, 1995. 

Mairi Best, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Chicago. 'Tapho- 
nomy of Tropical Molluscan Assemblages: Comparative of Car- 
bonate and Siliciclastic Marine Environments of the San Bias 
Archipelago Caribbean Coast of Panama," with Jeremy Jack- 
son, from September I, 1995 to November 30, 1995. 

Hans Bohnert, Mellon Senior Fellow, University of Arizona. 
"Metabolic Pathways for Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide 
in Vascular Plants," with Klaus Winter, from March I, 1995 
to February 28, 1997. 

David Chalcraft, SI Graduate Fellow, Virginia Polytechnic In- 
stitute. "Predation on Lizard Eggs by Ants: Interaction 
Modifications in an Unstable Physical Environment," with 
A. Stanley Rand and S. Joseph Wright, from June I, 1995 to 
August 9, 1995. 

Neil Davies, Short Term Fellow, University College, London. 
"Islands: Phylogenetic Sinks or Engines of Evolution," 
with Eldredge Bermingham, from November I, 1994 to 
January 31, 1995. 

Pedro Gonzalez, National Institute of Health, "Analysis of 
the Molecular Divergence in the Sea Urchin Geminate Spe- 
cies in Both Sides of the Panama Isthmus," with Hanlaos 
Lessios, from January 6, 1995 to January 6, 1996. 

Ralph Kaemmerer, Mellon Visiting Scientist, Freie Uni- 
versitat, Berlin. "Metabolic Pathways for Assimilation of 
Carbon Dioxide in Vascular Plants," with Klaus Winter 
and Hans Bohnert, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 

1997- 

Roland Kays, SI Predoctoral Fellow, University of Tennessee. 
"Ecological Influences of Social Structure: A Study of Two 
Primate-Like Carnivores," with Egbert Leigh and A. Stan- 
ley Rand, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Kaoru Kitajima, Visiting Scientist, University of Minnesota. 
"Comparative Ecology of Tree Canopies in a Tropical Dry 
Forest Near Panama," with Joseph Wright, from January 1, 
1995 to August 31, 1995. 

Deborah Olander, SI Graduate Fellow, University of Missouri, 
St. Louis. "Late Second Growth Forest Light Environments: 
Implications for Forest Regeneration," with S.Joseph 
Wright, from June 10, 1995 to August 19, 1995. 

John Pandolfi, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, 
Davis. "A Comparative Analysis of Stability in Pleistocene 
Reef Coral Assemblages for the Caribbean and the Indo-Pa- 
cific," with Jeremy Jackson and Anthony Coates, from Oc- 
tober I, 1994 to September 30, 1997. 

Carla Penz, Short Term Fellow, University of Texas. "Phyloge- 
netic Relationships among Heliconttti genera (Lep: Nymph- 
alidae)," with Eldredge Bermingham, trom November I, 
1994 to January 31, 1995. 



"3 



Stephen Rehner, SI Postdoctoral Fellow, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. "Molecular Phylogenenc Analysis of 
Attine Fungi and Neotropical Lepiotaceae," with Eldredge 
Bermingham, from September I, 1995 to August 31, 1996. 

Kayta Romoleroux, Visiting Scientist, Pontificia Universidad 
Catolica del Ecuador. "Structure and Evolution of Terres- 
trial Ecosystems," with Robin Foster and Henrik Balslev, 
from June 1, 1995 to May 31, 1997. 

Gerald Urquhart, Short Term Fellow, University of Michigan. 
"Paleoecological Investigation of Patterns of Disturbance 
and Regeneration in Hurricane and Fire-Damaged Tropical 
Swamp Forests," with Paul Colinvaux, from February I, 
1995 to April 30, 1995. 

Fernando Vallardares, Mellon Visiting Scientist, University 
of California, Davis. "Photosynthesis and Whole Plant 
Performance in the Understory at Barro Calorado Is- 
land," with S. Joseph Wright, from April 20, 1995 to 
March 31, 1996. 

Jeanne Zeh, SI Predoctoral Fellow, Rice University. "Female 
Promiscuity Meets Genomic Anarchy in the Hybrid Zone," 
with Eldredge Bermingham, from June 1, 1995 to August 
31. 1995- 



Internships and Other 
Appointments 

The Smithsonian offers internships and other special ap- 
pointments to undergraduate and graduate students and 
to museum professionals. The interns included here 
began their appointments in fiscal year 1995. Those who 
received special awards or participated in special pro- 
grams are so listed. Wherever possible the home institu- 
tion, a brief description of the project undertaken at the 
Smithsonian, and the dates of service are given. 



Anacostia Museum 



Michelle Black Smith, Masters Candidate, Fashion Institute of 
Technology. Education. Exhibition and educational pro- 
gramming at both the Anacostia and Motown Historical 
Museums as a participant in the Museum Intern Partner- 
ship Program. October 3, 1994 through April 15, 1995. 

Raymond Doswell, Masters Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia, Riverside. Working on the Black Mosaic exhibit. Janu- 
ary 9, 1995 through March 17, 1995. 

Marisa Keselica, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. An- 
acostia Museum History Office "Speak to my heart" ex- 
hibit examining African-American religious experience 



especially outside the mainstream protestant church. Sep- 
tember 6, 1995 through December 22, 1995. 

Deidre R. Lee, Bachelors Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Public Programs. Working on a traveling exhibit/video 
slide presentation to highlight important aspects of re- 
search/exhibits at the museum. Developing press releases 
for summer events. June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Jose A. Ortiz, Masters Candidate, New York University. Pub- 
lic Programs. Evaluating five traveling exhibitions with 
conservator for future circulation. Automating/cataloging 
exhibition by developing historical archives and assisting 
in audience development for Latino population. June 5, 
1995 through August iS, 1995. 



Archives of American Art 



Titus Agee, Bachelors Candidate, Rollins College. Prelimi- 
nary manuscript and archival processing and arrangement. 
October 4, 1994 through December 23, 1994. 

Genevieve Bensinger, Bachelors degree, Georgetown Univer- 
siry. Archives of American Art. Research and Writing to 
prepare guides to the collections in the Archives. August 
30, 1995 through December 30, 1995. 

Kaira M. Cabanas, Bachelors Candidate, Duke University. Re- 
search and writing to prepare guides to the collections in 
the Archives. Working on a reference guide to the collec- 
tions of Latino artists at the Archives of American Art. This 
will facilitate research on further study of Latino artists. 
May 22, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Jennifer E. Ciszewski, Bachelors Degree, University of Con- 
necticut. Research and writing to prepare guides to the col- 
lections in the Archives. October 3, 1994 through 
December 25, 1994. 

Heather Hole, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. Curato- 
rial. Research and writing to prepare guides to the collec- 
tions in the Archives. June 5, 1995 through September I, 

1995- 

Lars D. Kokkonen, Bachelors degree, Boston University. Ar- 
chives of American Art. Research and writing to prepare 
guides to the collections in the Archives. September 5, 1995 
through December 23, 1995. 

Lisa Lynch, Bachelors Degree, University of Oregon. Prelimi- 
nary manuscript and archival processing and arrangement. 
June 5, 1995 through September 8, 1995. 

Victoria McCulloch, Bachelors Degree, Universiry of Central 
Lancashire. Research and writing to prepare guides to the 
collections in the Archives. January 5, 1995 through May 

30, 1995- 
Jennifer Anne Sarzynski, Bachelors Candidate, Jakeaud Uni- 
versity. Research and writing to prepare guides to the col- 
lections in the Archives. May 8, 1995 through August 31, 
1995- 



114 



Ashli White, Bachelors Degree, University of Virginia. Re- 
search and writing to prepare guides to the collections in 
the Archives. January- 5, 1995 through May 30, 1995. 

Laurel A. Williams, Bachelors Degree, Wesleyan University. 
Research and writing to prepare guides to the collections in 
the Archives. July 5, 1995 through August I, 1995. 



Archives of American Art/New England 



Mary Ellen Sciortino, Masters Candidate, Sinnins College. Ar- 
chives of American Art, Boston. Processing papers of Peter 
Blume. October I, 1994. 



Arthur M. Sackler/ Freer Gallery of Art 



Kathy Byun, Bachelors Degree, Skidmore College. Conserva- 
tion science, generating a library of infrared spectra of un- 
organic materials to be used for reference to materials taken 
from works of art. June 5, 1995 through August 11, 1995. 

Jacqueline Curro, Masters Candidate, University of Maryland. 
Library/Archives. Assist in review, update, and revision of 
various forms created and used in the archives and review 
of records policies. February 2, 1995 through May 3, 1995. 

Mitchell Douglass, Bachelors Candidate, Oberlin College. Cu- 
ratorial. Research Chinese furniture styles. January 3, 1995 
through February I, 1995. 

Konrad Fiedler, Bachelors Candidate, Columbia College. Edu- 
cation Department. Arrange and preserve the early expedi- 
tion records and professional papers of Carl Whiting 
Bishop, an associate curator at the Freer Gallery of Art 
from 1922 to 1942. July 5, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Erica Henry, Bachelors Degree. Conservation. Paper conserva- 
tion: rehousing, surveys, mending. September 25, 1995 
through September 25, 1996. 

Laura Lewis, Masters Candidate, George Washington Univer- 
sity. Education. Modifications of the Yam Teacher Packet. 
January 17, 1995 through April 27, 1995. 

Anne Marteyn, Masters Degree, Sorbonne University. Conser- 
vation. Study the philosophy and techniques of conserva- 
tion of Asian works of art. December I, 1994 through 
March I, 1995. 

Susan McCaffrey, Bachelors Candidate, George Washington 
University. Photography. Assist in photo lab shooting, 
printing and filing photos of art objects. May 12, 1995 

through September 30, 1995. 

Susan McCullough, Masters Candidate, Indiana University. 
Curatorial. Working on exhibit of Whistler. January 23, 
1995 through May 15, 1995. 



J. Melissa Miller, Bachelors degree. Registrar's Office. Preser- 
vation and Access Project: Freer Gallery of Art Study Col- 
lection. August 23, 1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Chris Murphy, High School Graduate. Photography division. 
Photo lab intern; Filing, Printing, Assisting etc. August I, 
1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Laura Phang, Bachelors Candidate, Amherst College. Curato- 
rial. Updating and maintaining files on Whistler works on 
paper. Independent pro|ect involves exploring Whistler's 
connection to Asian art. June 5, 1995 through August 5, 

1995- 

Jacob Preminda, Doctorate, University of California-Los An- 
geles. Curatorial. Assisting with the development of the ex- 
hibition of "Puja: Personal Devotion in India." October 3, 

1994 through January 3, 1995. 

Farhad Sepambodi, Bachelors Candidate. Design. Various de- 
sign work throughout the museum. March 13, 1995 through 
August 31, 1995. 

Laura Sonjara, Bachelors Degree, University of Wisconsin. 
Conservation. Translate Chinese materials and study Asian 
painting conservation techniques. December 5, 1994 
through December 5, 1995. 

Helen E. Spande, Bachelors Degree, Williams College. Con- 
servation Lab. Paper lab conservation assistant. July 10, 

1995 through September 10, 1995. 

Deborah Stein, Bachelors Candidate, Barnard College. Curato- 
rial. Research on the permanent collection. Reorganization 
of South Asian art for the reopening of the gallery in the 
new space. Shadowing the cutator of South Asian art. May 
22, 1995 through August I, 1995. 

Alexandra Tunstall, Bachelors Candidate, Oberlin College. 
Chinese Art. Research assistant to Chinese Art Curator. 
July 24, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 



Center for African American History 
and Culture 



Rachel Jean-Baptiste, Bachelors Degree, Bryn Mawr College. 
Les Anneaux de Memoire - co exhibit between museum in 
Nantes, France and several African American museums in 
the US on the slave trade between France and Africa in the 
18th century. May 16, 1995 through July 21, 1995. 

Rodney Reynolds, Bachelors Degree, Howard University. 
Working with curatorial and education staff to organize 
and implement educational programs and work with cura- 
torial and education staff to organize and implement educa- 
tional programs and packets for exhibits. October 3, 1994 
through April 15, 1995. 



115 



Center for Folklife Programs and 
Cultural Studies 



Sam Ankerson, Bachelors Degree, Yale University. Assisting 
and marketing of folkways materials. June 9, 1995 through 
August 31, 1995. 

Beth Binkley, Bachelors degree, Guilfurd College. The intern 
will be working on the upcoming Folklife festival which in- 
cludes 150 years of Smithsonian workers. Continuing work 
of previous interns and compiling information on histori- 
cal/current Smithsonian workers as well as the Smithsonian 
as a museum and research institution. September 9, 1995 
through March 31, 1996. 

Dani Brune, Bachelors Candidate, Dartmouth College. I will 
be doing preliminary research for one topic of next year's 
Folklife Festival. My research will focus on Smithsonian 
workers for the past 150 years. June 19, 1995 through Au- 
gust 30, 1995. 

Alexa Jane Burcroff, Bachelors Candidate, Rochester Institute 
of Technology. Assisting with the folklife festival. June 5, 
1995 through July 14, 1995. 

Christine E. Dee, Bachelors Candidate, George Washington 
University. Preparation and production work on the Cape 
Verde project, which will be a part of the 1995 Festival of 
American Folklife. November 14, 1994 through July 31, 
'995- 

Ann Marie Denninger, Bachelors Degree, James Madison Uni- 
versity. Assisting in the creation of a membership drive 
packet and assembling information for a catalogue display- 
ing work of artisans countrywide. January 9, 1995 through 
February 28, 1995. Vladimir Donskoi, Bachelors Degree. 
Work with 1995 Festival of American Folklife Russian pro- 
gram. May 17, 1995 through July 3, 1995. 

Mary Faial, Bachelors Candidate, Howard University. Re- 
search, mailing, calling involved members of the Cape Ver- 
dian Community. February 6, 1995 through June I, 1995. 

Dana Frye, Masters Candidate, The American University. In- 
tern will put together a video and/or radio piece for the dis- 
semination of information on the "Culture and 
Development" program concentrating on sustainable agri- 
culture. July 6, 1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Catherine Hardman, Bachelors Candidate, George Mason Uni- 
versity. Editing, filing. Research for ongoing project regard- 
ing the 1950s. Musical focus on Woody Guthrie, Pete 
Seeger, and rockabilly music. January 27, 1995 through Au- 
gust 3, 1995. 

C. Mark Hill, Bachelors Candidate, Duke University. Festival 
of American Folklife Cape Verde program. June 14, 1995 
through February 1996. 

Anne M. Hobbs, Bachelors Degree, Salisbury State Univer- 
sity. Assisting with participant coordination of 1995 Fes- 
tival of American Folklife. June 6, 1995 through July 6, 
1995- 



Sandi Horowitz, High School Student, Hillsboro High 
School. Czech republic for the American Folklire Festival. 
June 19, 1995 through July 4, 1995. 

Robert Hsiung, Bachelors Candidate, University of Hawaii at 
Manoa. Folklife and Culture. Assisting with the History of 
American folklife and culture. December 19, 1994 through 
January IO. 1995. 

Kristen Jackson, Bachelors Degree, Lewis and Clark College. 
African immigrants folklife study project to be included in 
the 1995 Festival of American Folklife. November 28, 1994 
through June 30, 1995. 

Shawn Kline, Bachelors Degree, Indiana University of Penn- 
sylvania. Folkways Recordings. Constituent research, devel- 
oping project specific databases and coordinating media 
kits. December 12, 1994 through December 12, 1995. 

Katie Knoll, Bachelors Degree. Working on friends of the fes- 
tival program, organization of folklife festival. June 12, 1995 
through August 18, 1995. 

Peter Kornberg, Bachelors Candidate, George Washington 
University. 1995 Festival of American Folklife: Design pro- 
duction. May 2, 1995 through July 19, 1995. 

Suzanne Lettrick, Masters candidate, College of St. Rose. Edu- 
cation. Working on educational packets which promote 
knowledge of other cultures (i.e. Bahamian, Native Ameri- 
can, etc) Also working on folklonst updates and commu- 
nity scholar survey results. August 7, 1995 through August 

25,1995- 

Su-Lian Li, Masters Candidate, The American University. In- 
ventory and catalogue crafts, identifying Asian American 
crafts, working with archives and assisting with the 
Festival' Russian music program. January 23, 1995 through 
April 21, 1995. 

Liza K. Lopez, Bachelors Candidate, New Mexico State Uni- 
versity. Video documentary on Latin American/Caribbean 
components of last year's Folklife Festival. June 5, 1995 
through August II, 1995. 

Elena Martinez, Masters Candidate, University of Oregon. 
Work on exhibit at Festival of America's craft traditions; as- 
sisting with production of the catalogue; working with 
demonstrators. June 12, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Mary Ellen McDermott, Masters Candidate, George Washing- 
ton University. Craft traditions. May 15, 1995 through July 
10, 1995. 

Emily C. McDonald, Bachelors Candidate, University of 
North Carolina. Organization of the Czech Republic por- 
tion of the Festival of American Folklife, especially food 
ways. May 21, 1995 through June 23, 1995. 

Jenna A. Moniz, Bachelors Candidate, Howard University. 
Helping coordinate and put together Folklife Festival. Jan- 
uary 23, 1995 through July 31, 1995. 

Ann M. Ochsendorf, Bachelors Candidate, Wellesley College. 
Assisting with the folklife festival. June 5, 1995 through Au- 
gust 10, 1995. 

Tracy Patterson, Bachelors Degree, Clark Atlanta University. 
African Immigrant Folklife. Assisting with various aspects 



116 



of production leading to the Festival of American Folklife 
and conducting field interview with community scholars 
and artists to be archived and analyzed for the office. June 
5, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Sarah Padilla, Bachelors Candidate, College of William and 
Man-. Festival of American Folklife. Working on the Cape 
Verdean exhibit. June 12, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Rebecca D. Peters, Bachelors Candidate, Yale University. 
Czech program for the American Folklife Festival. May 15, 
1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Emily Quirk, Bachelors candidate, The American University. 
Bibliography for Richard Kurin, the director of the Center 
for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies, regarding the 
folklife festival regarding forthcoming festivals. September 
II, 1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Melanie Robinson, Bachelors Candidate, University of Penn- 
sylvania. Assisting with the Folklife festival. May 15, 1995 
through July 31, 1995. 

Marcela Rossello, Bachelors Degree. Assisting with the cul- 
tural development video pro|ect. February 21, 1995 through 
April 30, 1995. 

Joshua J. Shaw, Bachelors Candidate, Bard College. Archives. 
Archival work involving research and caraloging of oral tra- 
ditions. October 24, 1994 through December 24, 1994. 

Edward Sterret, High School Student, Chevy Chase High 
School. Working with folkways record on the musical ar- 
chives. March 2, 1995 through June 3, 1995. 

Anne E. Thomas, Bachelors Candidate, College of William 
and Mary. Folkways. Folkways recording and the archives; 
observing the production of folkways recordings and treat- 
ment of ethnomusicological issues in this context. May 22, 
1995 through August 9, 1995. 

Lynn M. Tuttle, Masters Degree, The Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. Folkways Archives. Cataloging the original tapes of 
Frederick Ramsey's fieldwork in the South in the 1950s and 
collating the results of a survey directed toward educators 
who use Smirhsonian curriculum materials. January 10, 
1995 through July I, 1995. 

Elena Williams, Bachelors Candidate, University of Arizona. 
Working on completion of Borders and Identity Educa- 
tional Kit and planning for Talleres de la Frontera. June 5, 
1995 through August II, 1995. 

Kelli E. Woodrow, Bachelors Candidate, University of Michi- 
gan. Video. Documentation of the Folklife Festival. Meet 
with program curators and set up a filming schedule and fa- 
cilitate in the training of the festival video and volunteers. 
May 22, 1995 through July 12, 1995. 



intern evaluation forms and compiling report for future sur- 
veys and assessment of Center for Museum Studies Intern 
Services. July 3, 1995 through August 11, 1995. 

Anika Bachhuber, Bachelors Candidate, George Mason Uni- 
versity. Cataloguing audio tapes of annual meetings of the 
American Association of Museums. Tapes of various "ex- 
pert" panelists on subjects concerning museums. August 
25, 1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Don Edward Baylor Jr., Bachelors Degree. Provide courses and 
information that encourages cultural diversity. Helping dis- 
cover innovative ways to reach across cultural boundaries in 
learning. October 3, 1994 through December 9, 1994. 

Alexander A. Guzhalovsky, Doctorate Degree, Belarus State 
University. Study museum operations in the United States 
with special emphasis on design and education. Project 
work will result in development of a museum studies cur- 
riculum to be implemented at Belarusian State Universiry. 
October 3, 1994 through April I, 1995. 

Maria Eduarda Castro Marques, Masters Degree, Ponticicia 
Universidade catolica-R7. Researching methods of Develop- 
ment throughout the Smithsonian Institution. September 
5, 1995 through November 5, 1995. 

Marissa Payton, Masters Candidate, Howard University. Re- 
search potential internship sites for the Museum Intern 
Partnership Program; assist in developing 1996 program; 
including planning conference to be held at The Smithson- 
ian Institution in fall 1995. June 19, 1995 through Septem- 
ber I, 1995. 

Maria Venclova, Bachelors Candidate, Baldwin-Wallace Col- 
lege. Contacting prospective faculty participants, writing 
confirmation and thank you letters to participants, research- 
ing and compiling museum career info to be included in 
program resource books, plan program agenda, session 
plans. June 12, 1995 through July 31, 1995. 

K. Allison Wickens, Bachelors Degree, Grinnell College. 
American Indian Museum Studies. Compiling a directory 
of people who attend American Indian workshops and col- 
lecting information to use in future workshops. December 
28, 1994 through February 24, 1995. 

Angela Wickham, Bachelors Degree. Grant research and as- 
sisting in the development of the 1995 Museum Leadership 
Seminar. February 5, 1995 through May 20, 1995. 



Conservation Analytical Laboratory 



Center for Museum Studies 



Anika Bachhuber, Bachelors Candidare, George Mason Uni- 
versity. Center for Museum Studies Intern Office. Coding 



Holly Anderson, Masters Candidate, Buffalo State College. 
Paper Conservation Laboratory. October 2, 1994 through 
September 2, 1995. 

Tama Collas, Masters Candidate, Buffalo State College. Ob- 
jects Conservation. Treatment and research of objects and 
field experience working at archaeological sites. October 
17, 1994 through September 17, 1995. 



II- 



Evin Erder, Masters Degree, University of Pennsylvania. Con- 
servation Analytical Lab. Development of an evaluation 
methodology for cleaning damage assessment. July 5, 1995 
through September II, 1995. 

Andrea S. Morris, Bachelors Degree, University of Delaware. 
Conservation. June 19, 1995 through August 25, 1995. 



Cooper-Hewitt National 
Design Museum 



Joao Camacho Baptista de Meireles Felia, Bachelors Candi- 
date, Istituto Superiore Ind. Artistiche. Education. Assist- 
ing the curator with the organization of the Henry 
Dreyfuss exposition. July 1, 1995 through September I, 

1995- 

Stephanie K. Farrell, Masters Degree, Palmer School of Li- 
brary and Information Science. Library. Various pro|ects to 
include working with Cooper-Hewitt Museum archives. 
June 12, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Ibena Spasova Georgieva, Bachelors Candidate. The American 
University in Bulgaria. Exhibitions. Researching and organ- 
izing two exhibitions for 1997. One is based on a collection 
in honor of a centennial and the other one is an outdoor 
project on solar power. June 12, 1995 through August 18, 
1995 

Nic Maffei, Masters Candidate, University of Delaware. 
Assisting the curator in organization of Henry Dreyfuss 
exhibit and publication. June I, 1995 through August 18, 
1995- 

Paul Makovsky, Masters Degree, University of Toronto. 
Researching the projects "Mixing Messages" and "The 
Avant-Garde Letterhead." June 12, 1995 through August 
18, 1995. 

Beth Mangini, Bachelors Candidate, Stanford University. Edu- 
cation. Summer Design Institute; cross currents series; in- 
tern visits; garden party coordinator and facilitator. June 12, 
1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Rachael Eliza Smith, Bachelors Candidate, University of Penn- 
sylvania. Public Information. Assisting Public Information 
specialist in all duties including mailing list project, build- 
ing renovation dissemination pro]ect, services to the nation. 
June 12, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Chaim Stadtmauer, Bachelors Degree. Membership and 
Special Events. Preparing a report on current member- 
ship packages from local institutions and comparing 
them to the Cooper-Hewitt. June 16, 1995 through Au- 
gust 18, 1995. 

Thorin R. Tritter, Bachelors Degree, Columbia University. 
Public Programs. Researching information for upcoming 
exhibition on the North American City. June 12, 1995 
through August 18, 1995. 



Hirsbhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 



Tobey Ballenger, Bachelors Degree, Dartmouth College. Edu- 
cation. Education intern at the HMSG, redesigning the do- 
cent training handbook, creating and giving tours, 
working with the family days team on Saturday program- 
ming. June 12, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Bridget Theresa Cecchini, Bachelors Candidate, Oglethorpe 
University. Education Department. Researching informa- 
tion for special exhibitions including Stephan Balkenhol, 
keeping Bruce Nauman information organized and current, 
organizing information on upcoming exhibits and public 
programs, and researching Barbara Hepworth. October 3, 

1994 through December 16, 1994. 

Romy Lisa Cohen, Bachelors Degree, Duke University. Cura- 
torial. Assisting both the sculpture and painting curators 
with research as well as updating general information about 
some of the artists who are exhibited. June 5, 1995 through 
August II, 1995. 

Jennifer King, Bachelors Candidate, Rice University. Publica- 
tions. Working with director of publications on museum 
catalogs, calendar of events and other various publication 
intended to facilitate communication between the museum 
and the public. June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Marni P. Kravitz, Bachelors Candidate, Georgetown Univer- 
sity. Education. Assisting in program development. Sep- 
tember 29, 1995 through December 20, 1995. 

Amy Louise Miller, Bachelors Candidate, Westminster Col- 
lege. Education. Researching artist Bruce Nauman, orienta- 
tion with of departments by following docent tours and 
attending lectures. February 3, 1995 through April 28, 1995. 

Todd E. Rosenbaum, Bachelors Candidate, Virginia Common- 
wealth University. Sculpture Conservation. June 5, 1995 
through August 25, 1995. 

Marinda Jeanne Scott, Bachelors Candidate, George Washing- 
ton University. Curatorial. Assistant curatorial internship 
conducting research on up coming exhibitions for Spring 
1995. October 6, 1994 through May 30, 1995. 

Julie Wolfe, Masters Candidate, Buffalo State College. Conser- 
vation. Outdoor sculpture maintenance program. June 5, 

1995 through August 25, 1995. 



International Center 



Oscar Daniel Diaz Aguilar. International Project Develop- 
ment Group Perform research and develop possible projects 
in Paraguay. Assisting with marketing efforts for the IPDG 
and researching debt information for Paraguay. February 
27, 1995 through May 31, 1995. 

Olga Ananina, Bachelors Candidate, Hope College. Interna- 
tional Project Development Group. Researching and com- 



118 



piling a document summarizing several Smithsonian projects 
relating to Russia. Researching and compiling a document 
summarizing several Smithsonian projects relating to Russia. 
Working with the Office of Development in securing funding 
sources for possible activities. Translation from Russian to En- 
glish. Light administrative assistance for the Director of the 
IPDG. Assisting with activities relating to the Gutana Work- 
ing Group. March 20, 1995 through April 27, 1995. 

lone Anderson, Bachelors Degree, McGill University. Environ- 
mental. Producing a "family guide" for the Ocean Planet 
exhibition. May 22, 1995 through September 22, 1995. 

Paul Feldman, Bachelors Degree. Man and the Biosphere. 
Working on a user's guide to the Virgin Islands Biosphere 
Reserve Biodiversity Plot 02. October 3, 1994 through De- 
cember 13, 1994. 

Naina Misery, Bachelors Degree, U.C. Berkeley. Environmen- 
tal Awareness. Working on materials related to the "Ocean 
Plant" exhibit at the Natural History Museum. May 8, 1995 
through July 17, 1995. 

Sonal I. Pandya, Masters Candidate, University of Maryland. 
International Project Development Group. Researching 
and formulating proposals on various issues relating to the 
Guianas Ad Hoc Working Group, i.e. revenue generating 
alternatives to timber harvesting. Creating a list containing 
the debt information for various countries. Assisting with 
marketing efforts and possible design of A National Mu- 
seum of Natural History Training Brochure. February 6, 
1995 through May 22, 1995. 

Sarah Piepmeier, Bachelors Candidate, Wellesley College. As- 
sistant to the staff coordinator, 150th anniversary commu- 
nity committee. Producing camera ready copy of catalog 
for leading community activity-the great Smithsonian 
giveaway. This will help implement other 150th projects. 
June 5, 1995 through August 8, 1995. 

Anita Van Harten, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Environmental Awareness Program. Assisting 
in development and implementation of public programs 
and educational materials in support of the "Ocean Planet" 
exhibition. January 17, 1995 through May 5, 1995. 



National Air and Space Museum 

Ellen Alvord, Masters Degree, William and Mary. Educa- 
tional Services. Research support in aviation, aerospace, en- 
vironmental education, and adult education. June 12, 1995 
through August 18, 1995. 

Tyrin Heather T.C. Avery, Bachelors Candidate, Wellesley 
College. Space History. Research support to the develop- 
ment of an upcoming gallery on the history of Blacks in 
aviation. The gallery research will entail extensive oral his- 
tory interviewing, collection of personal items and back- 
ground research. June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 



Joy Bowman, Bachelors Candidate, West Virginia University. 
Educational Services. Assisting the coordinator in manag- 
ing the internship program. Responsible for creating files 
on each student, scheduling tours and other activities relat- 
ing to the program. Developing careers program in avia- 
tion. May 30, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Joy Bowman, Bachelors Candidate, West Virginia University. 
Education. Working on a project for the National Air and 
Space Museum Education department consisting of re- 
search into the aeronautical field. The research will be com- 
piled into a contest to be presented to DC high school 
students, to get them interested in air/space. June 5, 1995 
through August II, 1995. 

David Burton, Bachelors Candidate, University of the District 
of Columbia. Preservation/Restoration. Restoring the "B- 
29" aircraft. Working on control systems, hydraulic sys- 
tems, power plants, propellers, landing gears, instruments, 
and other aircraft or spacecraft parts, wooden and metal. 
June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Joseph Cabutto, Bachelors Candidate, Embry-Riddle Aeronau- 
tical University. Preservation/Restoration. Restoring and 
preserving aircraft engines. Working on control systems, 
hydraulic systems, power plants, propellers, landing gears, 
instruments, and other aircraft or spacecraft parts, wooden 
and metal. June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Juliana E. Carpenter, Bachelors Candidate, Wittenberg Uni- 
versity, Educational Services. Assisting program coordina- 
tor with the Summer Science Camp for approximately 120 
children ages 9-12. The theme of the camp will be "Envi- 
ronment and You — Perfect Together." June 12, 1995 
through August 18, 1995. 

Marcelo Catalan, Bachelors Candidate, Embry-Riddle Aero- 
nautical University. Preservation/Restoration. Restoring 
the "Hawker Hurricane," aircraft. Working on control sys- 
tems, hydtaulic systems, powerplants, propellers, landing 
gears, instruments, and other aircraft ot spacectaft parts, 
wooden and metal. June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

David Ctemer, Bachelors Candidate, Gateway Technical Col- 
lege. Exhibits Production. Advanced techniques of Agta 
Copy Camera, which includes producing film positive, 
paper copy, line art and text labels. Intern will learn about 
mixing of ink color, color separation, and silkscreen tech- 
nique. June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Sarah Evans, Bachelors Degree. Archives. Assisting in the 
preparation plan for the U.S. Air Force Pre-1943 still photo- 
graphic collection, Phase II. This phase will consist of color 
images which appear in prints, slides and film. June 5, 1995 
through August II, 1995. 

Katherine Finch, Bachelors Candidate, Trinity College. Multi- 
cultural Outreach. Work on creating a video library from all 
public programs. Library will include research of biographical 
information, current address, phone number and a brief de- 
scription of each lecture. June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 
Kevin Govier, Bachelors Candidate, Prince George's Commu- 
nity College. Assisting in preserving and restoring a World 



110 



War II artifact, involving learning skills regarding corro- 
sion control and how to disassemble and reassemble the ar- 
tifact upon completion of the treatment. November 21, 

1994 through January 23, 1995. 

Samuel Hicks, Bachelors Candidate, George Washington 
University. Computer Services. Assisting in configuring 
and installing personal computer hardware and software, 
including network hardware. In addition, student will 
assist personal computer users to solve hardware and 
software problems. June 12, 1995 through August II, 

1995- 

Timothy Howard, Bachelors Candidate, Parks College of 
St. Louis. Restoration/Preservation. Working on the 
cowlings of the B-29 which entails a complete break- 
down of the engine cowlings followed by a thorough 
cleaning and then re-assembling them. Cowlings will be 
attached to powerplants. January 23, 1995 through 
March 31, 1995. 

Peter KeKe, Bachelors Candidate, Bowie State University. Ed- 
ucation/Exhibits. Developing, constructing and evaluating 
interactive devices for the "How Things Fly" gallery, which 
will open in 1996. The majority of the prototypes will be 
electro-mechanically operated. June 5, 1995 through August 

11,1995- 

Angie Kelic, Bachelors Candidate, University of Michigan. 
Preservation/Restoration. Restoring the"B-29" aircraft. 
Working on control systems, hydraulic systems, power 
plants, propellers, landing gears, instruments, and other air- 
craft or spacecraft parts, wooden and metal. June 5, 1995 
through August II, 1995. 

Ronald Kurpiers, Masters Candidate, Catholic University. Ed- 
ucation/Library. Creating bibliographies on topics that re- 
late to the museum's collections and exhibits. Creating an 
index to the Scrapbook of Early Aeronautical, which in- 
cludes materials dating from 1783-1840. June 5, 1995 
through August 25, 1995. 

Stephan Lisimaque, Bachelors Candidate. Florida Tech. Preser- 
vation. Restoring the "Aichi Seiran" aircraft. Working on 
control systems, hydraulic systems, power plants, propel- 
lers, landing gears, instruments, and other aircraft or space- 
craft parts, wooden and metal. June 5, 1995 through August 

«. 1995- 

Crystal G. Lovett, Bachelors Candidate, University of Illinois 
Urbana. Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. Analyzing 
and interpreting remote sensing characteristics of vegetated 
and non-vegetated sand accumulations in the eastern Mo- 
jave Desert of California. Working with Landsat and SPOT 
satellite data to discriminate sand features. June 5, 1995 
through September 8, 1995. 

Erica Mestuzzi, Bachelors Candidate, New York University. 
Archives. Creating physical and intellectual control of in- 
coming archival collections. Rehousing and preparing ini- 
tial container lists for small collections and assisting with 
the technical manuals and drawings collections. June 5, 

1995 through August II, 1995. 



Heidi Oertle, Bachelors Candidate, Carleton College. Coop- 
erative Programs. Production of an Air and Space Com- 
pendium. A catalog of information on museums which 
participated in the Mutual Concerns of Air and Space 
Museum Seminars from 1988-92. Updating and expand- 
ing the compendium. June 12, 1995 thtough August 18, 

1995- 

Jennifer Ohgi, Bachelors Candidate, Cal Tech. Education/ 
Exhibits. Developing, contructing and evaluating inter- 
active devices for the "How Things Fly" gallery which will 
open in 1996. The majority of the prototypes will be electro- 
mechanically operated. June 19, 1995 through August II, 
1995- 

Nagini Paravastu, Bachelors Candidate, University of Vir- 
ginia. Astrophysics. Work closely with the supervisor on in- 
frared spectra of galaxies taken at Palomar Observatory. 
Intern will address data reduction problems and assist in 
the interpretation of the data. May 30, 1995 through Au- 
gust 4, 1995. 

Penelope Ramirez, Bachelors Candidate, Purdue Univer- 
sity. Aeronautics. Assisting the curator with the 
production of a pamphlet on women in aviation on 
exhibit. This guide will be used by tourists, media, and 
interested parties on the subject. June 5, 1995 through 
August II, 1995. 

Mounir Regragui, Bachelors Candidate, University of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Education/Exhibits. Developing, con- 
structing and evaluating interactive devices for the "How 
Things Fly" gallery, which will open in 1996. The majority 
of prototypes will be electro-mechanically operated. June 5, 
1995 through August 11, 1995. 

Christopher Sands, Bachelors Candidate, Embry-Riddle 
Aeronautical University. Preservation/Restoration. Re- 
storing and preserving aircraft engines. Working on con- 
trol systems, hydraulic systems, power plants, 
propellers, landing gears, instruments, and other aircraft 
or spacecraft parts, wooden and metal. June 5, 1995 
through August 11, 1995. 

Lolita Street, Bachelors Candidate, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Education/Exhibits. Developing, constructing and 
evaluating interactive devices for the "How Things Fly" 
gallery, which will open in 1996. The majority of proto- 
types will be electro-mechanically operated. June 5, 1995 
through August II, 1995. 

Erik Thogersen, Bachelors Degree, University of Wiscon- 
sin. Education. Student will work on designing, build- 
ing and testing electronic-mechanical devices for the 
"How Things Fly" gallery. January 30, 1995 through 
April 7, 1995. 

Lisa Young, Bachelors Degree, University of Wales, Car- 
diff. Education. Conservation intern with conservation 
unit. Participating in daily activities including active 
and preventive conservation, environmental monitoring 
and condition assessments. July II, 1395 through 
September 2, 1995. 



I20 



National Museum of African Art 



National Museum of American Art 



Penelope J. Agodoa, Masters Candidate, University of Mary- 
land. Curatorial. Verification and location of published im- 
ages or Olouse of Ise towards the production of a catalogue. 
Project includes research of other artists working in the 
Ekiti area during the same period. June I, 1995 through Au- 
gust 11, 1995. 

Susanna Aulbach, Bachelors Degree, University of Texas. Cu- 
ratorial. Working on survey of the permanent collection in 
preparation for cataloging. Assisting curator in identifying 
incorrect attributions in collection and up date curatorial 
records and assisting in ongoing projects. January 9, 1995 
through March 13, 1995. 

Andrea Bergmann, Bachelors Candidate, George Washington 
University. Curatorial. The intern will be engaged in li- 
brary research devoted to the first Portuguese navigators 
and traders who explored the coasts of West, Central, 
Southern, and Eastern Africa in the late 1400s and early 
1500s. see form for rest. September 19, 1995 through No- 
vember 21, 1995. 

John R. Glavan, Bachelors Degree, Michigan State Univer- 
sity. Library of the National Museum of Aftican Art. The 
intern will serve as research assistant to the Working 
Group on Terminology to research and document the 
usage, meaning and variants of terms relevant to African 
Art indexing and cataloging. September 18, 1995 through 
November 24, 1995. 

Holly Long, Bachelors Candidate, College of William and 
Mary. Conservation. Will be provided a pre-program experi- 
ence regarding the conservation of ethnographic art to in- 
clude environmental monitoring and control, preventative 
maintenance and conservation technique. June 19, 1995 
through August 18, 1995. 

Helen Morgan, Bachelors Degree, Art Gallery and Mu- 
seum, Kelingrove. Registrar. Assist registrar with a 
physical inventory of the collections. This will include 
reconciling computer printouts of stotage locations with 
exact locations of object in storage areas to include 
metal objects and textiles. March 4, 1995 through 
February 6, 1996. 

Pilar Quezzaire-Belle, Masters Candidate, Harvard 

University. Photo Archives. Research for an upcoming 
exhibit on raffia, a plant used in Africa for many objects, 
both practical and artistic. June 5, 1995 through July II, 

1995- 

Elizabeth Quinn, Bachelors Candidate, University of Wis- 
consin. Publications. Working with Public Affairs on 
updating the museum's media lists as well as being ex- 
posed to other public affairs department activities. Also 
assisting the Editor in the production of a wide range of 
museum materials. July 10, 1995 through September 22, 
1995- 



Jane Carpenter, Masters Candidate, Howard University. Cura- 
torial Office. Update bibliography and exhibition history 
drafts for Cornell catalogue raisonne in progress. Folk art 
and African American art related research tasks pertaining 
to permanent collection holdings in these areas NMAA 
Advanced Museum Training Program. September 8, 1995 
through April 28, 1996. 

Angela Chang. Education. NMAA Advanced Museum Train- 
ing Program. September 8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Ricardo Compean, Bachelors Candidate, Blackhawk College. 
Curatorial. Working with Curatorial office at the Museum 
of American Art. Translation and research on Latino Artists 
and Art work. July 5, 1995 through August 12, 1995. 

R. Leo Costello, The American University. Intern Programs. 
NMAA Advanced Museum Training Program. September 
8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Erica Renee Davis, Bachelors Degree. Working in curatorial 
division with curators on their projects. June 5, 1995 
through August II, 1995. 

Alison Field, Bachelors degree. Intern Programs. NMAA Ad- 
vanced Museum Training Program. September 8, 1995 
through April 28, 1996. 

Andrea Foster, Bachelors degree. Registrar's Office. NMAA 
Advanced Museum Training Program. Registrar/Curato- 
rial. September 8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Timothy Gately, Bachelors Candidate, University of Mary- 
land. Assistance on all levels for upcoming museum publi- 
cations. June 2, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Kelly Gayden, Masters Candidate, The American University. 
Intern Programs. NMAA Advanced Museum Training Pro- 
gram. September 8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Shannon Holden, Bachelors Candidate, University of Texas at 
Austin. Work on curatorial publication and research on up- 
coming H.L. Sayen exhibit. June 2, 1995 through July 28, 

1995- 

Janice A. Homesky, Bachelors Degree, LCO Tribe. Curatorial. 
Curatorial research and exhibition design as a participant 
in the Museum Intern Partnership Program. October 3, 
1994 through April 15, 1995. 

Lori Johnson, Masters Candidate, The American University. 
Intern Programs. NMAA Advanced Museum Training Pro- 
gram. September 8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Amy K.Jones. Assistance in various aspects of the NMAA 
registrar's office. June 5, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Danielle Kensey, Masters Candidate, The American 

University. Intern Programs. NMAA Advanced Museum 
Training Program. September 8, 1995 through April 28, 
1996. 

Timothy Laun, Bachelors Candidate, University of Wiscon- 
sin Stevens Point. Intern Programs. Re-installation of 
second floor of NMAA. June 5, 1995 through July 28, 
1995 



121 



Hoojung Lee, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 
Registrar's Office. NMAA Advanced Training Program. 
September 8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Lisa M. Lynch, Bachelors Degree, University of Oregon. 
Manuscript processing, editing oral history tapes. June 5, 
1995 through September 8, 1995. 

Susan Nalezyty, The American University. Intern Programs. 
NMAA Advanced Museum Training Program. September 
8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Hilary Nordholm, High School Senior, Potomac School. Reg- 
istrar. General overview of registrar's office. May 10, 1995 
through June 6, 1995. 

Jessica Porter, Bachelors Candidate, University of Delaware. 
Research on Joseph Cornell collection. June 2, 1995 through 
July 28, 1995. 

Sarah Puckett, Masters Candidate, San Jose State Universiry. 
Assist in conducting summer teacher workshops, develop- 
ment of photo festival in conjunction with up-coming exhi- 
bition. June 2, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Anne Samuel, Masters Degree. Curatorial Office. NMAA Ad- 
vanced Museum Training Program — Curatorial. September 
8, 1995 through April 4, 1995. 

Jennifer A. Sarzynski, Bachelors Candidate, Oakland Univer- 
sity. Curatorial. "Diaries and Memoirs": writing, research- 
ing and preparing for publication. May 8, 1995 through 
August 31, 1995. 

Emily Shapiro, Bachelors Degree. Intern Programs. NMAA 
Advanced Museum Training Program. September 8, 1995 
through April 28, 1996. 

Jennifer Shell, Bachelors Candidate, Indiana University. Re- 
search on possible exhibition on Miriam Shapiro, abstract 
expressionist period. June 2, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Elisabeth Sherratt, Bachelors Degree, University of California, 
Los Angeles. Research on upcoming monotype exhibition. 
June 2, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Monica Sinmarco, Masters Degree. Intern Programs. NMAA 
Advanced Museum Training Program, Curatorial and Edu- 
cation. September 8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Amy Sloan, Bachelors Candidate, Auburn University. Assis- 
tance on all levels for upcoming museum publications. 
June 2, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Rachel Smith. Curatorial Office. NMAA Advanced Training 
Program. September 8, 1995 through April 28, 1996. 

Christina Tompkins, Masters Candidate, The American Uni- 
versity. Intern Programs. NMAA Advanced Training Pro- 
gram. September 8, 1995 through August 28, 1996. 

Roxanna Ware, Bachelors Candidate, Salisbury State Univer- 
sity. Assist in work on all levels related to the NMAA per- 
manent database. June 2, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Laurel A. Williams, Bachelors Degree, Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Archives of American Art. Will be cataloging and 
summarizing diaries and journal entries of American art- 
ists and those related to them, producing and publishing 
a guide to these diaries. July 5, 1995 through August I, 
1995- 



Erika Yowell, Bachelors Degree, College of William and 
Mary. Assistance on NMAA's directors citcle and develop- 
ment of brochure. June 2, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 



National Museum of American History 



Jennifer Agresta, Bachelors Degree, Mount Holyoke College. 
Researching social science professors at Howard University 
in the 1930s. January 17, 1995 through May 26, 1995. 

Elizabeth Ann Albert, Doctorate. American Culture. Work on 
collections management at the National Museum of Ameri- 
can History. October 3, 1994 through March 31, 1995. 

Leah Angell, Bachelors Candidate, Yale University. Agricul- 
ture &. Natural Resources. Research project and paper on 
botanical chemotheruputics and drug "pharming. " June 5, 
1995 through August 30, 1995. 

Eric Aron, Bachelors Candidate, Clatk University. Intern- 
ships/Fellowships. Coordinating Brown Bag Lunch series 
and editing "intern opportunities." Also working on Red 
Hot and Blues exhibit. June 5, 1995 through August 30, 

•995- 

Joan Axthelm, Bachelors Candidate. Internship and Fellow- 
ship, Assisting internship and fellowship coordinator by or- 
ganizing the Brown Bag Lunch series for spring interns and 
coordinating the recruitment and onenration of new in- 
terns. January' 12, 1995 through June 2, 1995. 

Ann Marie Baldonado, Bachelors Degree, Haverford College. 
Archives. Surveying the Ethnic Imagery Proiect. January 
19, 1995 through July 31, 1995. 

Rebecca J. Barnes, Bachelors Candidate, Taylor University. So- 
cial History. Researching domestic life in America, past 
and present. Learning about handling artifacts and putting 
together exhibits. September 18, 1995 through December 

14. 1995- 

Amy Frances Bartow, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Public Services. Work on the development and 
evaluation of a bilingual preschool guide for adult/child au- 
dience. January 17, 1995 through April 7, 1995. 

Michelle Bayes, Bachelors Candidate, American University. 
Public Services. Research museum education programs of 
the last five years and create an annotated bibliography. Jan- 
uary 26, 1995 through April 28, 1995. 

Robert J. Benjamin, Bachelors Candidate, Stanford Univer- 
sity. Public Services. Assisting in model making, architec- 
tural drawing, project organization and general tasks in the 
design division. January 30, 1995 through August 15, 1995. 

Kathleen Bergen, Bachelors Degree, Maryland Institute, Col- 
lege of Art. Program Planning and Design. Assisting the 
supervisor with the planning and designing of an exhibit ti- 
tled "on Time" to be on exhibit in the museum of Ameri- 
can History. August 28, 1995 through December 31, 1995. 



122 



Daniel I. Berger, Bachelors Candidate, Bates College. Armed 
Forces. Preparing specimens for inventory and data entry. 
January 25, 1995 through April 28, 1995. 

Justin M. Bernthal, Bachelors Candidate, University of Puget 
Sound. Public Services. Bulletin board posters, rosters, an- 
nouncements, thank-you notes. Decide what is important 
for interns to learn about for the brown bag lunch series. 
June I, 1995 through July 27, 1995. 

Anne Berry, Masters Candidate, George Washington Univer- 
sity. Community Life. Working on 1939-40 New York 
World's Fair Collection. October 24, 1994 through January 

31. 1995- 

Damon T. Bethea, Bachelors Candidate, Allegheny College. 
Historical Resources. Ethnic imagery. Researching the view 
of ethnicity over the past 100 years in American advertise- 
ments, films and television. May 30, 1995 through August 
2, 1995. 

Fran Biehl, Bachelors Degree, University of Colorado. Ameri- 
can Indian Program. Changing landbase and land-use on 
the Kiowa allotted land area. February 22, 1995 through 
April II, 1995. 

Daniela Bleichmar, Bachelors Candidate, Harvard-Radcliffe 
University. Historical Resources. Researching Dr. George 
Washington Crile's wax models of animal glands. June 19, 
1995 through August 21, 1995. 

Matthew Block, Bachelors Candidate, American University. 
Special Events/Public Affairs. Begin arrangements for pro- 
jected symposium auction fund-raising event. Assisting 
with routine planning and paperwork for ongoing events. 
Attending events in order to assist with set-up and opera- 
tions. Assist in the Office of Public Affairs. August 31, 1995 
through December 7, 1995. 

Samuel M. Bond, Masters Candidate, University of South 
Florida, Tampa. Public Programs. Planning and develop- 
ment of impending exhibit for Museum of American His- 
tory. June 5, 1995 through August 30, 1995. 

Kristin Bornholdt, Bachelors Degree. Numismatic Collec- 
tion. General collections management with various pro- 
]ects, including some work with viking age coin collection. 
March I, 1995 through May 31, 1995. 

Gary F. Bouthillette, Bachelors Candidate, Virginia Tech, Ar- 
chitectural History. Researching historic Washington 
buildings, architects, etc. February 14, 1995 through April 
28,1995. 

Debra J. Brennesholtz, Bachelors Candidate, Colorado State 
University. Exhibits. Working on projects related to 
graphic design, putting together foam models, drafting 
and working on the computer. January 27, 1995 through 
May 1, 1995. 

Julie Anne Buck, Bachelors Candidate, Brigham Young Uni- 
versity. Cultural History. Compile, organize, and list divi- 
sional film stills. September 6, 1995 through December 13, 

1995- 

Jodi L. Bunnell, Masters Candidate. Archives. Archival pro- 
cessing, subject guide preparation and outreach develop- 



ment of multimedia production. June 5, 1995 through Au- 
gust II, 1995. 

Tracy Bush, Bachelors Candidate, Union College. Community 
Life. March 27, 1995 through June 2, 1995. 

Sarah M. Cady, Bachelors Candidate, Trinity College. Medical 
Sciences. Research materials for spectacle collection and sev- 
eral book projects. September 12, 1994 through May 31, 

1995- 

Ryan Carey, Bachelors Candidate, Dartmouth College. Politi- 
cal History. Researching for the Land of Promise exhibition 
with a focus on westward expansion. June 19, 1995 through 
July 28, 1995. 

Rhonda J. Carlson, Mt. Vernon. Social History. To assist in 
photographing designer clothing in costume's collections 
and sort through and photocopy primary source articles for 
designer/manufacturer reference files. August 21, 1995 
through December 31, 1995. 

Kristi Catanach, Bachelors Candidate, Santa Fe Community 
College. Historical Resources. Cataloguing the Hispanic 
collection. May 30, 1995 through June 27, 1995. 

Keith Champney, Bachelors Candidate, Boston University. 
Fellowship Office. Dissertation research assistant for "To 
Make a Nation: Politics and Patriotism, 1865-1918. January 
24, 1995 through April 21, 1995. 

Kim Charlton, Bachelors Degree, Cornell University. Cultural 
History. Researching/setting up exhibit on sports in Amer- 
ica. April 5, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Christine Chen, High School Student, The Madeira School. 
Social and Cultural History. Assisting on the project Poetic 
License. February 22, 1995 through June I, 1995. 

Kerry Christiano, Masters Candidate, The George Washing- 
ton University. Cultural History. Research and any other 
work assigned on the 1998 exhibition "Rock and Soul: So- 
cial Crossroads. May 22, 1995 through October 31, 1995. 

Estella M. Chung, Bachelors Degree, University of Michigan. 
Cultural History -Community Life Collection. Assistance 
with research for exhibit and brochure on Lander Design 
Collections of Packaging and Corporate Imagery. Septem- 
ber 5, 1995 through May I, 1995. 

Heather Collins, Bachelors Candidate, Colgate University. 
Cultural History. Working on history of jazz project, help- 
ing put together CD Rom that will teach people how to lis- 
ten to jazz, according to geography and historical period. 
June 19, 1995 through August 19, 1995. 

Dennis Comerford, Bachelors Candidate, George Mason Uni- 
versity. Public Service. The creation and production of the 
1995-96 "Intern Opportunities" booklet. May 30, 1995 
through December 31, 1995. 

Julie Conaway, Bachelors Candidate, Portland State Univer- 
sity. Commerce, Transportation and Work. Research paper 
on the development of the railroad. July 5, 1995 through 
August II, 1995. 

Frances K. Cox, Bachelors Candidate, Duke University. Ar- 
chives. Research of antebellum literature. May 22, 1995 
through August 12, 1995. Cathleen Cronin, Bachelors De- 



1^3 



gree, Occidenral College. Social History. Project on depic- 
tions of women's bodies in the 18th century by looking at 
portraits and interpreting. May 16, 1995 through July 31, 

1995- 

Carrie M. Crowder, Bachelors Candidate, Mary Washington 
College. Armed Forces. Research and document the 
Division's photographic collections and develop a database. 
January 18, 1995 through April 15, 1995. 

Nadia E. Curry, High School Student, Duke Ellington School 
of the Arts. Program in African American Culture. Greens- 
boro Project, answering phone, filing, copying and other 
project related duties. February 6, 1995 through June 15, 

1995- 

Kim Curry-Gardner, Masters Candidate, The George Wash- 
ington University. Social and Cultural History. Assisting 
with move of ethnic collection and assisting with accession- 
ing incoming collection of suffragette artifacts. October 3, 
1994 through March 31, 1995. 

Mark P. Dantos, Bachelors Degree, Colby College. Cultural 
History. Research assistant on "Rock and Soul" exhibition. 
May 15, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Elisa Borchert Davies, Bachelors Candidate, Coe College. Of- 
fice of Interns and Fellows. Intern as Research Assistant to 
Meg Jacobs who is researching on mass consumption in the 
U.S. between the 1920s and the 1950s. September 18, 1995 
through December 8, 1995. 

Monica Ann Degn, Bachelors Candidate, Bngham Young 
University. Office of Interns and Fellows. Assist intern coor- 
dinator with programming and placement of interns at 
American History. July 17, 1995 through December 15, 

1995- 

Mariolein de Laat, Bachelors Degree, Hageschad. Medical Sci- 
ences. Research on 18th Century optical equipment. Janu- 
ary 9, 1995 through May 15, 1995. 

Margaret Dennis, Bachelors Degree, University of Colorado- 
Boulder. Community Life. Assist with accessioning, cata- 
loging, research and related collections management 
activities in the museum's Edward J. Orth World Fair Col- 
lections. October 3, 1994 through August 31, 1995. 

Elizabeth Dubrovsky, Masters Candidate, University of Rhode 
Island. Preservation Services. Work with storage and exhibi- 
tion projects. May 22, 1995 through June 23, 1995. 

Gina Dyson, Bachelors Candidate, Georgetown University. Ar- 
chives Center. Working on the Ethnic Imagery Project 
being developed in the Archives Center, specifically, Hispa- 
nic, Latino business materials. June 5, 1995 through August 

". '995- 
Sarah Ellison, Bachelors Candidate, University of Virginia. Af- 
rican American Culture. Supporting existing programs and 
concept paper on francophoone African American Commu- 
nities in the New World. June 5, 1995 through August 5, 

1995- 
Rodney Evans, High School Student, Duke Ellington School 
of the Arts. Program in African American Culture. Work- 
ing on Greensboro exhibit, answering telephones and work- 



ing on other programs. February 6, 1995 through June 15, 

1995- 

Amy Featherston, Bachelors Candidate, Baylor University. Exhib- 
its. Administrative assistant for America's Smithsonian project 
team for the traveling exhibit celebrating the Smithsonian's 
150th anniversary. May 25, 1995 through July 26, 1995. 

Caleb O. Fey, Bachelors Candidate, Corcoran School of Art, 
Archives Center. Sorting and cataloging of the Skurlock stu- 
dio photograph collection. September 18, 1995 through De- 
cember 31, 1995. 

Laura K. Fleming, Doctoral Degree. Writing and editing. 
Writing and editing scripts for the "Land of Promise," ex- 
hibit at American History under the supervision of Diana 
Cohen. April 25, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Kathenne Freed, Masters Candidate, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Education. Diversifying docent staff. January 17, 
1995 through May I, 1995. 

Yuko Fukunaga, Masters Degree. Division of History and 
Technology. To work with curatorial development team on 
new exhibition, "On Time" with special attention focused 
on Japanese- American interactions. August 1, 1995 through 
December 31, 1995. 

Tammy M. Furrow, Masters Degree, Villanova University. 
Commerce, Technology & Work. Assist in compiling an in- 
ventory of firearms and working with ordinance photo files. 
February 6, 1995 through March 31, 1995. 

Eleanor P. "Nome" Gadsden, Bachelors Candidate, Yale Uni- 
versity. Historical Resources. Working on the symposium 
on the 75th anniversary of women's suffrage. June 15, 1995 
through August 15, 1995. 

Jay Garcia, Bachelors Degree. Archives. Working on the "Eth- 
nic imagery Proiect. October II, 1994 through December 
16, 1994. 

Jasmine Teal Getrauw, Junior High, St. Gabriel Junior High. 
Program in African American Culture. Office Assistant — 
filing, data entry, faxing and copying, answering phones, 
messenger (inside American History only) preparing mail- 
ings, organizing office message center and bulletin boards. 
July 5, 1995 through August 8, 1995. 

Ashley Shannon Gross, Bachelors Candidate, Knox College. 
Internships and Fellowships. Assistant intern and coordina- 
tor, editing, design and production of 1995-96 "Intern Op- 
portunities" with two other interns. June 12, 1995 through 
August 24, 1995. 

Rachel Hallett, Bachelors Candidate, Bennington College. In- 
ternship and Fellowship. Working with a fellow on the his- 
tory of Politics and patriotism. January 17, 1995 through 
February 24, 1995. 

Rhonda Hamilton, High School Student, Duke Ellington School 
of the Arts. Program in African American Culture. Working 
on Greensboro Project, answering phones, and conducting re- 
search. February 6, 1995 through June 15, 1995. 

Keith Haran, Bachelors Candidate, Providence College. 150th 
Exhibition. Curatorial researcher, retrieving information for 
exhibitions. June 5, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 



124 



Judit Hargitay, Bachelors Candidate, ELTE University-Buda- 
pest. Public and Private Life. Research on the media in 
America. February 13, 1995 through May 15, 1995. 

Chris Harrington, Bachelors Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia, Los Angeles. Community Life/Cultural History. Assist- 
ing with project dealing with Cuban involvement in 
Spanish-American war. April 3, 1995 through June 7, 1995. 

David G. Hamad, Masters Candidate, Indiana University. 
Director's Office. Help to facilitate the museum's strategic 
planning. September 18, 1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Michael A. Haubert, Bachelors candidate, UC Santa Barbara. 
Office of Interns and Fellows. To assist Angela Lakwete 
with dissertation research by conducting searches at the 
U.S. Patent and Trademark office, do research and any pho- 
tocopy required, evaluate and compile data of case files at 
the Library of Congress law library, patent case files at the 
National Archives, city directories at American History 
and tracking down 19th century cotton gin manufacturers. 
September 19, 1995 through December I, 1995. 

Karen Heil. Publications. Working as a publication specialist 
and graphic designer. January 25, 1995 through December 

31. 1995- 
Jen Michelle Hickes, Bachelors Degree, Washington & Lee 
University. Office of Historical Resources. History of 
Sports and exercise. September 5, 1995 through December 

31. 1995- 

Kelly Hogan-Dames, Bachelors Degree, Purdue University. 
Conservation. Conservation and preservation of costumes. 
January 9, 1995 through March 9, 1995. 

Renee Susan Jackson, Masters Candidate, Virginia Tech. Pres- 
ervation Services. Restoration and conservation of textiles, 
specifically costumes. May 22, 1995 through July 23, 1995. 

George Jacob, Masters Degree, University of Toronto, Science 
and Technology. Visitor studies and exhibit development re- 
search; production process and an overview of related activi- 
ties at the Smithsonian. May 1, 1995 through July 20, 1995. 

Joshua Jacobstein, Bachelors Candidate, Washington Univer- 
sity. Assisting Oz Frankel researching westward expansion 
in the 1840s and the explorers' encounter with the Native 
Americans. May 30, 1995 through August I, 1995. 

Peniel Joseph, Bachelors Degree. Program in African Ameri- 
can Culture. Design a conference for summer deadline with 
issues related to the so-called "underclass." Conference will 
deal with the ways in which issues such as race, class, and 
gender affect the poor. June 5, 1995 through August 18, 

1995- 

Becah Jubon, Masters Candidate, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Public Service. To have exposure to the role of 
design in the context of conceptualization, development 
and detailed design of actual exhibitions with real-life 
criteria for decision making. June 13, 1995 through Sep- 
tember 22, 1995. 

Paula M. Kaczor. Bachelors Candidate. Boston College. Com- 
munity Life Researching political imagery and language in 
advertising. January 26, 1995 through April 28, 1995. 



Carolyn Karabaic, Bachelors Candidate. Intern and fellow of- 
fice. Intern offices assisting with orientations and program- 
ming. May 31, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Carol Elaine Keesling, Masters Candidate, Cambridge Univer- 
sity. American Indian Program. Assisting with projects. 
October 11, 1994 through April II, 1995. 

Ten Beth Kestenbaum, Masters Degree, Cornell University. 
Science, Medicine and Society. Project assistant for Medi- 
cines: The Inside Story. January 17, 1995 through Novem- 
ber 24, 1995. 

Nadia Khatchadounan, Bachelors Candidate, McGill Univer- 
sity. Musical History. Assist with "Voices of First Nation 
Women"; radio broadcast special "Guitar: Art and Soul"; 
routine office work. May 15, 1995 through August 15, 1995. 

Michael Knighten, Bachelors Candidate, Louisiana State Uni- 
versity. Graphic Art. Digitalize art, sort warehouse mate- 
rial. May 21, 1995 through August I, 1995. 

Julie Morgan Kraus, Bachelors Candidate, Mary Washington 
College. Community Life. Photo research for the "Wade in 
the Water" exhibition including looking at photos of 19th 
and 20th century sacred music personalities and assisting 
with and ordering photos and getting permission for usage 
of artifacts. January 18, 1995 through April 15, 1995. 

Audrey E. Krause, Bachelors Candidate, Portland State Uni- 
versity. Archives Center. Conducting research on organiza- 
tions that created about 450 German and Austrian posters 
during World War I and writing brief histories of these or- 
ganizations. January 6, 1995 through March 15, 1995. 

Gordon Lanpher, Bachelors Candidate, Brown University. In- 
ternships and Fellowships. Researching Legislation of Patri- 
otism. October 4, 1994 through December 31, 1994. 
Alison E. Larmee, Bachelors Candidate, The American Uni- 
versity. Internship and Fellowship. Will assist with re- 
search towards dissertation. Tasks include visual research 
and traditional documentary research. January 23, 1995 
through April 20, 1995. 

Sin Larsen, Bachelors Candidate, Portland State University. 
History Services. To research Selman Waksman's discovery 
of streptomycin in the commercial development and appli- 
cation of the antibiotic. March 29, 1995 through June 2, 

1995- 

Jim L. Lasser, Bachelors Candidate, University of Michigan. 
Military History. Working with the Jackson collection of 
European history uniforms/World War II American history 
uniforms exhibit. June I, 1995 through August I, 1995. 

Rachel Ledford, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. Divi- 
sion of Public and Private Life. Life in America in the 19th 
century, a land ot contested promises. The exhibit is di- 
vided into five major sections - industrialization, African 
Americans, immigration, Native American removal or 
westward expansion. September 5, 1995 through December 

*5. 1995- 
Alfonzo Leon, Bachelors Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Planning. Help with the project "On Time". Consists of 
constructing models, drafting plans and making measure- 



125 



merits of room spaces. May 22, 1995 through August 25, 

1995- 

Julia Leonhard, Masters Candidate, Smith College. Political 

History. Research assistant for the 19th century "Land of 
Promise" exhibition, research about culturally diverse peo- 
ple in the U.S.June 5, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Meredith Levine, Bachelors Candidate, Indiana University. Ex- 
ternal Affairs. Research on individual and corporate level 
for funding for special events and development. June 27, 
1995 through August 25, 1995. 

Stephen Liss, Bachelors Candidate, Vassar College. Public Ser- 
vices. The history of Afro-Caribbean music and the history 
of black colleges and universities in America. June 5, 1995 
through August 12, 1995. 

Donald (Larry) Loew, Bachelors Degree, University of Louis- 
ville. Director's Office. Research donation records. March 
13, 1995 through June 2, 1995. 

Ana-Maria Lopez, Bachelors Degree, College of William and 
Mary. Community Life. Inventory of Jesuit Missions in 
New Mexico 1767 list of objects of material culture includ- 
ing Spanish and English. November 10, 1994 through May 

3LI995- 

Timothy Lupin, Masters Candidate, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Transportation. Archival and collections catalogue 
and research. June 6, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Sabine Manke, Bachelors Degree, Philipps University. Histori- 
cal Resources. Research on the development of the cosmetic 
industry during World War II with focus on lipstick. May 
30, 1995 through August 17, 1995. 

Mikel Maron, Bachelors Candidate, University of California, 
Santa Cruz. Computers, Information and Society. HTML- 
ifying the CIS collection. June 26, 1995 through August 25, 
1995- 

Ariane McCarthy, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Administrative assistant with related strategic 
program and planning in director's office. May 30, 1995 
through August 24, 1995. 

Kathryn McElveen, Bachelors Candidate, College of William 
and Mary. History Resources. Researching photos of banjos 
for a computer database. June 5, 1995 through August 18, 

1995- 

Kathleen McLaughlin, Bachelors Degree, University of Dela- 
ware. Internship and Fellowship. Assisting intern coordina- 
tor by serving as orientation leader for perspective interns 
and those who are starting their internships. December 12, 
1994 through May 31, 1995. 

Beverley J. McQuillan, Bachelors Degree, Washington Center 
UC Davis. Public Services. Will assist the exhibit designer 
in scaled drawings/models of research on architectural his- 
tory of the museum as need arises. March 29, 1995 through 
June 8, 1995. 

Jay D. Metz, Bachelors Degree, Bennington College. History 
of Science. Research to identify equipment used by research- 
ers in the field sciences (for example entomology, mammo- 
logy, icthyology, ornithology) during the period 1830-1930; 



to be carried out using archival resources. January 3, 1995 
through February 27, 1995. 

Aaron Micallef, Masters Candidate, George Mason University. 
Archives. Looking through collections for items pertinent 
to exhibit, entering onto database. March 6, 1995 through 
May 31, 1995. 

Jason Mittell, Masters Candidate, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison. Archives. Archiving film stock for industry on pa- 
rade. June I, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Peter Moen, Bachelors Candidate, Portland State College. 
American Festival. Acting as liaison for book project, find- 
ing artifacts ro do a photo shoot for book project. January 
6, 1995 through March 18, 1995. 

Matthew L. Moffett, Bachelors Candidate, James Madison 
University. Communication, Technology and Work. Re- 
search on American architecture. May 8, 1995 through Au- 
gust 15, 1995. 

Helen Morgan, Bachelors Degree. Collection Management Ser- 
vices. Experience in Smithsonian Institution's Collection 
Management Practices. July 10, 1995 through August 31, 

1995- 
Darenda Motley, Bachelors Candidate, University of Missis- 
sippi. Social History. Women in WWII clothing, research- 
ing in Library of Congress. May 16, 1995 through July 21, 

1995- 
Mary Lynn Murphy, Masters Candidate, Hamilton College. 
Historical Resources. Review of exhibits in National Mu- 
seum of American History and isolating where religion ap- 
pears in the museum. Creating a list to be used by the 
public and museum personnel as a map ot where religion 
can be found in the museum. June 5, 1995 through August 

". 1995- 

Paige Myers, Graduate Student, University of Alberta. Preser- 
vation Services. Conservation Techniques. July 10, 1995 
through August II, 1995. 

Melissa C. Naulin, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. Com- 
merce Technology and Work, research project related to the 
development of a new exhibition, "on time," in the time- 
keeping hall of American History. September 5, 1995 
through December 25, 1995. 

James Nelson, Bachelors Candidate, Portland State Univer- 
sity. 150th Anniversary. Visual research 150th anniversary ex- 
hibit. June 28, 1995 through August 21, 1995. 

Raney M. Nelson, Bachelors candidate, Portland State Univer- 
sity. Information, Technology and Society. Self-image of the 
amencan physicist with advent of post-modernity. Septem- 
ber 5, 1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Christopher C. Newbern, Bachelors Candidate, West Virginia 
University. Design group. Help with design work on the Land 
of Promise exhibit. May 22, 1995 through July 30, 1995. 

Susan O'Donnell, Bachelors Degree, Smith College. Archives 
Center. Princeton Posters Research. September 5, 1995 
through December 25, 1995. 

Norma O'Mara, Bachelors Degree, Louisiana State University. 
Internships/Fellowships. Assist internship coordinator, ori- 



126 



entation of incoming interns. May 12, 1995 through June 1, 

1995- 

Sumiko Oshima, Bachelors Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia, Davis. Textile/Costume Conservation. Collection Man- 
agement of Textiles, Storage and Exhibition with emphasis 
on flags and flat textiles. September 19, 1995 through De- 
cember 1, 1995. 

Alison L. Oswald, Masters Candidate, State University of 
New York at Albany. Archives Center. Archival Processing. 
June 5, 1995 through August 15, 1995. 

Joanne Ottaviano, Bachelors Candidate, Bowdoin College. Ed- 
ucation. Research in the Library of Congress in housing in 
1920s and 1930s. June II, 1995 through August 20, 1995. 

Martha E. Overby, Bachelors Degree. History Services. Working 
with the "Go Forth and Serve" project on the conference, mu- 
seum, newsletter, and assisting in other programming activi- 
ties. February 1, 1995 through March 1, 1995. 

Nicholas Owers, Bachelors Candidate, Oxford University. To 
provide office assistance in the promotion of the museum 
programs and activities and providing routine office sup- 
port. January 17, 1995 through May 6, 1995. 

Jennifer Ozichowski, Bachelors Candidate, Catholic Univer- 
sity. Division of Science and Technology. Research for his- 
tory of timekeeping exhibit. May 22, 1995 through August 
i>. 1995- 

Mark H. Palmer, Masters Candidate. American Indian Pro- 
gram. Evolution of land use on the Kiowa Allotted land 
area in Southwestern Oklahoma. February 6, 1995 through 
April II, 1995. 

Ryan Papir, Bachelors Candidate, University of Pennsylvania. 
Cultural History. Working on exhibit "Sport in American 
Life." May 30, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Amy Pass, Bachelors Degree, SUNY Geneseo. Information 
and Society. Assisting with routine museum activities, 
setup of new exhibition and museum demonstrations. Feb- 
ruary 3, 1995 through May I, 1995. 

Sarah A. Patterson, Bachelors Candidate, Wellesley College. 
Historical Resources. Studying the architectural history of 
Washington, DC. May 30, 1995 through September 4, 1995. 

Manssa Payton, Masters Candidate, Howard University. Pro- 
gram in African American Culture. Researching African 
American Women's history. November 15, 1994 through 
May 31, 1995. 

Anna Pegler-Gordon, Masters Degree, Brown University. De- 
partment of History and Technology. To work with curato- 
rial development team on new exhibition, "On Time", with 
special attention focused on immigrant experiences with 
amencan time systems and disciplines. June 5, 1995 
Through September 1, 1995. 

Larissa Nicole Perkins, Bachelors Degree, Georgetown Col- 
lege. Community Life. Research and collections work for 
history of rock and soul music project. February 6, 1995 
through April 28, 1995. 

Jennifer Ponza, Masters Candidate, Academy of Art. Ameri- 
can Music. Compiling interviews for a project encompass- 



ing women in jazz music, gathering photographs, histori- 
cal data and oral interviews with artists' friends and family 
members. January 9, 1995 through March 17, 1995. 

Alison M. Poulsen, Bachelors Degree, George Washington 
University. Costume Division. Taking out of storage the de- 
signer costume collection and photographing it, replacing 
it in storage, working with collection and conservation de- 
partment. May 8, 1995 through July 31, 1995. 

Susan Priscott, Bachelors Candidate, American University. Ed- 
ucation. Earth Day project coordination and work on the 
explainer tor the Hands-on Science Center. February 2, 1995 
through April 29, 1995. 

Brendan Ravenhill, High School, Woodrow Wilson. Armed 
Forces History. To learn to handle historic Civil War Vir- 
ginia artifacts in preparation for their photography. June 
26, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Jodi Reborchick, Bachelors Candidate, George Washington 
University. Musical History. Researching and helping with 
Folklife Festival. February 3, 1995 through May I, 1995. 

Alice Byrd Reed, Masters Candidate, George Mason Univer- 
sity. Domestic Lite. Research on an upcoming exhibit 
about homes in America. January 17, 1995 through April 
28,1995. 

Priscilla A. Reinhardt, Masters Candidate, University of 
Rhode Island. Costume Conservation. Working on a 
rehousing project for the collection of ethnic costumes, as- 
sisting with dismantling and assembling forms and cos- 
tumes for exhibit, possibly will be involved with some 
aspect of First Ladies inaugural ball gowns. May 22, 1995 
through June 22, 1995. 

Elena Lucia Rivellino, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. 
Archives Center. Doing Research on American History Ar- 
chives collections for an Ethnic Imagery project about rep- 
resentations of people in commercial advertising. 
September 4, 1995 through December 20, 1995. 

Sara Romeyn, Doctorate Candidate, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Domestic Life. Researching for history of childhood 
exhibits title "Kidstuff." January 17, 1995 through May I, 

•995- 

Kathryn R. Rosenberger, Bachelors Degree, George Washing- 
ton University. Social History. 75th anniversary ot Women's 
Suffrage "Visions of Equality: Past and Future" sympo- 
sium. May 15, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Zachary Schoening, Bachelors Candidate, Brown University. 
Electricity. Cataloging "Dial-a-joke" tapes. June 26, 1995 
through August 25, 1995. 

Katie Scott-Childress, Masters Candidate, University of Mary- 
land. Archives. Archival processing, subject guide prepara- 
tion, outreach activities, development of multimedia 
products and oral and video documentation projects. June 
5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Jessica Silver, Mastets Degree, University of Michigan. Ar- 
chives Center. The intern will work with manuscript collec- 
tions that document innovation and invention in the 
United States. The intern will participate in and be respon- 



127 



sible for a wide range of archival tasks relating to the col- 
lection to which she has been assigned. The intern will 
be expected to undertake research relating to the collec- 
tion and produce well written reports and documents as 
directed. July 10, 1995 through September 19, 1995. 

Peter Simon, Bachelors Degree, Jate University-Szeged. Ar- 
chives Center. Research on ethnic imagery in films. Febru- 
ary 13, 1995 through June 9, 1995. 

Pamela K. Snyder, Bachelors Degree, Union College. African- 
American History. Research assistant in African American 
History. May 8, 1995 through July 15, 1995. 

Puttra Som, Bachelors Candidate, Arizona State University. 
Automation Services. To develop, conduct and analyze a 
training survey of all American History staff. To develop 
a database of employee training information that can be 
assessed in a variety of ways. Prepare written analysis of 
the survey information. June 5, 1995 through August II, 

1995 

Abbie N. Sprague, Bachelors Candidate, Bucknell University. 
Historical Resources. Assisting Dr. Marefat with research 
for a book on architecture she is writing. May 24, 1995 
through August 15, 1995. 

Susan Stark, Bachelors Candidate, Wake Forest University. Of- 
fice of Interns and Fellows. Research Assistant to Laura Ed- 
wards in the area of 19th century American society. June 7, 
1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Siani N. Steen, Bachelors Candidate, Lewis and Clark College. 
Fellows Office. Filing photos, researching medical and den- 
tal history in the U.S., short write ups. September 25, 1995 
through December 14, 1995. 

Jonathan B. Streff, Bachelors Candidate, Gettysburg College. 
Cultural History. Research connected to future exhibit on 
New Orleans jazz. May 15, 1995 through August 13, 1995. 

Julia Surak, Art Institute of Chicago. Exhibit Design. Assist 
with the "Land of Promise" exhibit. October 3, 1994 
through December 31, 1994. 

Joanne R. Tashiro, Bachelors Degree, University of California, 
San Diego. Archives. Ethnic Imagery Project development 
in Archives center. Involved in production of fund raising 
packet for project. Ethnic Imagery Working Group and in- 
volved in exhibit and development planning. May 26, 1995 
through September 10, 1995. 

Dan Trachtman, Bachelors Candidate, Washington Univer- 
sity. Information and Technology. Designed World Wide 
Web page for photo history and numismatics. June 28, 1995 
through August 20, 1995. 

Kathenne E. Turner, Bachelors Candidate, Colgate University. 
Armed Forces. Working with the National Collections of 
antique weapons, inventorying them into a database and 
helping with cleaning them. June 5, 1995 through August 

4. 1995- 

Myra L. Valdez, Bachelors Candidate, American University. 
Numismatics. Performing various tasks in the department 
of numismatics based on persons in charge of the specific 
projects. February 9, 1995 through May 31, 1995. 



Sandor Vegh, Bachelors Candidate, L. Kossuth University. 
Cultural History. Research on consumerism in 20th- 
century America. February 13, 1995 through May 15, 

1995- 

Reid Veto, Bachelors Candidate, Dartmouth College. Office 
of Interns and Fellows. Photos for Intern Opportunities 
Publication. July 3, 1995 through September I, 1995. 

Ashley W. Vietor, Bachelors Degree, St. Johns College. Public 
Programs. Research for Oz Frankel's project "The Politics, 
Culture and Rituals of Public Investigations in 19th Cen- 
tury America." Focusing research on abolitionist literature 
and the Civil War US Sanitary Commission. May 1, 1995 
through August 10, 1995. 

Elizabeth Voyatzis, Bachelors Degree, University of Virginia. 
Cultural History. Working with musical history collec- 
tions, doing various collections management duties. Janu- 
ary 3. 1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Sharon R. Vriend, Doctoral Candidate, Bowling Green State 
University. Cultural History/Archives Center. Ethnic imag- 
ery project. June 1, 1995 through June 29, 1995. 

Allison Wickens, Bachelors Degree, Grinnell College. Interns 
and Fellows. Assisting in the selection of summer interns, 
the Brown Bag lunches and conducting orientation for new 
interns. February 27, 1995 through June 30, 1995. 

Anita Wiehr, Bachelors Degree & Candidate, Oregon State 
University. Program Planning & Design. Internship affords 
an opportunity to learn the exhibition design development 
process through hands-on experience working closely with 
the design chief on a variety of exhibits projects. September 
21, 1995 through December 31, 1995. 

Adam Wolfson, Bachelors Candidate. Historical Resources. 
Working on merger between ACTWU and ILGWU as 
well as working on other labor history projects. April 10, 
1995 through June 3, 1995. 

Martha Wright, Masters Degree, University of Wisconsin- 
Madison. Public Services. Contact school systems to notify 
them of the fact that NMAH now has bilingual self guides; 
develop brochure for those who are interested in African- 
American history and the AA materials in the Hands on 
History room. June 14, 1995 through August 16, 1995. 

Candace Wyder, High School Student, Duke Ellington 
School of the Arts. Program in African American Cul- 
ture. Working on Greensboro exhibit, answering tele- 
phones, typing and other jobs. February 16, 1995 
through June 15, 1995. 

Cedric Yeh, Masters Candidate, George Washington Univer- 
sity. Numismatic Collection. Working with the ancient 
Chinese coin collection to ascertain the accuracy of earlier 
research. June 5, 1995 through August 1, 1995. 

Junghyun Yuh, Masters Candidate, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Public Services. Assist in evaluating exhibitions 
and public programs. Participate in development of out- 
reach programs. Evaluate published literature about 
NMAH exhibits and programs. May 22, 1995 through July 
*4. 1995- 



128 



Lansa Zimmerman, Bachelors Candidate, Portland State Uni- 
versity. History Services. Images of Ethnicity, 1880— 1980. 
March 29, 1995 through June 2, 1995. 



National Museum of the American Indian 



Sallie S. Anderson, Bachelors Candidate, College of William 
and Mary. Technology. Working on homepage on internet 
(world wide web and America On Line). Updating and add- 
ing information to NMAI homepage. May 22, 1995 
through August 4, 1995. 

Erica Brick, Masters Candidate, University of Wisconsin. Re- 
patriation Office. Assisted in conducting research for the 
Repatriation Office. June 12, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Jeffrey Davenport, Masters Candidate, University of Arizona. 
Administration. Intern will be introduced to all phases and 
departments within the NMAI's administrative depart- 
ment. Intern will rotate from budget, personnel, technol- 
ogy and facilities planning. June 5, 1995 through July 28, 

1995- 

James P. Henry. Collections. Will work with staff in preserva- 
tion techniques, care and handling of collections. June 5, 
1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Francesca Hillary, New York University. Film and Video. As- 
sist in all phases of planning and presenting the NMAI 
film and video film festival. Project includes organizing 
and working with selection committee, funding strategies, 
planning publicity, audience evaluation.etc. April 1, 1995 
through September I, 1995. 

Johnnie Jacobs, Masters Candidate, University of Oklahoma. 
Exhibitions. Focus on the exhibition master planning for 
the mall museum. Organize and catalogue a collection of 
slides that will supplement a database. Organize study 
sketches of exhibit designs compiled by the master plan 
team. June 5, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Lydia Jennings, Institute of American Indian Arts. Collec- 
tions. Will work with staff in preservation techniques, care 
and handling of collections. June 5, 1995 through July 28, 

1995- 

Linda Martin, Bachelors Degree, Arizona State University. 
Publications. Assisting in the design of printed materials. 
January 17, 1995 through March 22, 1995. 

Traci L. McClellan, Masters Candidate, University of Arizona. 
Public Programs. Cherokee hymn project-compiling and 
cataloguing Cherokee hymns to provide the Cherokee and 
English translations for all of them. This database can then 
be utilized by both of the Cherokee nations. May 30, 1995 
through August 4, 1995. 

Emily Murphy, University of California/Santa Cruz. Film and 
Video. Assist in the marketing and publicity for an upcom- 
ing film festival sponsored by the NMAI's film and video 
department. August I, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 



Derek C. Schoettle, Bachelors Degree, Dickinson. Public Af- 
fairs. Assist public affairs office with the NMAI's bi-annual 
film festival. June 12, 1995 through September 22, 1995. 

Sabine Scholz, George August University. Research Branch. 
Will assist researchers in the repatriation department. In- 
tern will also develop a database of native cultural re- 
sources. July 10, 1995 through October 15, 1995. 

Margaret Seymour, Bachelors Candidate, South Puget Sound 
Community College. Resource Center. The intern will as- 
sist in the design and development of exhibit guides for the 
museum visitor. June 5, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Tatiana Slock. Photo Archives. The intern will help to iden- 
tify and catalog photographic material accessioned in the 
early and mid-eighties. The intern will generate an inven- 
tory of artifact slides and help develop a new catalog. June 
5, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Luanne M. Prospen Stefanucci, Masters Candidate. Exhibi- 
tions. Exploring the potential for an exhibition and publica- 
tion from rhe photographic archives. September 18, 1995 
through December 15, 1995. 

Shannon Valerio, Bachelors Degree. Evaluate public program- 
ming for the Native American constituency of the NMAI 
by analyzing research done with the Native American com- 
munity. June 5, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Stephanie Jenny Vasquez, Bachelors Candidate, George 
Mason University. Assisting in organizing a workshop on 
Indian Affairs. January 22, 1995 through May 2, 1995. 

Jennifer Verling, Bachelors Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia, Davis. Exhibitions. Assist in the development of the 
NMAI exhibition masterplan. March 28, 1995 through 
June 9, 1995. 

Heather Whiteman Runs Him, Bachelors Candidate, Insti- 
tute of American Indian Arts. Conservation. Will assist 
staff conservators in a survey of artifacts at the Audubon 
Terrace facility and perform conservation treatments on a 
group of selected artifacts. June 5, 1995 through July 28, 
1995 



National Museum of Natural History 



Michelle Aasrud, Bachelors Degree, University of Massachu- 
setts/Amherst. Handbook office. Research assistant for Lan- 
guage and Plateau volume; photographic research; general 
research on photography. May 22, 1995 through November 

3°. 1995- 

Glenn R. Almany, Bachelors Candidate, San Francisco State 
University. Fishes. Morphology and relationships of a new 
atlantic species of acanthemblemana. May 27, 1995 through 
August 6, 1995. 

Julie Anngton, Bachelors Candidate, Murray State University- 
Botany. Revision of a small genus of the Guianas. May 29, 
1995 through August 4, 1995. 



129 



Alfredo G. Auador, Bachelors Degree, University of Havana. 
Invertebrate Zoology. Study of the Paralarval Octopods of 
the Florida current. May 29, 1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Suzanne Bass, Bachelors Degree, The American University. 
Special Events. Assist the special events coordinator in all 
aspects of preparation, coordination, and execution of 
events at the museum. June 9, 1995. 

Ryan W. Bavis, Bachelors Degree, St. Mary's College of Mary- 
land. Molecular Sysrematics. Identification of Branta 
bernicla subspecies using cytochrome bmitochondnal 
DNA. May 29, 1995 through July 7, 1995. 

Roberto E. Bello, Bachelors Candidate, Michigan State Uni- 
versity. V2-HERPS. Two new species of leptodactylid frogs 
from the Guiana highlands of Venezuela. June 19, 1995 
through July 7, 1995. 

Brendan Best, Bachelors Candidate. Development and Public 
Affairs. Science writing and public affairs assistance. Janu- 
ary 31, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Aimee D. Betts, Bachelors Candidate, Albertson College of 
Idaho. Vertebrete Zoology. Examining the evolutionary ori- 
gins of the African tree squirrels. June 5, 1995 through Au- 
gust 25, 1995. 

Shaunese Niccole Branch, High School Student, Manchester 
High. Public Programs. Object research for the African 
voices project. July 10, 1995 through July 7, 1995. 

Karen Brockman, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Anthropology/Repatriation. Introduction to var- 
ious facets of the work conducted by the repatriation office 
of Natural History, with an emphasis on archival research. 
Documentation of archaeological and physical anthropol- 
ogy collections from the Southeastern United States. June 
5, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Heather Broxson, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Exhibits. Assisting exhibits office with the Hall 
of African Cultures. January 17, 1995 through July 31, 1995. 

Carlos Bustamante, Bachelors Candidate, Harvard University. 
Anthropology. The history and evolution of male/female 
differences in immune reactivity. May 29, 1995 through 
July 7, 1995. 

Ivan Castro-Arellano, Bachelors Candidate. National Autono- 
mous University of Mexico. Mammals. Ecogeographic dis- 
tribution of selected families of African mammals. May 27, 
1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Kristina Collmann, Bachelors Candidate, Wittenberg Univer- 
sity. Development. Working with donor database to man- 
age lists for stewardship project. November 28, 1994 
through December 31, 1994. 

Jennifer Mane Crane, Bachelors Degree. Native American Pro- 
gram. Research on various photographers of Native Ameri- 
cans for the language volume of the Handbook of North 
American Indians. October 3, 1994 through May 15, 1995. 

Jessica Crowley, Bachelors Candidate, Sweet Briar College. 
Public Relations. Assisting with the daily activities of the 
office, including special events media projects, and office re- 
ports; working on specialty project such as the upgrade of 



the media resource guide. January 3, 1995 through January 

27. 1995- 

Flavia F. de Jesus, Bachelors Candidate, Bard College. Botany. 
Examine new species of plant genus Resia having bracts as 
well as closely related genera of similar habit, habitat and 
rarity. SEM study of pollen and cladytic analysis will be 
done as well. May 28, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Wida Faryar, Masters Candidate, George Mason University. 
Automated Data Processing. Geographic map and database 
entry and editing of ongoing GIS projects at the museum. 
May 30, 1995 through September 30, 1995. 

Cameron Fraser, Bachelors Candidate, University of Iowa. 
American Indian. Verifying information on the Mohave 
people. May 30, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Teresa J. Friedrich, Bachelors Candidate, Hope College. Mam- 
mals. A study of the anatomy of flying squirrels to test the 
hypotheses that flying squirrels are monophyletic and de- 
rived from New World tree squirrels. May 28, 1995 through 
August 6, 1995. 

Kurt E. Galbreath, Bachelors Candidate, Illinois Wesleyan 
University. Invertebrate. Using amphipod crustaceans 
to interpret evolutionary history and biogeographic 
pattern in coral reefs. May 27, 1995 through August 6, 

•995- 

Henry Goethals. Bachelors Degree, Tufts University. Public 
Affairs. Assist in public affairs and development. December 
12, 1994 through June 30, 1995. 

Philip M. Gottshall, Bachelors Candidate, Moravian College. 
Paleobiology. A morphomettic-based study of a Permian 
gastropod clode to show general trends in evolutionary spe- 
ciation and their subsequent natural history. May 29, 1995 
through August 4, 1995. 

Jennifer Raye Gough, Bachelors Candidate, Shepherd College. 
Graphics. Assisting in silkscreening, computer graphics, di- 
orama construction, painting, photo-mounting, hall main- 
tenance and tefurbishing. January 30, 1995 through May 5, 

1995 

Christopher Hale, Bachelors Degree, University of Miami. 
Division of Fishes. Assist the Division of Fishes staff with 
various duties. June I, 1995 through June 30, 1995. 

Christopher R. Hardy. Botany. Comparative leaf anatomy of 
the two genera Pollia and Commelina. June 2, 1995 
through August 4, 1995. 

Dianella Howarth, Bachelors Candidate, University of Penn- 
sylvania. Botany. Study the phylogeny of scaevola in Ha- 
waii. May 29, 1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Eugene Hunt, Bachelors Degree, Duke University. Paleobio- 
logy. Growth and variation in early paleozoic trilobites. 
May 27, 1995 through August 6, 1995. 

John P. Janovec, Bachelors Degree, Kansas State University. 
Botany. Conducting a traditional taxonomic study of Sene- 
cio Durandii (Asterauae: Senecioneae); a species of Costa 
Rica which is believed to be anomalous among the present 
concept of Senecio s. str. May 27, 1995 through August 6, 
1995- 



130 



Maria A. Jaramillo, Bachelors Candidate, Universidad de los 
Andes. Bocany. Phylogenetic relationships in the family 
Costaceae (Order ZingiberaJes). May 27, 1995 through Au- 
gust 6, 1995. 

Nicholla C. Johnson, Bachelors Candidate, University of the 
West Indies. Botany. Monographic study of legumin osae 
genus asadia. May 28, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Tricia L. Kennedy. Public Affairs Office. To learn about the 
functions and activities of a public affairs ofhce in a na- 
tional museum. May 31, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Tara S. Kirkpatrick, Bachelors Candidate, Mount Holyoke 
College. Mineral Sciences. To study lepidolite, a lithium- 
rich mica, in pegmatites to determine the criteria for distin- 
guishing between primary and secondary growth of these 
lenses. May 29, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Jeffrey K. Lake, Bachelors Candidate, Gnnnell College. Bot- 
any. Phylogenetic analysis of generic relationships in che 
family Musaceae. It will focus primarily on morphological 
characters and secondarily on molecular data. The phylog- 
eny will be used to trace evolution of pollination system. 
May 29, 1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Kathenne E. Langer, Bachelors Candidate, University of New 
Hampshire. Mineral Sciences. To determine significance of 
trace element chemistry in amazonite and microcline for 
classifying rare element granitic pegmatites. May 29, 1995 
through August 8, 1995. 

Claudia B. Mackey, Bachelors Candidate, University of Cen- 
tral Florida. American Indian Program. Catalog photo- 
graphs of Native American (Plains) and enter information 
onto a computer database. February 16, 1995 through April 
H, 1995- 

Barnaby N. Marsh, Bachelors Candidate, Cornell University. 
Fishes. Systematic revision of toungefishes. July 3, 1995 
through August 6, 1995. 

Michael Mastrota, Bachelors Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Anthropology. Text and graphic database entry and editing for 
ongoing projects. January 13, 1995 through June 9, 1995. 

Carolyn J. McClennan, Bachelors Candidate, University of Ar- 
izona-Tucson. Native American cataloguing. Cataloguing 
items of Mohave material culture found in the Harrington 
manuscripts. May 30, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Robert D., Miller II, PhD Candidate, University of Michigan. 
Anthropology. Research into the archaeological profile of 
Highland Palestine in the I2th-llth centuries B.C. with em- 
phasis on settlement patterns. August 18, 1995 through Au- 
gust 30, 1995. 

Fancine Millman, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Exhibits. Assisting in project management and 
educational outreach for the new Janet Annenberg Hooker 
Hall of Geology, Gems, and Minerals. January 10, 1995 
through May 14, 1995. 

Denise Mitchell, Bachelors Candidate, University of Oregon. 
Native American Program. Researching ethnological and 
historical information on Native American groups of South- 
west Oregon Coast. April 4, 1995 through June 9, 1995. 



Peter Murch, Bachelors Candidate, State University of New 
York. Zoology. Analysis of the distinctive west of 
gresgrutus like characids from the western and central Am- 
azon basin. May 27, 1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Mary L. Murphy, Masters Candidate. Anthropology. Helping 
research for Egyptian exhibit and human origins exhibit. 
June 12, 1995 through August 11, 1995. 

Abdul-Karim Mustapha, Bachelors Candidate, University of 
Maryland. Anthropology. Looking at local archival collec- 
tion and documents by African Americans during the ante- 
bellum period. These will be used as a source material to 
engage the issue of African American literacy at this time. 
June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Peter Nichols, Bachelors Candidate, James Madison Univer- 
sity. Mineral Sciences. Preparation of the Bulletin of the 
Global Volcanism Network, a monthly update on active 
volcanoes. March 20, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Kara A. O'Connor, Bachelors Candidate, University of Ver- 
mont. Botany. To use a variety of microtechniques to com- 
pare leaf anatomy in the Commelmacene. May 27, 1995 
through August 6, 1995. 

Makiko Okuma, Bachelor's Candidate, Wichita State Univer- 
sity. Anthropology, Asian Ethnology. Geographical terms 
annotations in Abbot project, specifically Central Asia June 

". 1995 

Catherine Ann Osuna, Bachelors Candidate, Sweet Briar Col- 
lege. Public Programs. Reworking Discovery Room Collec- 
tion box "What is a Fossil?" Including research, script 
writing and refurbishing the box. January 9, 1995 through 
January 31, 1995. 

Karin L. Owens, Bachelors Candidate, Alabama A&M Univer- 
sity. Learn and actively participate in all financial aspects of 
the program including the distribution of funds across mul- 
tiple fund numbers, budget spending, record keeping, fi- 
nancial management and budget reconciliation. June 5, 
1995 through August I, 1995. 

Bret A. Payseur, Bachelors Candidate, University of Colorado at 
Boulder. Conservation. DNA extraction from taphonomic 
bones, PCR amplification, and inspection of changes in the 
DNA over time. May 27, 1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Ana L. Porzecanski, Bachelors Candidate, University de la Re- 
publica. Paleobiology. Comparison of preservation of experi- 
mentally decayed and fossil leaves. May 27, 1995 through 
August 6, 1995. 

Lola H. Purvis, Masters Candidate, University of New Or- 
leans. Anthropology. Directed independent archival intern- 
ship — Acee Blue Eagle Collection. May 22, 1995 through 
June 9, 1995. 

Edward A. Rehfeld, Bachelors Candidate, Stone Child Col- 
lege. Marine. Taxonomic re-appraisal of compsomediama 
medium chabanand 1951 (cynoglossidae: pleuronecti- 
formes), a poorly-known Indo-Pacific tonguefish. May 27, 
1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Michelle B. Roche, Bachelors Candidate, College of William 
and Mary. Anthropology. Archaeobiology ot the Habur 



131 



Basin: analysis of faunal remains from two Syrian sices. May 
29> 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Laura E. Rose, Bachelors Degree, UC Davis. Botany. Compar- 
ing the anatomy of leaves of Commelinacene using tech- 
niques including paraffin embedding, whole leaf clearings, 
epidermal peels and SEM photography. May 29, 1995 
through August 6, 1995. 

Danielle Rudin, Bachelors Candidate, The American Univer- 
sity. Anthropology. Helping wirh the moving and storing 
of the Oceania and Asia collections. May 15,1995 through 
August 18, 1995. 

Scott J. Rufolo, Bachelors Degree, Rutgers, The State Univer- 
sity. Anthropology. Zooarchaeological analysis of faunal ma- 
terial from 3 sites in NE Syria dating to the 3rd millenium 
BC with the intent of placing the assemblage into a theoret- 
ical model of the emergence of domestication in Mesopota- 
mian region. May 27, 1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Aniko Sabo, Bachelors Candidate, Faculty of Mathematics and 
National Science. Invertebrate Zoology. Identify marine 
nematodes from Fort Pierce and determine during what sea- 
son of the year they are reproducing. May 27, 1995 through 
August 6, 1995. 

Lou Ann Saunders, Bachelors Candidate, George Mason Uni- 
versity. Anthropology. Working wirh ongoing proiects in- 
volving geographic information systems. October H, 1994 
through April II, 1995. 

Jacqueline Schraad, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Anthropology Conservation. Pack and store ob- 
jects as a move technician and assist with the conservation 
of ethnological ob]ects in the Anthropology Conservation 
Lab. February' 21, 1995 through May 15, 1995. 

Patrick Q. Sheridan, Bachelors Candidate, Corcoran School of 
Art. Graphic Arts/Production. Graphics Arts/production as- 
sistant working on screen printing and compurer design. 
July 15, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 

Rebecca A. Siegel, Bachelors Candidate, Tulane University. 
Public Affairs. To learn about the functions and activities of 
a public affairs office in a national museum setting. June 13, 
1995 through June 28, 1995. 

Pilar M. Somma, Masters Candidate, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Repatriation. Researching collection for repatriation, 
assisting in any returns. June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Tarra D. Speaks, Bachelors Candidate, The College of Woos- 
ter. Invertebrate Zoology. A reassessment of the status of 
Western Atlantic species of the gen-star genus Astropecten, 
using collections literature and photographic data. May 29, 
1995 through August 6, 1995. 

Renee Audrey Stein, Bachelors Degree, Smith College. An- 
thropology Conservation Labs. Assistance in Anthropology 
conservation laboratories. December 19, 1994 through Au- 
gust 15, 1995. 

Patricia Sternheimer, Masters Degree. University of Virginia. 
To learn collections management procedures, cataloguing, 
data management and storage techniques. February 8, 1995 
through May 31, 1995. 



Terrell Stoessell, Bachelors Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Development of a standard for the nomenclature of ceta- 
cean skull osteology. May 18, 1995 through May 30, 1996. 

Joseph F. Trottier, Masters Candidate, University of Montana. 
Native American. To work on the Cutlin artifact collection 
and microfiling files of his original letters and notes. May 
30, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Arianne Vanrell Vellosillo, Masters Candidate, Paris I Pan- 
theon-Sorbonne. Anthropology. Ethnographic Conserva- 
tion. November 30, 1994 through February 28, 1995. 

Karen Viskupic, Bachelors Candidate, Washington University 
in St. Louis. Mineral Science. Describe the mineralogy of 
hornblende bearing pegmatites. The major and trace ele- 
ment chemistry of the pegmatites will be investigated by 
the use of an electron microprobe and x-ray fluorescence. 
May 29, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Jessica Wade, Bachelors Candidate, Miami University-Ohio. 
Update research library, foundation research projects, donor 
database training and report development, stewardship pro- 
jects. June 6, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

George B. Wasson, Doctorate Degree, University of Oregon. 
Native American Program. Researching ethnological and 
historical information on Native American groups of South- 
west Oregon Coast. April 4, 1995 through June 9, 1995. 

Mary Whittle, Bachelors Candidate, Amherst College. Bot- 
any/Fishes. Created algae page for world wide web server; 
placed info on fish drawing collection in computer 
database. June 12, 1995 through August 11, 1995. 

Diane Wong, Bachelors Degree. Entomology. Scientific 
illustration internship illustrating various lacewing struc- 
tures/morphologies with critiques and conferences with 
staff lllustraror. October 3, 1994 through April 30, 1995. 

Jason T. Younker, Doctoral Candidate, University of Oregon. 
Native American Program. American Indian Anthropologi- 
cal Collections: Southern Oregon Coast. April 3, 1995 
through June 9, 1995. 

Shirod Younker, Bachelors Candidate, University of Oregon. 
Native American Program. American Indian Anthropologi- 
cal Collections: Southern Oregon Coast. April 3, 1995 
through June 9, 1995. 



National Portrait Gallery 



Elizabeth Ann Albert, Doctorate. Peale Papers. Work on Cata- 
logue Raisonne of the Paintings of Rembrandt Peale. Octo- 
ber 3, 1994 through March 31, 1995. 

Holly Anderson, Masters Candidate, Buffalo State College. 
Conservation. Participant in Conservation Analytical Labo- 
ratory project for National Portrait Gallery conducting a 
survey of the Time collection. January 17, 1995 through 
March 31, 1995. 



137 



Whitney Anderson, Masters Candidate, University of Ari- 
zona, Catalog of American Portrairs. Researching hisroncal 
portraits of American Indians and compiling bibliographic 
records to be put into a computer database. June 5, 1995 
through August II, 1995. 

Lalaine Bangilan, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Education. Assistance with lunchtime lecture 
series, audience development and with preparation tor Fall 
docent training. January 17, 1995 through July 7, 1995. 

Lynne C. Colton, Bachelors Candidate, Brigham Young Uni- 
versity. Historian's office. Researching and assisting with 
various exhibits-especially Red, Hot and Blue and The 
Barrymores. May 15, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Amy Featherston, Bachelors Candidate, Baylor University. Ex- 
hibits. Working on development of "Red, Hot, and Blue" 
exhibit celebrating American musicals. May 31, 1995 
through July 28, 1995. 

Shannon Rae Fincke, Bachelors Candidate, Susquehanna Uni- 
versiry. Education Department. Develop program materials 
based on the Permanent Collection of the National Portrait 
Gallery for use in an inter-disciplinary Humanities pro- 
gram for high school students. September II, 1995 through 
December 8, 1995. 

Tuliza Fleming, Bachelors Degree. Curatorial. Research exist- 
ing curatorial information and initiate new research on the 
National Portrait Gallery's collection of forty-four painted 
portraits of distinguished African Americans donated by 
the Harmon Foundation. June 5, 1995 through August II, 

1995- 

Francis I. Fletcher, Bachelors Candidate, College of Wooster. 
Prints and Drawings. I will be cataloguing some three hun- 
dred drawings by Gardner Cox recently acquired by the 
Portrait Gallery. May 15, 1995 through August 23, 1995. 

Jeana K. Foley, Masters Candidate, University of North Caro- 
lina Chapel Hill. Photographs. Researching Matthew 
Brady for future exhibition. October 17, 1994 through 
April 15, 1995. 

Eleanore P. Gadsden, Bachelors Candidate, Yale University, 
Catalog of American Portraits. Biographical research on 
subjects and artists of portraits at the Koshare Indian Mu- 
seum, La Junta, Colorado, and research and data entry for 
portraits at the Montana Historical Society and other west- 
ern collections. June 13, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Nancy Lynn Hall, Bachelors Candidate, George Washington 
University. Peale Family Papers. Biographical research on 
the sitters of Rembrandt Peale, 1778— 1860, American Por- 
traitist, for a catalog reisonne of his works being prepared 
at the Peale family papers. September, 7 1995 through April 
30, 1996. 

Julie Carol Hart, Graduate, George Washington University. 
Painting and Sculpture. The intern will primarily be in- 
volved with research on pending acqusitions and answering 
public inquiries, although other curatorial duties involved 
with the permanent collection will be assigned as they 
arise. September 7, 1995 through December 15, 1995. 



Alexis K. Hill, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. Peale 
Family Papers. Researching and catalouging the Papers of 
Titian Ramsay Peale. September 5, 1995 through December 

15.1995- 

Leslie Ivie, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College, painting and 
sculpture. Research on the forty-five portraits of distin- 
guished African Americans given by the Harmon Founda- 
tion in 1967. September 5, 1995 through December 25, 1995. 

Susanne Javdani, Bachelors Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia Santa Barbara. Catalog of American Portraits. Collating 
portrait images and documentation, integrating portrait 
material into archival files, researching portrait collections, 
individual art works, sitter and artist biographies. January 
9, 1995 through March 22, 1995. 

Shi Jung, Bachelors Degree, American University. Registrar. 
Will help update files on the museum collections. June 12, 
1995 through August 25, 1995. 

Sharon Lanza, Bachelors Candidate, Northwestern University. 
Researching for Barrymore exhibit for National Porrrait 
Gallery. June 21, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 

Flai Livingston, Bachelors Candidate, Howard University. 
Education. Serving as principal assistant to the Public Pro- 
gram Manager in the film program by researching, locat- 
ing and ordering films for the film series. February 31, 1995 
through April 27, 1995. 

Stefne A. Lynch, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. Educa- 
tion Deparrment. Design highlights of the gallery tours for 
the National Portrait Gallery. June 5, 1995 through August 

". 1995- 

John Carpenter McKee, Masters Candidate, Winterthur Mu- 
seum. Curatorial. Curatorial research in painting and sculp- 
ture. December 27, 1994 through April 30, 1995. 

Sandy Meyer, Bachelors Degree. Education Department. 
Responsible for the National Portrait Gallery's film series, 
and other duties as assigned. September 9, 1995 through 
November 30, 1995. 

Laurie O'Donnell, Bachelors Candidate, Brown University. 
History Department. To assist in researching the portraits 
of Henry Clay, in addition to researching a small exhibit on 
George C. Marshall. This research will involve newspaper 
and periodical searches in the Library of Congress. July 3, 
1995 through Augusr 25, 1995. 

Amy L. Richardson, Bachelors Candidate, Mount Holyoke 
College. Computer Services. Research and compiling infor- 
mation for "see more about" pamphlets. Septembet 5, 1995 
through December 25, 1995. 

Cary Riker, High School Senior, St. Timothys School. 

Catalouge of American Portraits. Organizing and labeling 
portrait material; researching sitter and artist biographies; 
editing catalog information; incorporating portrait mate- 
rial into CAP files; entering portrait data and images into 
CAP computer database. May 18, 1995 through June 6, 

1995- 

Anne F. Sawicki, Masters Candidate, University of California, 
Davis. Education. To begin the preparation of the National 



133 



Porrrait Gallery's permanent collection illustrated checklist 
in book form, also removing and sorting half-tone illustra- 
tion films. June 4, 1995 through August 12, 1995. 

Kathenne D. Sevier, Bachelors Candidate, Wellesley College, 
Prints and Drawings. Acting as research assistant to Wendy- 
Reaves, curator of Prints and Drawings. Cataloging incom- 
ing prints and drawings; miscellaneous research for depart- 
ment. May 30, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

liana Shafran, Bachelors Candidate, Barnard College. Edu- 
cation. Organization, research and computer entry ot por- 
trait records from New Mexico state survey. Also 
research work with National Portrait Gallery curatorial 
files and public reference requests. June 12, 1995 through 
August 21, 1995. 

Amy R. Stegman, Bachelors Degree, Mary Washington Col- 
lege. NPG Registrar's Office. Assisting in the National Por- 
trait Gallery Registrar's Office with a special pro]ect to 
create new permanent registranal records for all Gallery col- 
lections. July 5, 1995 through January 5, 1996. 

Leslie Ann Stubbs, Bachelors Degree, U.S. International Uni- 
versity. Design and Production. Assist Production Manager 
and assist Chief of Design with all aspects of design prepara- 
tion and coordination. Specific tasks will include drafting 
plans, assisting with scheduling and maintenance of master 
calendar. January 30, 1995 through April 30, 1995. 

Natasha L. Suber, Bachelors Candidate, Morgan State Univer- 
sity. Education. Assist education program assistant with 
the Cultures in Motion program series, film series, and in- 
tern program at the National Portrait Gallery. June 7, 1995 
through September 7, 1995. 

Heather Sullivan, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. Office 
of the Historian. The Rise of Celebrity Culture-(the Barry- 
mores, musical theater videos). September 5, 1995 through 
December 25, 1995. 

Stephanie Lee Tadlock, Bachelors degree. Education Depart- 
ment. Assist with 12 week initial Docent Training Course. 
Promote and help run the Lunchtime Lecture and Portraits 
in Print Series. September 14, 1995 through December 20, 

1995- 

Lesley Tucker, Bachelors Candidate, Middlebury College. Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery. Assisting in the National Portrait 
Gallery Registrar's office with a special pro]ect to create 
new permanent registrarial records tor all Gallery collec- 
tions. June 21, 1995 through August 30, 1995. 

Jessica Cole Udvardy, Masters Degree, George Washington 
University. Photographs. PtO|ect will be to catalog ^ 
photogtaphs by George Tames from the Hines collection 
taken during the Cold War eta. February 6, 1995 through 
May 26, 1995. 

Allison Wickens, Bachelors Degree, Grinnell College. Educa- 
tion. Assisting in the research and development of class- 
room materials that can be used in conjunction with two 
special exhibitions at the gallery, and will have work as a 
teaching assistant during a four day seminar. February 27, 
1995 through July 14, 1995. 



Kirsten E. Williams, Bachelors Candidate, University of Vir- 
ginia. Publications. Helping to edit and publish books for 
the National Portrait Gallery, including "1846", a book 
about the Smithsonian's 150th anniversary. Also, editing 
exhibition captions and other written materials for the 
museum. May 22, 1995 through July 28, 1995. 



National Postal Museum 



Tracy Brown, Masters Candidate, George Mason University. 
Public Affairs. Text entry and editing of the museum news- 
letter, updating all press materials in the museum's media 
kit, updating and writing new captions for publicity photo- 
graphs, and writing press releases. January 23, 1995 through 
May 15, 1995. 

Kathryn Concannon, Bachelors Candidate, Grove City Col- 
lege. Collections Department. Arranging a small collection 
of 19th century post office correspondence and rehousing. 
Alson creating a finder's aid. June 6, 1995 through August 

", 1995 

Mark Dellapietra, Bachelors Candidate, Catholic University. 
Collections. Assisting in the rehousing of the Certified 
Plate Proof Collection. Assisting with various collections 
management projects as assigned. August 31, 1995 through 
December 15, 1995. 

Alan Hiebert, Bachelors candidate, Coe College. Public Af- 
fairs. Develop press releases for up-coming exhibits and 
programs, update media lists and activity logs, send 
mailings, assemble press kits to include clips, summer 
newsletter, create postcard mailer for VIARC, video proj- 
ect and other related duties. September 5, 1995 through 
December 8, 1995. 

Leigh A. Kale, Bachelors Candidate, University of North Car- 
olina. Public Affairs. Assemble press kits, organize slides 
and photos for distribution, answer media and public's 
questions about museum, write press releases and various 
other tasks relating to the public, media and advertising. 
May 21, 1995 through August 9, 1995. 

Jeff Kishman, Masters Candidate, George Washington Univer- 
sity. Education. Creating a secondary school Postal Pack 
and public programming. January 17, 1995 through April 

27. 1995- 
Richard J. Moniz.Jr., Masters Candidate, Rhode Island Col- 
lege. Music Department. Original research in the Music De- 
partment of the Library of Congress, contacting other 
museums and repositories, etc. May 30, 1995 through July 

7. 1995 
Christine Mulligan, Masters Candidate, George Washington 
University. Education. Designing activity kits, revising and 
teaching student tours, and creating a pre-visit curriculum 
materials for high school students. January 17, 1995 
through April 27, 1995. 



134 



National Zoological Park 



Surangi Punyasena, Bachelors Candidate, Yale University. 
Working in the Bio Visualization Lab at the National Zoo 
under Dr. Alfred Rosenberger. Exploring the way in which 
three-dimensional scanning could be used to study bio- 
logical specimens, namely the molar teeth of primates. 
Scanning teeth using a three ton laser named Huxley. 
Developing a technique in which to orient the digitized 
images of these casts of howler and squirrel monkey molars 
so that the differences in morphology between individuals 
and the differences between species and their ancestors 
could be compared. June 5, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 



Office of Architectural History and 
Historic Preservation 



Fay A. Beilis, Bachelors Candidate, Oberlin College. Research 
into architectural history of the patent office building, fo- 
cusing on issues concerning its preservation. Project will re- 
sult in an evaluation of historic character and original 
fabric of building. June 12, 1995. 

Kathenne Eggers, Bachelors Degree, Yale University. Re- 
search into the architectural history of the Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum and Sculpture Garden, culminating in a twenty page 
research paper. June 12, 1995 through August 21, 1995. 

Denis R. McNamara, Masters Candidate, University of Vir- 
ginia. Research on Adolf Cluss, architect of Arts and Indus- 
tries Building. July 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Victoria Solan, Bachelors Degree, Oberlin College. Research 
history of the interior of the Arts and Industries Building. 
October II, 1994 through December 22, 1994. 



Office of the Assistant Provost for Arts 
and Humanities 



Rebecca Jubon, Masters Candidate, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Accessibility Program. The intern will illustrate 
and produce a design layout for the accessibility program;s 
"Guide for Accessible Exhibition Design." The document 
will be published for internal Smithsonian Institution use. 
September 18, 1995 through December 1, 1995. 

Kristin Schumacher, Masters Candidate, Cooperstown. Work- 
ing with accessibility coordinator on various projects in- 
cluding possible major internet accessibility project. June 
5, 1995 through August 11, 1995. 



Office of Elementary and 
Secondary Education 



Christopher Z. Breault, Bachelors Candidate, Saint Michael's 
College. Introductory and observational program for clini- 
cal case. Aid technicians in general hospital maintenance. 
Includes cleaning equipment and assist with making obser- 
vations and recording them. June 26, 1995 through August 

5. 1995- 
Ricardo J. Cavo Acosta, Bachelors Candidate, University of 
Puerto Rico. Invertebrate Exhibit. Maintenance of the ex- 
hibits, feeding the animals, cleaning the exhibits, 
designing the aquaria interiors, carry out water tests, an- 
swer visitors questions, conduct feeding demonstrations 
and help visitors use a microscope to identify invertebrates 
in water and soil samples. June 24, 1995 through August 5, 

1995 

Shawn D|ernes, Bachelors Candidate, University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln. Computer Services. Work as a member of the In- 
formation Resource Division staff and assist staff responsi- 
ble for training and end-user support for mainframe and 
PC-based applications. Edit and update OIRM training 
manuals using WordPerfect on the local area network. 
Serve as the teaching assistant in the Information Resource 
Division Training Room and assist in the maintenance of 
Training Room computers. June 24, 1995 through August 

5. 1995- 

Lynn-Steven Engelke, Masters Candidate, George Washing- 
ton University. Teacher Services. Providing research and 
general program support for "Teaching and Learning in a 
Diverse Society." January 18, 1995 through April 28, 1995. 

Welana A. Fields, Bachelors Candidate, Oklahoma University. 
Support the exhibition department in the development of 
the exhibit masterplan for the National Museum of the 
American Indian mall museum. Learn and observe exhibit 
design and master planning, museum management, admin- 
istration and Native American art and culture. June 24, 
1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Ethan R. Jolley, Bachelors Candidate, Utah Valley State Col- 
lege. Work with National Air and Space museum lighting 
designer in designing, installing and maintaining exhibit 
lighting systems. Research new equipment, drafting plans 
for proposed exhibits, installing and focusing lighting 
units for new exhibits, and re-lamping existing fixtures. 
Assist the lighting designer in writing specifications, in 
applying basic engineering standards, and in complying 
with Smithsonian Institution regulations and the Na- 
tional Electrical Code. June 26, 1995 through August 4, 

1995 

Ciani J. Jones, Bachelors Candidate, Georgetown University. 
Research and organization of several small touring exhibi- 
tions drawn from the National Museum of American Art's 
collection as well as conducting research on Hispanic and 
Indian artists. June 24, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 



135 



Mai Le, Bachelors Candidate, University of Texas ar Austin. 
Assist in configuring and installing personal computer 
hardware and software, including network software in of- 
fices of the National Air and Space Museum. Assist per- 
sonal computer users in solving hardware and software 
problems. June 24, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Betty Limon. Latino Outreach. Work with Public Affairs staff 
involved in the Institution's outreach program directed to- 
ward the Latino community in Washington D.C., and 
across the nation. Work with other Smithsonian bureaus, 
various forms of Latino media, developing contacts and par- 
ticipants, in PR activities. June 26, 1995 through August 4, 

1995- 

Farhan Malik, Bachelors Candidate, University of Kansas. 
Space History. Work with primary source matetials dealing 
with the technology of manned spaceflight in order to orga- 
nize and prepare archival records. Assist with the care and 
storage of the space suit collection from the Mercury, 
Apollo and Gemini eras. June 26, 1995 through August 8, 

1995- 

Javier T. Moreno, Bachelors Candidate, Texas Tech University. 
Golden Lion Tamarin. Assist zoo staff in interpreting the 
exhibit to the general public. Perform specific animal obser- 
vations. Assist in daily care tasks like food preparation and 
will learn to use radio tracking equipment tor public dem- 
onstrations. June 24, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 

Melissa Neuman, Bachelors Candidate, Harvard University. 
Historian. Assist National Portrait Gallery historian with 
ongoing research projects using the collections of the Gal- 
lery itself and perhaps those of the District of Columbia's 
Public Library and the Library of Congress. June 24, 1995 
through August 5, 1995. 

Callie J. Newcombe. Primate House. Assist primate keepers 
with their daily routine including cleaning enclosures, pre- 
paring food, and conducting behavioral observations of 
eighr species of primates. Assist with some record keeping. 
June 24, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Chi T Ng, High School Senior, Lane Technical High School. 
Armed Forces History. Working with collections of over 
400,000 objects (uniforms, insignia, art). Caring for collec- 
tions and assisting with mounting exhibitions. Use compu- 
terized catalogue system. Assist in routine museum work. 
June 24, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Steven C. Pabst, Bachelors Candidate, Ball State University. 
Exhibit Interpretation. In National Zoological Park's pho- 
tography department, experiencing Black & White photog- 
raphy printing, copy work, filling photo requests, and 
assisting the staff photographer with animal and other pho- 
tography. Learn abour and help survey, rehouse, identify, 
and catalog historic and recent photographs in the Zoo's 
photo archive. Assist with the development of the Photo 
CD project to integrate photo CD images into a database. 
June 24, 199$ through August 5, 1995. 

Nazzy Pakpour, Bachelors Candidate, Universiry of Califor- 
nia, Davis. Insect Zoo. Will learn to care for the animals 



found in Insect Zoo and learn interpretive techniques 
which have been developed specifically for the exhibit. 
Will participate in teacher training workshops. June 24, 
1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Jaime Petrovich. Early Enrichment Center. Assist in research- 
ing and coordinating developmentally appropriate mu- 
seum-based activities for children. Responsible for assisting 
in planning and implementing the actual activities. The in- 
tent of the program is to integrate museum experiences 
with early childhood education, stressing active learning, 
critical thinking, and problem solving skills. June 24, 1995 
through August 5, 1995. 

Ta] J. Polite, Bachelors Candidate, North Carolina State. Edu- 
cation. Assist the education department by conducting 
tours of the education department by conducting tours of 
the "Black Mosaic Community, Race and Ethnicity" exhibi- 
tion. Additional duties include answering telephone inquir- 
ies, working with the education department's archive, and 
helping to update the mailing list. June 26, 1995 through 
August 5, 1995. 

Corlei N. Prieto, Bachelors Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia, Santa Barbara. Education. Assist with various duties re- 
lated to the care and maintenance of the "Exploring Marine 
Ecosystems" exhibit. Participate in the daily maintenance 
and monitoring of 3,000-gallon Caribbean coral reef ex- 
hibit, a 2,000-gallon gulf of Maine exhibit, and two 130- 
gallon aquarium exhibits. Perform technical duties 
including monitoring chemical parameters (temperature 
and salinity), observing and feeding organisms within the 
systems, harvesting algal turf scrubbers, and checking me- 
chanical equipment. Provide behind the scenes tours and 
answer questions for the general public. June 24, 1995 
through August 5, 1995. 

Michael William Twitty, Bachelors Candidate, Howard Uni- 
versity. African-American Studies Center. Aid The 
Smithsonian Associates Studies Center in the planning and 
implementation of programs, and to research, collect, and 
record data on past programs and overall successes of the 
Studies Center. June 25, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Melanie J. Weeks, Bachelors Candidate, McNeese State Uni- 
versity. Curatorial Affairs. Introduction to basic curatorial 
concepts, review of exhibits proposals, discuss process and 
planning with curators and participate in evaluation pro- 
cess through review committee. June 2, 1995 through July 
26, 1995. 

Olivia M. Wendt, Bachelors Candidate, St. Norbert. Library. 
Assist professional staff in standard library duties, learning 
about variety of research tools. Help to determine whether 
incoming materials are to be catalogued or to be discarded, 
following library guidelines to sort materials already se- 
lected for the library's vertical files, and helping to elimi- 
nate the backlog of materials already selected for the 
vertical files. June 26, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Maria Wiehe, Bachelors Candidate, Mesa Community Col- 
lege. Horticulture. Work in the Grounds Management 



136 



Branch includes maintaining turf and flower bed areas. The 
Greenhouse-Nursery Branch work introduces general green- 
house practices. June 24, 1995 through August 4, 1995. 
Jasmine Williams, Bachelors Candidate, Indiana University 
Northwest, Office of Registrar. Assist the National Mu- 
seum of American Art's Registrar staff in its daily work 
ranging from filing records and entering data to moving 
art work and crates. June 26, 1995 through August 7, 1995. 



Office of Exhibits Central 



Monika Hirshbichler, Bachelors Candidate, University of 
Maryland. Graphics. Working with graphics coordinator 
on matting and framing plus assisting with various phases 
of silkscreening. February 8, 1995 through May 31, 1995. 

Susan Linton, Bachelors Candidate, Tulane University. Work- 
ing in the fields of graphics, model making, computers and 
design of museum exhibits. June 26, 1995 through August 

23, 1995- 

CarolAnne Otto, Bachelors Degree, Beaver College. Model 
Shop/Exhibits. Working in exhibit fabrication for the 
Duck Stamp Hall of the National Postal Museum and Land 
of Promise for the National Museum of American History 
as well as other pro|ects in Natural History. May 30, 1995 
through December 31, 1995. 

Robert J. Patterson. Fabrication Shop. Fabrication of display 
cases for exhibits. June 5, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Lenard Reid, High School Student, Duke Ellington School of 
the Arts. Illuminating the gallery walls and illuminating 
art works. November 1, 1994 through November 29, 1994. 

Rodney H. Robinson, Bachelors Degree, University of Kan- 
sas. Model making. Assist and make a variety of models for 
various exhibitions. Projects such as making a life mask, 
fish mold, a diorama and leaves from cellulose acetate. In- 
volve planning, gathering of materials and final presenta- 
tion. May I, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 



Office of General Council 



ian related legal problems and other special projects as they 
may arise. January 9, 1995 through May 5, 1995. 



Office of Government Relations 



Carlos G. Rosa, Bachelors Candidate, Inter American Univer- 
sity. Information systems intern to design and implement 
legislative, constituent service and administrative function 
recording and tracking systems. To work on commermera- 
tive coin program and congressional zoo night. To instruct 
office personnell on computer usage. June 13, 1995 through 
August II, 1995. 



Office of Latino Affairs 



Adrian Guerra, Bachelors Candidate, Blackhawk College. As- 
sisting the Office of Public and Government Affairs and 
working at the museum of American History in cataloging 
pictures from the early 1900s. July 5, 1995 through August 
10, 1995. 

Jose Salazar, Bachelors Candidate, Western Illinois University 
Photographs. Labeling and sleeving photographs and nega- 
tives of Cuban and Philippine photographer Charles Doty. 
July 5, 1995 through August 12, 1995. 

Roberto Venegas, Bachelors Candidate. Colorado College. Col- 
lecting information regarding Latino issues in the 
Smithsonian collections. June 5, 1995 through August 11, 
1995- 



Office of Membership and Development 



Amy S. Jones, Bachelors Candidate, Duke University. Com- 
pile bibliography for corporate partner program. May 17, 
1995 through June 30, 1995. 



Jeannie Diane Mandoline, Law Student, Washington College 
of Law. Legal research and writing in various Smithsonian 
related areas. October 3, 1994 through December 31, 1994. 

Susan Marino, Masters Candidate, Columbus School of Law. 
Legal research and writing on various Smithsonian related 
legal problems; other special projects as they may arise. Jan- 
uary 9, 1995 through April 26, 1995. 

Tricia Sanders Wellman, Masters Candidate, George Mason 
University. Legal research and writing on various Smirhson- 



Office of Plant Services 



Flora Cox, Bachelors Candidate, University of the District of 
Columbia. Horticulture Services. Learning about the basics 
of application and classification standard of the Institution. 
February 14, 1995 through April 21, 1995. 

Larry Loew, Bachelors Degree, University of Louisville. Horti- 
culture Services. Working with the management of the Or- 



n- 



chid Collection. Reviewing collection to prepare physi- 
cal inventory locating the label on each plant. Replacing 
damaged and faded labels, identifying unknown speci- 
mens. Researching, computerizing, and organizing col- 
lections and records. July 17, 1995 through September 
22, 1995. 
Kerne L. Pinnell, Bachelors Candidate, Southwest Mis- 
souri State University. Horticulture. Working with the 
maintenance of the Haupt Garden. Project will include 
turf management, pruning and training of hedges and 
parterres, maintenance of large expanses of ground cover 
and rose gardening. June 19, 1995 through August 25, 

1995- 

Francie Schroeder, Bachelors Degree, George Washington Uni- 
versity. Horticulture Services Division. The intern will cata- 
log 35mm slides in the AAG collection and prepare a set of 
guidelines to be used for evaluation of 35mm slides of gar- 
dens and landscapes. September II, 1995 through December 

". 1995- 

Karen A. Swanson, Masters Candidate, University of Michi- 
gan. Horticulture. Assist the landscape architect in updat- 
ing the master planting plans of the museum grounds. The 
project will include verifying plants on the site and prepar- 
ing drawings to accurately represent the landscape. June 19, 
1995 through November 17, 1995. 

Jane Williamson, Bachelors Degree, University of the South. 
Horticultural Services. Working with the maintenance of 
the Haupt Garden, Proiect will include turf management, 
pruning & training of formal hedges and parterres, mainte- 
nance of large expanses of graound cover, and, rose garden- 
ing. October 3, 1994 through January 27, 1995. 

Anna S. Yellin, Bachelors Degree, University of Maryland. 
Horticulture Services Division. Intern will maintain the 
Butterfly Garden. While maintaining the garden, the in- 
tern will develop a record from which future plant lists can 
be selected; develop maintenance routines; doing research 
along the way; will record butterfly visits (time of year and 
type of plant visited.) August 14, 1995 through November 
3. 1995- 



Office of Public Affairs 



Office of Printing & 
Photographic Services 



Vanda Manprasert, High School Senior, Winston Churchill 
High School. Office of Photographic Services. Work on 
NAA copywork and black and white printing. Scan images 
into electronic format for database in World Wide Web 
use. Assist photographers in studio as needed. September 5, 
1995 through June I, 1996. 



Rosane Maria Rocha de Carvalho, Bachelors Degree, Museum 
of the Republic. Assisted the Office of Public Affairs with 
marketing programs, multimedia and computer programs 
October 24, 1994 through December 19, 1994. 

Colleen Hershberger, Smith College. Advertising. Publicity 
and promotions for 1995 Festival of American FolkJife, craft 
show, and other projects. April 24, 1995 through September 

24.1995- 
Craig Lambert, Bachelors Candidate, University of New 

Hampshire. Work on 150th anniversary public relation pro- 
jects. June 1, 1995 through August 31, 1995. 



Office of the Secretary 



Elizabeth Hart, High School Student, Sidwell Friends School. 
Biodiversity and Environmental Affairs. Assisting with the 
Smithsonian Earth Day Conference on Biodiversity. January 
24, 1995 through April 28, 1995. 



Office of Smithsonian Institution Archives 



Morgan Andreae, Bachelors Degree. Institutional History/Jo- 
seph Henry Papers Proiect. Compile a database of Joseph 
Henry quotations which provide insight on certain key is- 
sues in the history of the Smithsonian. He will also be ex- 
posed to techniques of documentary editing. June 6, 1995 
through August 18, 1995. 

Anne Armstrong, Bachelors Candidate, James Madison Uni- 
versity. Institutional History. Researching the history of 
Smithsonian art museums and creating a database of the in- 
formation. June 12, 1995 through August 26, 1995. 

Eleanor Curry, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. Smithson- 
ian Institution Archives. Records of William Jores Rhees - 
Smithsonian Institution Archives. September 5, 1995 
through December 25, 1995. 

Kalia Edmonds, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. Ar- 
chives Division. Accessions 1834-1958, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Archives. Septembet 5, 1995 through December 20, 

1995- 

Susan W. Haskell, Bachelors Degree. Office of Smithsonian 
Archives. Appraise, arrange, describe, and preserve a large 
collection of records of the History of Science Society. Au- 
gust 7, 1995 through October 13, 1995. 

Bethany Leigh Johnson, Bachelors Candidate, Princeton Uni- 
versity. Joseph Henry Papers. Compile a database of news- 
paper accounts of the Smithsonian during the 1850s 



138 



focusing on the coverage of Joseph Henry's clash with 
Charles Jewett over future control and direction of the Insti- 
tution. Documentary editing. June 5, 1995 through August 

". 1995- 
Rebecca L. McCadney, Bachelors Candidate, Carnegie Mellon 

University. Assisting historian in research tor a project on 

former Smithsonian Institution Secretary S. 
Dillon Ripley. June 5, 1995 through August 18, 1995. Shawn 

A. Thompson, Bachelors Candidate, Smith College. 

Smithsonian Institution 
Archives. Assisting in the 150th anniversary exhibitions. 

September 5, 1995 through December 23, 1995. 



Office of Sponsored Projects 



Michael Aaron Barnes, Bachelors Candidate, Washington and 
Jefferson College. Developing a survey to collect staff's aca- 
demic/program interests for which they need external fund- 
ing. Set up a database and enter the information once it is 
collected. June 5, 1995 through August 25, 1995. 

Idana Bonsi, Bachelors Candidate, Alabama A&M University. 
Perform a study on projected financial impact analysis. 
June 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Janet L. Dauber, Bachelors Degree, Mount Union College. As- 
sist in pre-award administrative functions, including e- 
mail and database duties and assisting Grant Contract 
Administrator in proposal development and administra- 
tion. February 3, 1995 through June 30, 1995. 

Sarah A. de Aguero, Bachelors Candidate, University of South 
Florida. Office of Sponsored Projects. I will be designing, 
writing, and editing a technical manual for the Post-Award 
division of the Office of Sponsored Projects. The manual 
will detail the services provided to the Smithsonian princi- 
ple investigators. July 5, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Courtney Lenhard, Bachelors Candidate, Whittier College. 
Assisting financial analysts in preparing corrected invoices 
and in analyzing indirect costs. Reviewing monthly finan- 
cial reports to identify deficits. June 5, 1995 through Au- 
gust 4, 1995. 

Julianne Simpson, Masters Candidate, Arizona State Univer- 
sity. Assist in developing a management curriculum for Fi- 
nance and Administration and assist in development of a 
pan-institutional matrix of responsibilities for federal regu- 
lations and compliance for the Smithsonian. June 26, 1995 
through July 28, 1995. 



Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center 



M. Carole Anderson, Bachelors Candidate, Agnes Scott Col- 
lege. Spicebush research, especially insect interactions with 
plant; also bird predation or larvae that feed on spicebush. 
June 5, 1995 through August 18, 1995. 

Allison Eddy Blouin, Bachelors Candidate, St. John's College. 
Studying tate of soil efflux of CO2 from forest floor. May 
22, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Cynthia Boyer, Bachelors Degree. Intetn in the education and 
public programs department. March 6, 1995 through May 

26, 1995. 

Andrea L. Craig, Bachelors Degree, Allegheny College. Ef- 
fects of UV radiation on phytoplankton in Chesapeake Bay. 
May 1995 through August 1995. 

Charlee H. Darby, Bachelors Candidate, Washington College. 
Amoebae in shipballast. June 5, 1995 through August 18, 

1995- 

Manuel Gottschick, Bachelors Candidate, Fachhochschule, 
Hamburg. Forest canopy project. February 28, 1995 
through August 31, 1995. 

Lisa A. Hartman, Bachelors Degree, Hood College. To iden- 
tify non-indigenous species of marine organisms entering 
the Baltimore and Norfolk harbors from the ballast water 
of cargo ships. May 22, 1995 through November 3, 1995. 

Kirsten Hauser. Quantify identification in wetland systems 
using gas chromatography to detect N2O levels. February 

27, 1995 through May 19, 1995. 

Susan Njen Mambo, Masters Candidate, Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Environmental education and research. Reviewing 
environmental education materials, leading canoe tours, 
seminars, explaining ecological research. March 12, 1995 
through May 5, 1995. 

Nancy Merrill, Bachelors Candidate, Cornell University. As- 
sisting Mark Hadden. Filming an environmental education 
video aimed at middle schools. We are trying to show that 
environmental science is fun, exciting and important. June 
5, 1995 through August 20, 1995. 

Eleanor Milne, Masters Candidate, Essex University. The ef- 
fects of elevated CO2 on root respiration in a tidal marsh 
ecosystem. May 22, 1995 through August 25, 1995. 

Nancy Polen, Bachelors Degree, Grove City College. Long 
term bird census with Dr. Jim Lynch. Research takes place 
on 30 acre plot with vegetation in a variety of successful 
stages. June 5, 1995 through August l8, 1995. 

Tonya Kafi Rawlings, Bachelors Degree, Cornell University. 
Intern will be studying the blue crab/rock fish interactions 
in the Chesapeake Bay. May 6, 1995. 

Francisca Saavedra, Masters Candidate, University of Florida. 
Canopy Lab. Collect data in forest and analyze it on com- 
puter. November 28, 1994 through February 3, 1995. 

Gabnela W. Smalley, Bachelors Degree, University of Mary- 
land. June 5, 1995 through August 25, 1995. 



139 



William G. Smithhart, Bachelors Candidate, Southwest Texas 
Stare University. To determine geological influences on 
water quality in study areas within the Chesapeake Bay wa- 
tershed using available SERC resources and geographic in- 
formation systems. May 22, 1995 through August II, 1995. 

Sasha I. Weinstein, Bachelors Degree, Brown University. Nu- 
trient cycling in a constructed wetland. June 5, 1995 
through August 25, 1995. 



searching photographs, library research, meeting with 
exhibition team, drafting text for gallery handout, exhib- 
itor kits, participating in general office activities related 
to the SITES program. June I, 1995 through August II, 
1995- 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 



Smithsonian Institution 
Women's Committee 



Amy Cancienne, Masters Candidate, Louisiana State Univer- 
sity. Museum Reference Center. Answering most frequently 
asked reference questions and developing packets. Decem- 
ber 19, 1994 through January 6, 1995. 

Teria A. Curry, Masters Candidate, Catholic University. Cen- 
tral Reference and Loan. Learning the range of interlibrary 
loan activities. April 16, 1995 through August 10, 1995. 

Kimberly Matthews Graber, Masters Degree, Emporia State 
University. Museum Reference Center. Working on the or- 
ganization of the Native American Museums vertical files, 
and newly obtained materials and actively soliciting up- 
dated materials. January 9, 1995 through March 9, 1995. 

Marci Madatic, Masters Candidate, Louisiana State University. 
American History Library. Working with Worlds Fair 
Books deciding which ones to keep and which to discard 
along with some reference work. December 19, 1994 
through January 6, 1995. 

Dei Olson, Masters Degree, The American University, Mu- 
seum Reference Center. Identify and prepare a guide on visi- 
tor evaluation studies. May 31, 1995 through December 31, 

1995 

Debra Shumate, Masters Candidate, Catholic University. Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery & American Art Library. Profes- 
sional librarianship, experience via practicum. August 29, 
1995 through January 31, 1996. 

Debra Shumate, Masters Candidate, Catholic University of 
America. National Postal Museum. Develop bibliography 
of the Colonial Post Office. January 12, 1995 through May 
13. 1995- 



Smithsonian Institution Travelling 
Exhibition Service 



Shannon Brown, Masters Candidate, Arizona State University. 
Contribute to the development of interpretive components 
and written materials for the traveling exhibition exotic 
illusions: art, romance and the marketplace. Drafting exhi- 
bition text for interactive and Audio Visual components, re- 



Kelly O'Donnell, Masters Degree, University of San Diego. 
Assisting the women's committee with organizing records 
in order to publish anniversary book. January 23, 1995 
through April 30, 1995. 



Smithsonian Magazine 



Tonya E. Manuel, Bachelors Candidate, Hampton University. 
Gain an overall view of how the publication operates with 
an emphasis on editorial activities. Read and evaluate unso- 
licited manuscripts, working with an editor, doing research 
on an article and working in picture department. June 5, 
1995 through August 4, 1995. 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 



Erasmo C. Gonzalez, High School Senior, Landon School. Of- 
fice support work for Smithsonian Tropical Research Insti- 
tute. May 15, 1995 through June 2, 1955. 

Juan Posada Hostettler, Bachelors Degree, Universidad de 
los Andes. Researching plant response to elevated carbon 
dioxide levels. October 1, 1994 through December 31, 
1994. 

Robert McCormick, High School Senior. Landon School. Of- 
fice support work for the Center for Tropical Forest Science. 
May 17, 1995 through June 2, 1995. 

Elizabeth Stoel, Bachelors Candidate, Princeton 
University. Working in the office doing secretarial 
work and learning about acting as a liason for offices and 
laboratories all over the world. June 5, 1995 through 
August 30, 1995. 



140 



The Smithsonian Associates 



Emily A. Allen, Bachelors Candidate, Harvard and Radcliffe 
Colleges. Provide support co TSA volunteer office, work on 
customer service training project, volunteer newsletter, etc. 
June 12, 1995 through August 24, 1995. 

Michele Renee Cardin Bailey, Bachelors candidate, The Uni- 
versity of Tampa. The Smithsonian Associates. Archiving, 
press releases, TSA operations etc. September 5, 1995 
through December 15, 1995. 

Betsy A. Baird, Masters Degree, Dartmouth. Resident Associ- 
ate Program. Assisting in the Resident Associate Program 
programming. July 31, 1995 through June 30, 1996. 

Jennifer Bergeron, Bachelors Degree, U Mass-Dartmouth, Lib- 
eral Arts and Special Events. Assist Program Coordinator 
with general office work in addition to work on special pro- 
jects. July 12, 1995 through August 25, 1995. 

Lyra J. Colfer, Bachelors Candidate, Cornell University. The 
Young Associates. Work on fall activities: scholarship pro- 
gram, Family Halloween Party, research prospective films 
and tours, other duties as assigned. September 5, 1995 
through December 6, 1995. 

Kimberly A. Geiler, Bachelors Candidate, Trinity University. 
Office of Public Affairs. Assisting with press releases, ar- 
chiving, and the Smithsonian Associates operations. May 
15. 1995 through August II, 1995. 



Mark A. Nakamura, Bachelors Candidate, University of Cali- 
fornia, Santa Cruz. Marketing/Development. I will be pro- 
viding support in all areas of marketing and development 
at the Smithsonian Associates. In addition, I will be work- 
ing on several photography pro]ects for the Associates. Sep- 
tember 20, 1995 through December 6, 1995. 

Anne M. Shoemake, Bachelors Candidate, University of the 
South. Progamming assistant for domestic tours and the 
Odyssey program. June 5, 1995 through August 5, 1995. 

Daisy H. Voorhees, Bachelors Candidate, Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. The Young Associates. Coordinate the Smithsonian 
Summer camp. Responsibilities include oversight for the 
daily operation of the camp and logistical planning in ad- 
vance of the Summer Camp session. June 12, 1995 through 
August II, 1995. 

Blythe E. Wallgren, Bachelors Candidate, George Washing- 
ton University. Young Benefactors. Coordinate the Young 
Benefactors annual silent auction. Work with young bene- 
factors committee members and local area merchants. 
Work with Young Benefactors liaison at special events in- 
cluding the annual gala. May 15, 1995 through September 

". '995- 
Michele Winkler, Bachelors Degree, Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity. Visual Arts/Studio Arts. Assisting in various admin- 
istrative procedures which include conducting research, 
marketing of programs, assisting at council meetings, writ- 
ing memos and letters, and attending workshops and 
classes. February 13, 1995 through June 9, 1995. 



141 



Research Associates 

Research Associates status is conferred by the Provost on individuals from 
outside the Institution who are conducting ongoing research in areas in 
which the Smithsonian has collections or expertise. Research Associates are 
granted access to the Institution's facilities and reference resources and often 
consult or collaborate with Smithsonian researchers. Most appointments of 
Research Associates are for a duration of three years and are renewable. The 
following is a list of individuals who held the title of Research Associates 
during fiscal year 1995. 



Office of the Provost 



Dr. Wilcon S. Dillon 



Center For Folklife 
Programs and 
Cultural Studies 

Mr. Kenneth Bilby 



Conservation Analytical 
Laboratory 

Dr. Veletta Canouts 



Freer Gallery of 
Art/ Arthur M. 
Sackler Gallery 

Dr. Esin Anl 

Ms. Elizabeth West Fitzhugh 

Mrs. Mary S. Slusser 



National Air and 
Space Museum 

Dr. Tsevi Mazeh 

Dr. Vladimir Strelnicski 



National Museum of 
African Art 

Dr. Labelle Prussin 



National Museum of 
American Art 



Dr. Wanda M. Corn 
Dr. Charles C. Eldredge 



National Museum of 
Natural History 

Anthropology Department 

Dr. William P. Barse 
Dr. Michael L. Blakey 
Dr. Ernest S. Burch, Jr. 
Dr. Anita G. Cook 
Dr. Gillian Feeley-Harnik 
Dr. Ann Fienup-Riordan 



Dr. Don Fowler 

Dr. Catherine S. Fowler 

Dr. George C. Frison 

Dr. John M. Fritz 

Dr. James Lowell Gibbs, Jr. 

Dr. James B. Griffin 

Dr. Kris L. Hardin 

Dr. Catherine A. Hawks 

Dr. Richard T. Kontzer, D.D.S. 

Dr. Corinne Ann Kratz 

Dr. Bonnie S. Magnes-Gardmer 

Dr. Betty J. Meggers 

Dr. Michael D. Petraglia 

Dr. Stephen R. Potter 

Dr. Bruce D. Ragsdale 

Dr. Mara E. Rosenthal 

Dr. Robert G. Schmidt 

Dr. Douglas Siegel-Causey 

Dr. Kenyan G. Tomaselli 

Dr. John W. Verano 

Ms. Mildred Morr Wedel 

Dr. John E. Yellen 

Botany Department 

Dr. Lisa Ceryle Barnett 

Dr. Carol J. Bult 

Dr. Jose Cuatrecasas 

Dr. Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr. 

Dr. Elbert L. Little 

Dr. Diane S. Littler 

Dr. Alicia Lourteig 

Dr. John J. Pipoly, III 

Dr. Velva E. Rudd 

Dr. William Louis Stern 

Entomology Department 

Dr. David N. Adamski 
Dr. Annette Aiello 
Mr. Donald M. Anderson 
Dr. William E. Bickley 
Dr. Harley P. Brown 
Dr. Margaret S. Collins 
Dr. Gregory W. Courtney 
Dr. Eduardo Dominguez 
Dr. Lance Durden 
Dr. Robert L. Edwards 
Dr. Neal L. Evenhuis 
Dr. Adrian B. Forsyth 
Dr. Amnon Freidberg 
Dr. Robert D. Gordon 
Dr. Ralph E. Harbach 
Dr. Paul M. Marsh 
Dr. Scott E. Miller 



142 



Dr. Charles Mitter 

Dr. Paul A. Opler 

Dr. Philip D. Perkins 

Dr. Robert V. Peterson 

Mr. E. L. Peyton 

Dr. Dan A. Polhemus 

Dr. John T. Polhemus 

Dr. Patricia Gentili Poole 

Dr. Robert W. Poole 

Mr. Curtis Sabrosky 

Dr. Silvia Santiago-Fragoso 

Dr. Jay C. Schaffer 

Dr. Nikolaj Scharff 

Dr. Jeffrey W. Shultz 

Mr. Theodore J. Spilman 

Dr. Robert Traub 

Dr. David P. Wooldridge 

Dr. Frank N. Young 

Invertebrate Zoology Departtnent 

Dr. G. Denton Belk 
Dr. Darryl L. Felder 
Dr. Gorden L. Hendler 
Dr. John R. Holsinger 
Dr. E. Taisoo Park 
Mr. Richard E. Petit 
Dr. Donald C. Potts 
Dr. Marjone L. Reaka 
Dr. Janet W. Reid 
Dr. Edward E. Ruppert 
Dr. James D. Thomas 

Paleobiology Department 

Dr. Will.am I. Ausich 
Dr. Raymond L. Bernor 
Dr. Annahsa Berta 
Dr. Robyn Burnham 
Dr. Zhongyuan Chen 
Dr. James M. Clark 
Dr. Stephen J. Culver 
Dr. John D. Damuth 
Dr. Daryl P. Domning 
Dr. J. Thomas Dutro, Jr. 
Dr. Ralph E. Eshelman 
Dr. Jerzy Fedorowski 
Dr. Thomas G. Gibson 
Dr. Nigel Hughes 
Dr. Paul L. Koch 
Dr. Carl F. Koch 
Dr. Sergius H. Mamay 
Dr. Christopher G. Maples 
Dr. Jerry N. McDonald 
Dr. Robert B. Neuman 



Dr. William A. Oliver, Jr. 

Dr. Lisa E. Osrerman 

Dr. John Pojera, Jr. 

Dr. Kenneth D. Rose 

Dr. William J. Sando 

Dr. David E. Schindel 

Dr. Judith Skog 

Dr. Anthony Socci 

Dr. Norman F. Sohl 

Dr. I. Gregory Sohn 

Dr. Steven M. Stanley 

Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues 

Dr. Kammer W Thomas 

Dr. Joshua I. Tracey 

Dr. James W. Valentine 

Dr. Andrew G. Warne 

Dr. David Bruce Weishampel 

Dr. Frank C. Whitmore 

Dr. Debra A. Willard 

Dr. Christopher Wnuk 

Dr. Keddy Yemane 

Dr. Ellis L. Yochelson 

Vertebrate Zoology Department 

Dr. Ronald Altig 
Dr. Aaron M. Bauer 
Mr. Bruce M. Beehler 
Dr. Eleanor D. Brown 
Dr. Robert L. Brownell 
Dr. John R. Burns 
Dr John E. Cadle 
Dr. Philip J. Clapham 
Dr. Kenneth Dodd 
Dr. Andreze] Elzanowski 
Dr. Louise H. Emmons 
Dr. Carl H. Ernst 
Dr. William Fink 
Ms. Sara V. Fink 
Dr. Thomas H. Fritts 
Dr.J. Whitfield Gibbons 
Dr. David A. Good 
Dr. Catherine Hawks 
Dr. Lawrence R. Heaney 
Dr. Richard Highton 
Dr. Aleta Hohn 
Dr. Peter W. Houde 
Mr. Ivan Ineich 
Mrs. Phyllis R. Isler 
Mr. Morton L. Isler 
Dr. Elisabeth Kalko 
Dr. Roy K. Kropp 
Ms. Roxie C. Laybourne 
Dr. Bradley C. Livezey 
Dr. Jonathan B. Losos 



Dr. Linda E. Resnik Maxson 
Mr. Roy W. McDiarmid 
Dr. Naercio Menezes 
Mr. Joseph C. Mitchell 
Dr. Guy G. Musser 
Dr. Rafael Omar de Sa 
Dr. Hidetoshi Ota 
Dr. William Perrin 
Mr. Gregory K. Pregill 
Dr. John E.Randall 
Hon S. Dillon Ripley, II 
Dr. Sentiel A. Rommel 
Dr. William F. Smith-Vaniz 
Mr. Wayne C. Starnes 
Dr. David L. Stein 
Mr. Ian R. Swingland 
Dr. Merrill Varn 
Mr. Richard J. Wassersug 
Dr. E. O Wiley 



National Zoological Park 



Dr. Mary Kathenne Carlstead 

Dr. Adelmar Coimbra-Filho 

Dr. Perry S. Barboza 

Dr. Susan D. Crissey 

Dr. Kim C. Dernckson 

Dr. James M. Dietz 

Dr. Wolfgang Dittus 

Dr. John F. Eisenberg 

Dr. John M Francis 

Dr. Karen L. Goodrowe 

Dr. Theodore I. Grand 

Dr. Mary M. Hagedorn 

Dr. Sara J. Iverson 

Dr. David W. Johnston 

Dr. Thomas H. Kunz 

Dr. Brian Miller 

Dr. Dale Miquelle 

Dr. Steven L. Monfort 

Dr. James B. Murphy 

Dr. Donald H. Owings 

Dr. Stephen J. O'Brien 

Dr. Thomas W. Quinn 

Dr. William F. Rail 

Mr. Alfred Rosenberger 

Dr. Stephen I. Rothstein 

Dr. Mitchel Schiewe 

Dr. George Schwede 

Dr. Norman J. Scott, Jr. 

Dr. Michael Stuwe 

Dr. Steven D. Thompson 



143 



Dr. Duane E. Ullrey 
Dr. Samuel K. Wasser 
Dr. Per Wegge 
Dr. Elsie May Widdowson 
Dr. Kevin Winker 



Conservation Research 
Center/National 
Zoological Park 

Dr. Govindasamy Agoramoorthy 

Dr. Joel Berger 

Dr. W. Don Bowen 

Dr. Score Creel 

Dr. John G. Frazier 

Dr. Mary Victoria McDonald 

Dr. Charles W McDougal 



Dr. William J. McShea 
Dr. Richard R. Tenaza 
Dr. Paul Weldon 



Office of the Smithsonian 
Institution Archives/ 
Joseph Henry Papers 

Dr. Albert E. Moyer 



Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory 



Dr. Alastair Cameron 
Dr. Alyssa Goodman 
Dr. Josh Grindlay 
Dr. Robert Kirshner 
Dr. Chris Kochanek 
Dr. Avi Loeb 
Dr. Jane Luu 
Dr. Ramesh Narayan 
Dr. William Press 



Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute 

Dr. Perer Shaw Ashton 
Dr. Stephen P. Hubbell 



144 



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153 



Publications of the 
Smithsonian 
Institution Press in 
Fiscal Year 1995 



During fiscal year 1995, the Smithsonian Institution 
Press released more than 150 publications — including 
trade books, exhibition catalogs, monographs, sympo- 
sium volumes, museum guides, brochures, pamphlets, 
videos, and sound recordings — the most important of 
which are listed below. 



University Press 

Ardouin, Claude Daniel, and Emmanuel Annze. Museums and 
the Community in West Africa. June 1995. 

Arnaza, Bernardo T. Beyond Death: The Chtnchorro Mummies of 
Ancient Chile. September 1995. 

Ben-Amos, Paula Gershick. The Art of Benin. Revised edition. 
June 1995. 

Bendix, Deanna Marohn. Diabolical Designs: Paintings. Interi- 
ors, and Exhibitions of James McNeill Whistler. May 1995. 

Brigham, David R. Public Culture in the Early Republic: Peak's 
Museum and Its Audience. March 1995. 

Brown, Dona. Inventing New England: Regional Tourism in the 
Nineteenth Century. March 1995. 

Chaussonnet, Valerie, ed. Crossroads Alaska: Native Cultures of 
Alaska and Siberia. Copublished with the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Arctic Studies Center. September 1995. 

Clark-Lewis, Elizabeth. Living In. Living Out: African American 
Domestics in Washington, D.C.. 1910-1940. October 1994. 

Collar, N. J., M. J. Crosby, and A. J. Stattersfield. Birds to 
Watch x The World List of Threatened Birds. Distributed for 
BirdLife International. July 1995. 

Cooper, J. E., ed. Disease and Threatened Birds. Distributed for 
BirdLife International. July 1995. 

Cottonwoods: Photographs by Robert Adams. January 1995. 

Craddock, Paul T. Early Metal Mining and Production. 

Copublished with Edinburgh University Press. May 1995. 



Croxall, J. P., ed. Seabird Status and Conservation: A Supplement. 
Distributed for BirdLife International. July 1995. 

Cullen, Jim. The Civil War in Popular Culture: A Reusable Past. 
March 1995. 

Danly, Susan, and Cheryl Leibold. Eakms and the Photograph: 
Works by Thomas Eakms and His Circle in the Collection of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. September 1994. 

Davies, R. E. G., and I. E. Quastler. Commuter Airlines 0/ the 
United States. November 1994. 

Diamond, A. W., and F. L. Filion, eds. The Value of Birds. Dis- 
tributed for BirdLife International. July 1995. 

Doss, Enka. Spirit Poles and Flying Pigs: Public Art and Cul- 
tural Democracy in American Communities. March 1995. 

Elias, Scott A. Ice-Age History of Alaskan National Parks. April 

1995- 

Evans, M. I. Important Bird Areas in the Middle East. Distrib- 
uted for BirdLife International. July 1995. 
Flores, Richard R. Los Pastores: History and Performance in the 

Mexican Shepherd's Play of South Texas. September 1995. 
Foresta, Merry A., and John Wood. Secrets of the Dark Chamber: 

The Art of the American Daguerreotype. Copublished with the 

National Museum of American Art. June 1995. 
Frankel, Godfrey, and Laura Goldstein. In the Alleys: Kids in 

the Shadow of the Capitol. September 1995. 
Franklin, John Hope, and Genna Rae McNeil, eds. African 

Americans and the Living Constitution. March 1995. 
Garcia Rodero, Cristina. Espana Oculla: Public Celebrations in 

Spain. 1974-1989. Copublished with Lunwerg Publishers. 

August 1995. 
Glines, Carroll V. Roscoe Turner: Aviation's Master Showman. 

March 1995. 
Goriup, Paul D., ed. Ecology and Conservation of Grassland 

Birds. Distributed for BirdLife International. July 1995. 
Hendler, Gordon, John E. Miller, David L. Parson, and Porter 

M. Kiev. Sea Stars. Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echmoderms of 

Florida and the Caribbean. August 1995. 
Horses and Dogs: Photographs by William Eggleston. January 

1995- 

Houchins, Chang-su. Artifacts of Diplomacy: Smithsonian Collec- 
tions from Commodore Mattheu Perry's Japan Expedition (18$}— 
1854). August 1995. 

Hyatt, Vera Lawrence, and Rex Nettleford, eds. Race. Dis- 
course, and the Origin of the Americas: A Neu- World View: 
March 1995. 

Jackson, Robert. F-86 Sabre: The Operational Record. 
Copublished with Airhfe Publishing. April 1995. 

Jacob, Kathryn Allamong. Capital Elites: High Society in Wash- 
ington. DC. after the Civil War. October 1994. 

Johnson, David R. Illegal Tender: Counterfeiting and the Secret 
Service in Nineteenth-Century America. January 1995. 

Jones, David L. Palms Throughout the World. Copublished with 
Reed Books. July 1995. 

Kan, Michael, Roy Sieber, David W. Penney, Mary Nooter 
Roberts, and Helen M. Shannon. African Masterworks m the 
Detroit Institute of Arts. September 1995. 



154 



Kelly, Roberc L. The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter- 
Gatherer Lifeways. July 1995. 

Lean', William M., ed. From Airships to Airbus: The History of Civil 
Aviation. Volume r. Infrastructure and Environment. April 1995. 

Light, Ken. Delta Time: Mississippi Photographs. March 1995. 

Lopez, Donald S. Fighter Pilot's Heaven: Flight Testing the Early 
Jets. March 1995. 

McFarland, Stephen L. America's Pursuit of Strategic Bombing. 
1910-194$. March 1995. 

Miles, Ellen G. Saint-Memtn and the Neoclassical Profile Portrait 
in America. Copublished with the National Portrait Gallery. 
December 1994. 

Merrill, Linda, ed. With Kindest Regards: The Correspondence of 
James McNeill Whistler and Charles Lang Freer. 1890-1903. 
Copublished with the Freer Gallery. April 1995. 

Morrell, Abelardo. Camera in a Room. August 1995. 

Nettleship, D. N., J. Burger, and M. Gochfeld, eds. Seabtrds 
on Islands: Threats. Case Studies, and Action Plans. Distrib- 
uted for BirdLife International. July 1995. 

Norton, Brian G., Michael Hutchins, Elizabeth F. Stevens, 
and Terry Maple. Ethics on the Ark: Zoos. Animal Welfare, 
and Wildlife Conservation. June 1995. 

Parker, Ann, and Avon Neal. Hajj Paintings: Folk Art of the 
Great Pilgrimage. September 1995. 

Partridge, Elizabeth, ed. Dorothea Lange: A Visual Life. Octo- 
ber 1994. 

Piehler, G, Kurt. Remembering War the American Way. March 

1995- 

Pollack, Howard. Skyscraper Lullaby: The Life and Music of John 
Alden Carpenter. December 1994. 

Prosterman, Leslie. Ordinary Life. Festival Days: Aesthetics in the 
Midwestern County Fair. October 1994. 

Prussin, Labelle. African Nomadic Architecture: Space. Place, and 
Gender. July 1995. 

Redding, Joan, and Diane Vogt-OGonnor. Guide to the Photo- 
graphic Collections at the Smithsonian Institution. Volume IV 
National Air and Space Museum. April 1995. 

Salathe, T. Conserving Migratory Birds. Distributed for BirdLife 
International. July 1995. 

Samuels, Peggy and Harold. Remembering the Maine. April 1995. 

Schiffer, Michael Brian. Taking Charge: The Electric Automobile 
in America. August 1994. 

Schoenfeld, Max. Stalking the U-boat: USAAF Offensive Antisub- 
marine Operations in World War II. December 1994. 

Schwartz, Glenn M., and Steven E. Falconer, eds. Archaeologi- 
cal Views from the Countryside: Village Communities m Early 
Complex Societies. October 1994. 

Seiler-Baldinger, Annemarie. Textiles: A Classification of Tech- 
niques. Copublished with Crawford House Publishers. January 

1995- 

Thorp, Nigel, ed. Whistler on Art: Selected Letters and Writings. 

1849-1903. of James McNeill Whistler. Copublished with Car- 

canet Press. December 1994. 
Trimble, William F. From Airships to Airbus: The History of 

Civil Aviation. Volume x Pioneers and Operations. April 1995. 



Tucker, G., M. Heath, L. Tomialojc, and R. Gnmmett. Birds 
in Europe: Their Conservation Status. Distributed for BirdLife 
International. July 1995. 

Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. Easter Island: Archaeology. Ecology, and 
Culture. Copublished with British Museum Press. January 

1995- 
Voss, Frederick S. Majestic in His Wrath: A Pictorial Life of 

Frederick Douglass. Copublished with the National Portrait 

Gallery. February 1995. 
Wagner, Warren L., and V. A. Funk, eds. Hawaiian Biogeogra- 

phy: Evolution on a Hot Spot. June 1995. 
Waller, Gregory A. Main Street Amusements: Movies and Commer- 
cial Entertainment in a Southern City. 1896-1930. April 1995. 
Weil, Stephen E. A Cabinet of Curiosities: Inquiries into Museums 

and Their Prospects. March 1995. 
Yamba, C. Bawa. Permanent Pilgrims: The Role of Pilgrimage in 

the Lives of West African Muslims in Sudan. Copublished with 

Edinburgh University Press. June 1995. 
Young, Edward M. Aerial Nationalism: A History of Aviation m 

Thailand. October 1994. 



Smithsonian Institution Books 

Conaway, James. The Smithsonian: 150 Years of Adventure. Discov- 
ery, and Wonder. A profusely illustrated history of the 
Institution's first century and a half August 1995. 

The Smithsonian Guides to Natural America. A 16-volume series 
companion set to the highly successful Smithsonian Guides to 
Historic America 

Exploring the Ancient World. The last 3 titles in the 8-part se- 
ries. Copublished with St. Remy Press. 



Smithsonian Recordings 

Great American Orchestras series. New titles in the series 
are Philadelphia Orchestra/Eugene Ormandy and New York 
Philharmonic: 1940-1934. Compilation and notes by 
Richatd Freed. 
Old Time Radio series. Four different boxed sets: 

The Cinnamon Bear. A Classic Children's Story (5-CD/5-cas- 
sette set). Contains 26 original radio episodes of the magi- 
cal adventures of Judy and Jimmy Barton and the 
Cinnamon Bear through Maybeland. 

Let's Pretend (4-CD/ '4-cassette). 12 adventures from "radio's 
outstanding children's theater." 

Science Fiction (4-CD/4-cassette set). 10 classic radio shows 
of the science fiction gente including H. G. Wells' "War of 
the Worlds". 

The Stan Freberg Show. 7 complete radio shows from 
Freberg s famed 1957 CBS radio series. 

Big Band Renaissance: Big Band Jazz from the 40s to the 90s. 

5-CD/5-cassette boxed set. Compiled with notes and annota- 
tions by Bill Kirchner. 



155 



Mean Old World: The Blues From 1940 to ipp4. 4-CD/4-cassette 
boxed set. Compiled with notes and annotations by Law- 
rence Hoffman. 

Hot Jazz On Blue Note. 4-CD/4-cassette boxed set. Compiled 
with notes and annotations by Dan Morgenstern. 

Smithsonian Video Division 

The Earth Is Our Mother. I and II. 

Nou\ A Moment on Earth. 

Smithsonian Expedition. Two programs. 

Smithsonian World. A I2-tape collection: The Wyeths: A Father 
and His Family; The Living Constitution; Zoo: Web of Life; The 
Vever Affair; Tales of the Human Dawn; Nigerian Art — Kin- 
dred Spirits; The Quantum Universe: Gender: The Enduring Par- 
adox; From Information to Wisdom: A Certain Age: The Doors of 
Perception. 

Federal Series Publications 

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 

37. Chang-su Houchins. "Artifacts of Diplomacy: Smithson- 
ian Collections from Commodore Mathew Perry's Japan Ex- 
pedition (1853-1854)." 155 pages, 143 figures, 2 maps. (31 
May 1995) 

Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 

79. Nigel C. Hughes. "Ontogeny, Intraspecific Variation, and 
Systematics of the Late Cambrian Trilobite Dikelocephalus." 
89 pages, 47 figures, II plates, 27 tables. (29 November 
1994) 

81. Alexandre F. Bannikov and James C. Tyler. "Phylogenetic 
Revision of the Fish Families Luvandae and +Kushlukiidae 
(Acanthuroidei), with a New Genus and Two New Species 
of Eocene Luvands." 45 pages, 20 figures. (18 May 1995) 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 

552. Karl V. Krombein and Wojciech J. Pulawski. "Biosyste- 
matic Studies of Ceylonese Wasps, XX: A Revision of 
Tachysphex Kohl, 1883, with Notes on Other Oriental Spe- 
cies (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae: Larnnae)." 106 pages, 257 
figures. (16 November 1994) 

555. R. Daniel Bricefio and William G. Eberhard. "The Func- 
tional Morphology of Male Cerci and Associated Characters 
in 13 Species of Tropical Earwigs (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, 
Labndae, Carcinophoridae, Pygidicranidae)." 63 pages, 98 
figures, I table. (17 March 1995) 

557. Stephen D. Cairns. "Scleractinia of the Temperate North 
Pacific." 150 pages, 3 figures, 42 plates, 5 tables. (18 October 
1994) 



559. Colin Patterson and G David Johnson. "The Intermuscu- 
lar Bones and Ligaments of Teleostean Fishes." 85 pages, 16 
figures, 2 plates, 8 tables. (20 April 1995) 

560. Nancy E. Adams and Robert E. Lewis. "An Annotated 
Catalog of Primary Types of Siphonaptera in the National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution." 86 
pages. (4 January 1995) 

562. Louis S. Kornicker. "Ostracoda (Myodocopina) of the SE 
Australian Continental Slope, Part 2." 97 pages, 54 figures, 
2 tables. (12 April 1995) 

563. Alessandra R. Baptista and Wayne N. Mathis. "A Revi- 
sion of New World Cyamops Melander (Diptera: Peri- 
scelididae)." 25 pages, 59 figures, I table. (29 November 

1994) 

564. Richard P. Van. "The Neotropical Fish Family 
Ctenolucndae (Teleostei: Ostanophysi: Characiformes): 
Supra and Intrafamilial Phylogenetic Relationships, with a 
Revisionary Study." 97 pages, 51 figures, 12 tables. (6 April 

1995) 

565. Victor G. Springer and Jeffrey T. Williams. "The 
Indo-West Pacific Blenniid Fish Genus Istiblennius 
Reappraised: A Revision of Istiblennius. Blenniella, and 
Paralticus. New Genus." 193 pages, 73 figures, 45 tables. 
(29 November 1994) 

566. David G Smith. "Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent 
Fishes in the National Museum of Natural History, 
Smithsonian Institution, 6: Anguilliformes, 
Saccopharyngiformes, and Notacanthiformes (Teleostei: 
Elopomorpha)." 50 pages. (19 December 1994) 

567. Wayne N. Mathis. "Studies of Gymnomyzinae (Diptera: 
Ephydndae), VI: A Revision of the Genus Glenanthe Hali- 
day, from the New World." 26 pages, 59 figures. (10 Janu- 
ary 1995) 

568. Louis S. Kornicker and Thomas M. Ihffe. "Ostracoda 
(Halocypridina, Cladocopina) from an Anchialine Lava 
Tube in Lanzarote, Canary Islands." 32 pages, 16 figures, 1 
table. (12 April 1995) 

569. C. Allan Child. "Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific 
Islands, XI: Collections from the Aleutians and Other 
Bering Sea Islands, Alaska." 30 pages, 10 figures. 

(12 April 1995) 

570. Rafael Lemaitre. "A Review of the Hermit Crabs of 
the Genus Xytopagurus A. Milne Edwards, 1880 
(Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae), Including Descrip- 
tions of Two New Species." 27 pages, 17 figures. 

(20 April 1995) 

571. Mario C.C. de Pinna and Richard P. Vari. "Monophyly 
and Phylogenetic Diagnosis of the Family Cetopsidae, 
with Synonymization of the Helogenidae (Teleostei: 
Siluriformes)." 26 pages, 20 figures. (12 April 1995) 

572. Cynthia Gust Ahearn. "Catalog of the Type Specimens 
of Seastars Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution." 
59 pages. (26 April 1995) 



156 



Publications for Museums, Bureaus, and Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. La's Go. Bulle- 

ReJated Organizations tin. Published twice a year. 

u-,,1 Af , c . „ . „ ° ffice of Fellowships and Grants. Fellowships in Residence at the 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Calendar of r„;,L , .■ ■ n „ 

„,,.,, . «u«oi Smithsonian Institution. Poster. September 1994 

events. Published three times a year. nff ^ fcll ,. . ,_ „ , yy ^' 

Har • , w r Af . , ' , Urriceoi Fellowships and Grants. Smithsonian Opportunities for 

National Museum of African An. Brochure repnnt. August i 995 . Research w w> Book]e[ ' 

Nauonal Museum of African Art. Calendar of events. Pub- office of the Secretary. Regents' Bylau, July i 995 

hshed three times a year. J ' JJ '' 



157 



Publications of the Staff 
of the Smithsonian 
Institution and Its 
Subsidiaries in Fiscal 
Year 1995 

Sciences 

Conservation Analytical Laboratory 



Alexander, Ingrid C. "Technical Studies and rhe Field of 
Conservation." Study Series, June, 1995, 17-18. 

Baker, Mary T. "Ancient Mexican Rubber Artifacts and 

Modern American Spacesuits: Studies in Crystallization and 
Oxidation." Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology IV. edited 
by Pamela B. Vandiver, J. R. Druzik, J.L.G. Madrid, I. C. 
Freestone, G. S. Wheeler, pp. 223-232 Materials Research 
Society Symposium Proceedings Series 352 Pittsburgh: 
Materials Research Society, 1995. 

. "Conservation Issues for Modern Materials." In 

Preserving the Recent Past, edited by D. Slaton and R. A. 
Shiffer, pp. IV/n-IV/18 Washington, DC: Historic 
Preservation Education Foundation, 1995. 

. "Lifetime Predictions for Polyurethane-Based 



Recording Media Binders: Determination of the 'Shelf-Life' 
of Videotape Collections." In Resins: Ancient and Modern. 
edited by M. M. Wright and J. H. Townsend, pp. 106—110 
Edinburgh: The Scottish Society for Conservation and 
Restoration, 1995. 
. "Thermal Studies on Ancient and Modern Rubber: 



Environmental Information Contained in Crystallised 
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Wright and J. H. Townsend, pp. 53—56 Edinburgh: The 
Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, 1995. 
Ballard, Mary W. "Mechanical Properties: Preview and 
Review," Textile Conservation Neusletter, no. 28 (Spring, 
1995): 14-28. 



Beaubien, Harriet F. '"Low Tech' Methods for Characterizing 
Materials in the Field." Materials Issues in Art and 
Archaeology IV. edited by Pamela B. Vandiver, J. R. Druzik, 
J.L.G. Madrid, I. C. Freestone, G. S. Wheeler, pp. 641-652 
Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Series 
352 Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society, 1995. 

. Summaries of "Discussion #1," "Discussion #2" and 

"Discussion #3." In Loss Compensation: Technical and 
Philosophical Issues, compiled by Ellen Pearlstein and 
Michele Manncola, Proceedings of the Objects Specialty 
Group Session, 10 June 1994, 22nd Annual Meeting, 
Nashville, TN, Washington, D.C.: American Institute fot 
Conservation, 1995, pp. 35—37, 72 and 122. 

Becker, Mary A., P. Willman, and Noreen C. Tuross. "The 
U.S. First Ladies Gowns: A Biochemical Study of Silk 
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Conservation, 34, 2, 141— 152, 1995. 

Bishop, Ronald L. "Pre-Columbian Pottery: Research in the 
Maya Region." In Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and 
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The Getty Conservation Institute, 1994, pp. 15-55. 

. "Analisis de composicion de la ceramica en el sur de 

America Central." Vinculos. (Costa Rica), 18(1-2), 19(1-2), 
pp. 9-30. 

Bishop, Ronald L., and Marilyn P. Beaudry. "Appendix B, 
Chemical Compositional Analysis of Southeastern Maya 
Ceramics." In The Copan Residential Zone, by G. R. Willey, 
R. M. Leventhal, A. A. Demarest, and W. L. Fash, Jr. 
Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and 
Ethnology, vol. 80. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994, 
pp. 407-444. 

Bocherens, H., M. Fogel, Noreen C. Tuross, and M. Zeder. 
"Preservation of Trophic Structure and Climatic 
Information Through Signatures in Fossil Mammals from a 
Pleistocene Cave in Southern England," Journal of 
Archaeological Science. 22, 2, 327—345, 1995. 

Butterfield, Dale, and Pamela B. Vandiver. "Microdots as a 
Means of Marking and Tracking Artifacts." In Materials 
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Vandiver, J. R. Druzik, J.L.G. Madrid, I. C. Freestone, 
G. S. Wheeler, pp. 181-186 Materials Research Society 
Symposium Proceedings Series 352 Pittsburgh: Materials 
Research Society, 1995. 

Crane, Brian D., M.James Blackman, and Pamela B. 
Vandiver. "Continuity, Adaptation and Resistance: The 
Cultural Contexts of the Manufacture, Distribution, and 
Use of African-American Pottery in Eighteenth Century 
Charleston, South Carolina." In Materials Issues in Art and 
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Dunsmuir, J. H., Pamela B. Vandiver, R. R. Chianelli, 
H. W Deckman, J. H. Hardenbergh. "X-Ray 
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Society, 1995. 

Erhardt, W. David. "Research and Technical Studies". AIC 
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. "Research and Technical Studies". AIC Newsletter 20, 

no. 3 Washington, D.C.: American Institute of 
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. "Research and Technical Studies". AIC Newsletter 20, 



. "News of Archaeometallurgy." Society for 

Archaeological Sciences Bulletin 17 (3) July-September 1994, 
3-4; 17 (4) October-December 1994, I, 13; 18 (1) 
January-March 1995, I. 

. "The Traditional Use of an Ore Mineral as an 



no. 5 Washington, D.C.: American Institute of 
Conservation (1995): 24—25. 

Erhardt, David, and Judith J. Bischoff. "To the Editors". 
Studies in Conservation 39, no. 4 (1994): 285-286. 

Erhardt, W David, and Marion F. Mecklenburg. "Accelerated 
vs Narural Aging: Effect of Aging Conditions on the 
Aging Process of Paper." In Materials Issues in Art and 
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352 Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society, 1995. 

Erhardt, W. David , Marion F. Mecklenburg, Charles S. 
Tumosa and Mark H. McCormick-Goodhart. 
"Determinacion de las Fluctuationes Permisibles de 
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. "The Determination of Allowable RH Fluctuations." 

Western Association for Art Conservation Neusletter. 17, no. 1, 
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. "Guidelines for the Museum Climate." Report to the 



Task Force on Indoor Air Quality in Museums, 
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June 1995. 

Evershed, R. P., G. Turner- Walker, R.E.M. Hedges, Noreen 
C. Tuross, and A. Leyden. "Preliminary Results for the 
Analysis of Lipids in Ancient Bone." Journal of 
Archaeological Science. 22, 2, 277—290, 1995. 

Foias, Antonia E., and Ronald L. Bishop. "El colapso Clasico 
Maya y las vijillas de pasta fina en la region de 
Petexbatun." In VII Sumposio de Investigaaones Arqueologicas 
en Guatemala Iff}, edited by J. P. Laporte and 
J. L. Escobedo. Guatemala City: Museo Nacional de 
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Gayle, Frank W., and Martha Goodway. "Precipitation 

Hardening in the First Aerospace Aluminum: the Wright 
Flyer Crankcase." Science 266 (Number 5187, II November 
1994): abstract 949, text 1015-1017, illustration 947. 

Gilman, Patrica A., Veletta Canouts, and Ronald L. Bishop. 
"The Production and Distribution of Classic Mimbres 
Black-on-White Pottery." American Antiquity 59, (1994): 
695-709. 

Goodway, Martha. "Comment on Sharp and Mittwede's 'Was 
Kestel really the source of tin for ancient bronze?,'" 
Geoarchaeology 10(1995): 139-141. 



Abrasive." Journal of Field Archaeology, 22(1995), 2. 5 5 — 2. 5 6 . 

Grissom, Carol A. "The Conservation of Outdoor Zinc 

Sculpture." In Ancient and Historic Metals, edited by David 
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. "The Deterioration and Treatment of Volcanic Stone: 

A Review of the Literature." In Lavas and Volcanic Tuffs, 
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1994. 

Harbottle, Garman, Hector Neff, and Ronald L. Bishop. 
"Appendix C, The Sources of Copan Valley Obsidian." In 
The Copan Residential Zone, by G. R. Willey, R. M. 
Leventhal, A. A. Demarest, and W. L. Fash, Jr. Papers of 
the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 
80, Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994, pp. 445—458. 

Kaplan, Emily, Kathenne A. Holbrow, and Harriet F. 
Beaubien. "Desalination Parameters for Harappan 
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Klein, Elyse, Jia-sun Tsang, and Mary T. Baker. 

"Noninstrumental Methods for the Characterization of 
Artist's Acrylic Paints." In Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 
23rd Annual Meeting. St. Paul. MN. Washington, D.C.: 
American Institute for Conservation, 1995, p. 77. 

Lange, Frederick. W., and Ronald L. Bishop. "Abstraction and 
Jade Exchange in Precolumbian Southern Mesoamenca and 
Lower Central America: Costa Rican Considerations." The 
Bulletin of the Friends of Jade. pp. 105-124. (Reprinted from 
original 1988 publication). 

Levine, Tim, Pamela B. Vandiver, and James W. Mayer. "A 
Forward Recoil Energy Spectroscopy (FRES) Test of 
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McCarthy, Blythe, Pamela B. Vandiver, and M. Gibson. 
"Innovation and Continuity in the Technology of 
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Techna (1995) pp. 207-220. 

Mecklenburg, Marion R, Charles S. Tumosa, and Mark H. 
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Mecklenburg, Marion E, Charles S. Tumosa, and Nicholas 
Wyplosz. "The Effects of Relative Humidity on the 
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Mine, L. D., M. G. Hodge, and M. James Blackman. "Stylistic 
and Spatial Variability in Early Aztec Ceramics: Insights 
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Pena, J. T., and M. James Blackman. "A Neutron Activation 
Study of Plio-Pleistocene Marine Clays from West Central 
Italy: Compositional Variability and Implications for the 
Proveniencing of Italian Fineware Pottery." In 1st European 
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della Terra, University of Roma, Rome, 1994, pp. 313-321. 

Petraglia, M. D., R. B. Potts, and Pamela B. Vandiver, 

"Analyses Techniques de Deus 'Mortiers' du Paleohghique 
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Tsang, Jia-sun, Walter Hopwood, and Susan Lake. "A Study 
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Tumosa, Charles S., W David Erhardt, Marion E 

Mecklenburg, and Mark H. McComick-Goodhart. "The 
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Tuross, Noreen C. "Archaeological Artifact and Biomolecule 
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Tuross, Noreen C, and T Dillehay. "Mechanism of Organic 
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1995- 

van der Reyden, Dianne. "Material Care — Material Science: 
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. "Maximizing Minimum Resources for Paper-Based 

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. "A Sticky Problem: Technical Study and Treatment 



of a Sam Francis Gouache' Stuck between Glass." Modern 
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van der Reyden, Dianne, and Mary T Baker. "Genuine 
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Vandiver, Pamela B. "The Ash Glazes of Jack Troy." In 
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Vandiver, Pamela B. "Introduction" and Reply to R. 
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Vandiver, Pamela B. "Ceramic Manufacture and Use at Dolni 
Vestonice, 26,000 B.P." The Ceramics Cultural Heritage. 
edited by P. Vincenzini, CIMTEC Conference Proceedings, 
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Vandiver, Pamela B. "Corrosion of Synthesized Glasses and 
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Vandiver, Pamela B. James R. Druzik, J. L. Galvan, G. S. 
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Vandiver, Pamela B., McG. Gibson, and A. McMahon. "Glass 
Manufacture in the Late Third Millennium B.C. at Nippur 
in Iraq." In The Ceramics Cultural Heritage, edited by 
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Vandiver, Pamela B., and Olga Softer. "Chapter 4. The 
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"Xeroradiographic Imaging." In American Journal of 
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Vazquez, L., R., F. W. Lange, J. W. Hoopes, O. Fonseca Z., 
R. Gonzalez R., A. C. Arias, Ronald L. Bishop, Nathalie 
Borgnino, A. Consrenla U., F. Corrales U., E. Espinoza P., 
L. A. Fletcher, J. V. Guerrero M., V. Lauthelin, D. Rigac, 
S. Salgado G., R. Salgado G. "Hacia futuras investigaciones 
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Wachowiak Jr., Melvin J. "An Introduction to Optical 
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Williams, Donald C. "The Past: and Future History of Natural 
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National Museum of Natural History 



Office of the Director 

Bannikov, A., and J.C. Tyler. 1994. Revision of the Eocene fish 
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(Moscow), I994(3):io3-H3. 

Bannikov, A., and J.C. Tyler. 1995. Phylogenetic revision of 
rhe fish families Luvaridae and fKushlukndae 
(Acanthuroidei), with a new genus and rwo new species of 
Eocene luvarids. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 
81:1-45. 

Matsuura, K., and J.C. Tyler. 1994. Triggerfishes and their 
allies. Pages 229—233 in: J.R. Paxton and W.N. Eschmeyer, 
editors, Encyclopedia of Fishes. University of New South 
Wales Press, Sydney, 240 pages. 

Tyler, J.C, and B.E. Luckhurst. 1994. Unusual features of the 
colonies of the common western Atlantic garden eel 
(Heterocongrinae), with a new record for Bermuda. 
Northeast Gulf Science. I3(2):89-ioo. 

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. 1995. "Wounded Knee" in The World Book 

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Arnoldi, Mary Jo. 1994. "Political and Social Community in 

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Arnoldi, Mary Jo and Chris Mullen. 1995. Crowning 

Achievements: African Arts of Dressing the Head Los Angeles: 

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Baccino, Eric, Sheilagh T Brooks, and Douglas H. Ubelaker. 

1995. "Forensic Anthropology Workshops in Brest, France." 

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Behrensmeyer, Anna K., Richard Potts, Thomas W Plummer, 
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Berman, Tressa L. and J. Daniel Rogers. 1995. "Sahnish 

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Bovee, D.L. 1994 and Douglas W Owsley. 1994. "Evidence of 
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Boucherens, H., M. Fogel, N. Tuross, and M. Zeder. 1995. 
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Buiksrra, J.E. and D.H. Ubelaker (eds.) 1994. Standards for 
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Crocker, William. 1995. "Canela (Central Brazil)," pp. 94-98 
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Fitzhugh, William and Valeric Chaussonnet (eds.). 1994. 
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The Larsen Bay Repartiation and the Smithsonian Institution 
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Sweden in America Carol E. Hoffecker, Richard Waldron, 

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Goodman, Dean, Yasushi Nishimura, and J. Daniel Rogers. 

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Hull-Walski, Deborah, and Frank L. Walski. 1994. "There's 
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Jantz, R.L. and D.W Owsley. 1994. Growth and dental 
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Kaeppler, Adrienne. 1994 Dance and Dress as Sociopolitical 
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. 1994. "Die ethnographischen Sammlungen der 

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. 1994. "Paradise Regained: The Role of Pacific 



Museums in Forging National Identity," pp. 19—44 m 
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. 1995. "Poetics and Politics of Tongan Barkcloth," 



pp. 101-121 in Pacific Material Culture Dirk A. M. Smidt, 
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. 1995. "Visible and Invisible in Hawaiian Dance," 



pp. 31-43 in Human Action Signs in Cultural Context. The 
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Nicolson, D. H. 1994. Review of Harnman, Poaceae in 

Dassanayake, Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon vol. 8. 

American Society of Plant Taxonomists Newsletter 8: 33. 
Nicolson, D. H. 1995. Some notes on Heliconia nomenclature. 

Bulletin Heliconia Society International 7(4): 3. 
Norris, J.N. and D. L. Ballantine. 1995. Two New Species of 

the Red Alga Chrysymenia J. Agardh (Rhodomeniales: 

Rhodomeniaceae) from the Tropical Western Atlantic. 

Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(1): 

153-165. 
Norris, J.N. , I. A. Abbott, and C. A. Agegian. 1995. 

Callidictyon abyssorum gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), A New 

Deep-water Net-forming Alga from Hawai'i. Pacific 

Science 49(2):I92-20I. 
Nowicke,Joan W. and John J. Skvarla. 1995. Pollen 

morphology, pp 129— 159, in Engler and Prantl Die 

Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Angiospermae: Ordung 

Ranunculales, Fam. Ranunculaceae. P. Hiepko, ed. Band 17 

a FV. Dunckerand Humblot, Berlin. 



Peterson, P. M., R. D. Webster, J. Valdes-Reyna. 1995. 

Subtribial classification of the new world Eragrostideae 

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Reed, D.C., J. N. Norris, and M. S. Foster. 1994. Michael 

Neushul, Jr., 1933-1993. Botanica Marina 37: 287-292. 
Robinson, H. 1994. Colobus, Pseudopiptocarpha, and Trepadoma. 

three new genera from South America (Vernonieae: 

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Silva, E.S. and M.A. Faust. 1995. Small cells in the life history 

of dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae): a review. Phycologia 34: 

396-408. 
Skog, L. E. and Kvist, L. P. 1994. Novae Gesneriaceae 

neotropicarum VI: Five new Gesneriaceae from 

northwestern South America. Brittonia, 46(4): 317—330. 
Smith, J. F., C. C. Burke, and W. L. Wagner. 1995. 

Interspecific hybridization in natural populations of 

Hawaiian Cyrtandra: evidence from RAPD markers. Amer. 

J. Bot. Suppl. 82(6): 162. (Abstract) 
Strong, M. T 1994. two new species of Scleria section Selena 

(Cyperaceae) from the Neotropics. Novon 4: 296—302. 
Strong, M. T and C. L. Kelloff. 1994. Intertidal Vascular 

plants of Brent Marsh, Potomac River, Stafford county, 

Virginia. Castanea 59: 354-366. 
Wagner, W. L. and D. R. Herbst. 1995. Contributions to the 

flota of Hawai'i. IV New records and name changes. 

Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap. 42: 13-27. 
Wagner, W. L. 1995. Onagraceae: in Dassanayake et al. (eds.), 

Flora of Ceylon 9: 332—350. 
Wagner, W. L. and V. A. Funk (eds.). 1995. Hawaiian 

biogeography: Evolution on a hot spot archipelago. Smithsonian 

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Wagnet, W. L., S. G. Weller, and A. K. Sakai. 1995. 

Phytogeny and biogeography in Schtedea and Alsimdendron 

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Hawaiian biogeography: Evolution on a hot spot archipelago. 

Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 221—258. 
Wagner, W. L. and D. R. Herbst. 1995. Contributions to the 

flora of Hawai'i. IV New records and name changes. 

Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap. 42: 13-27. 
Wasshausen, D.C. 1995. Begonia manannesis. The Begonian 62: 

116-117. 
Wasshausen, D.C. 1995. Acanthaceae. In: J. A. Steyermark and 

Collaborators, Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Timber 

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Wasshausen, D.C. and Tracy McClellan. 1995. Begonia 

mariannensis (Begoniaceae), a new species from Trinidad, 

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Wasshausen, D.C. and T.F. Daniel. iy%.Justicia nevlmgn 

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Webster, R. D., P. M. Peterson, and R. B. Shaw. 1994. Notes 

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Weller, S. G., W. L. Wagner, and A. K. Sakai. 1995. A 

phylogenetic analysis of Schiedea and Alsimdendron 

(Caryophyllaceae: Alsmoideae): Implications for the 

evolution of breeding systems. Sysc. Bot. 20: 315—337. 



167 



Department of Entomology 

Bapcista, A. and Mathis, W. N. 1994. A Revision ot the New 
World Cyamops Melander (Diptera: Periscelididae). 
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Barr, C. B. and Spangler, P.J. 1994. Two New Synonymies: 
Alabameubria , Brown, a Junior Synonym of Dicranopselaphus 
and Alabameubria starki, a synonym of Dicranopselaphus 
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105(5): 299-302 [2 figs.]. 

Bnceno, R. D. and Eberhard, W. G., 1995. The Functional 
Morphology of Male Cerci and Associated Characters in 13 
Species of Tropical Earwigs (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, 
Labndae, Carcinophondae, Pygidicranidae). Smithsonian 
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Burns, J. M. 1994. Gutless Wonder, p 120. in: Animal 
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Carvalho, J. C. M. and Froeschner, R. C. 1995. Taxonomic 
Names Proposed in the Insect Order Heteroptera by Jose 
Candido de Mello Carvalho from January 1989 to January 
1993. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 102(4): 
481-508. 

Condon, M. A. and Norrbom, A. L., 1994. Three sympatnc 
species of Blepharoneura (Diptera: Tephntidae) on a single 
species of host (Gurania spmulosa. Curcurbitaceae): new 
species and new taxonomic methods. Systematic Entomology. 
19: 279-3°4- 

Davis, D. R. 1994. Neotropical Tineidae, V: The Tineidae of 
Cocos Island, Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea). 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 96: 
735-748 [37 figs.]- 

1994- A Bilateral Gynandromorphic Harmaclona 

tephrantha from Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Tropical 
Lepidoptera. 5(2): 117-122 [14 figs.]. 

1995- Epipyropidae. pp. 21, 127. in: Atlas of Neotropical 



researchers and conservation biologists). [Publ. not given], 
6-7. 
1995- Measuring Arthropod Biodiversity in the 



Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 2. Hyblaeoidea - Pyraloidea - 
Tortncoidea. Heppner, J. B., (Ed.), Association of Tropical 
Lepidoptera, Gainesville, Florida. 

Delfinado-Baker, M. and Peng, C. Y. S., 1995. Varroa jacobsom 
and Tropilaelaps clareae: A Perspective of Life History and 
Why Asian Bee-Mites Preferred European Honey Bees. 
American Bee Journal. 135: 415—420. 

Dietrich, C. H, 1994. Systematics of the Leafhopper Genus 
Draeculacephala Ball (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Transactions 
of the American Entomological Society. 120(2): 87—112. 

, and Pooley, C. D., 1994. Automated Identification of 

Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae: Draeculacephala 
Ball). Systematics. 87(4): 412-423. 

Duffield, R. M., Flint, O. S. and Nelson, C. H. 1995 

Glossosoma verdona (Glossosomatidae: Trichoptera) in the 
Diet of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Libby Creek, 
Wyoming, USA. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 
6j: 277-282 [2 tables]. 

Erwm, T. L. 1994. Sierrazul, Ecuador: A Primeval Cloud 
Forest Overlooking the Amazon Basin (ready for biotic 



Tropical Forest Canopy, pages 5: 109-127 [2 figs.], in: Forest 

Canopies. Lowman, M. and Nadkarni, N., (Eds.), Academic 

Press, Inc., London. 
Evans, G. A., Schauff, M. E., Kok-Yokomi, M. L., and 

Yokomi, R. K., 1995. A New Species of Aphelmus 

(Hymenoptera: Aphelimdae) that Parasitizes the Spirea 

Aphid, Aphid spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae). 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 97(1): 

17-21. 
Fain, A. and Smiley, R. L., 1995. Description of the Male and 

Immature Stages of Rhmoseius bakert (Dusbabek & Cerny, 

1970) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae). International Journal 

of Acarology. 21(3): 195-202. 
Froeschner, R. C. 1995. Lectotype Designations for Two Lace 

Bugs Described from the United States (Heteroptera: 

Tingidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 

Washington. 97(1): 225-226. 
1995- Review of the New World Lace Bug Genera 

Acanthocheila Stal and Carvalhottngis New Genus 

(Heteroptera: Tindidae). Proceedings of the Entomological 

Society of Washington. 97(2): 331-339 [5 figs.]. 
Gagne, R. J., 1995. Revision of Tetranychid (Acarina) Mite 

Predators of the Genus Feltiella (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). 

Systematics. 88(1): 16-30. 
, 1995. A New Gall Midge Pest Infesting 

Pinxterbloom Azalea Flowers in Maryland and 

Washington, D. C. Azalean. Jun: 37-38. 
, 1995. Contarima maculipennis (Diptera: 

Cecidomyiidae), a polyphagus pest newly reported for 

North America. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 85: 

209-214. 
and Payne, J. A., 1994. Vaccinidiplosis. a new genus for 

Cecidomyta vaccina Osten Sacken (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). 

Proceedings of theEntomological Society of Washington. 96(4): 

599—606. 
Gordon, R. D., 1994. Arawana scapularis (Coleoptera: 

Coccinellidae) in the United States and New Locality 

Records for Species of Arauana. Entomological News. 105(3): 

133-136. 
and Vandenberg, N., 1994. The First Record of 

Eremochilmi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Epilachninae) from 

Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 102(1): 

107-110. 
Goulet, H. and Smith, D. R., 1995. Four New Sawflies 

from Eastern North America, Three Species of Tenthredo 

and One of Dolerus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 97(1): 

50-62. 
Grissell, E. E., 1995. Toryminae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: 

Torymidae): a Redefinition, Generic Classification, and 

Annotated World Catalog of Species. Associated publishers, 

470 pages. 



168 



Habeck, D. H. and Solis, M. A., 1994. Transfer ofPetrophila 
drumalts (Dyar) to Argyractis based on Immature and Adulr 
Characters with a Larval Description of Argyractis sukornata 
(Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Nymphulinae). 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 96(4): 
726-734. 

Henry, T. J., 1994. Revision of the Myrmecomorphic Plant 
Bug Genus Schaffneria Knight (Heteroptera: Mindae: 
Orthorylmae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington. 701— 712. 

and Hormiga, G., 1994. Obituary of Barbara 

Adrienne Broady Venables. Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington. 96(4): 767-768. 

, 1995. Proboscidotylus carvalhoi, a new Genus and 



Species of Sexually Dimorphic Plant Bug from Mexico 

(Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae). Proceedings of the 

Entomological Society of Washington. 340—345. 
Hodges, R. W., 1995. Diversity and abundance of insects, 

pgs.161— 163. in: Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation 

on the Distribution. Abundance, and Health of U.S. Plants. 

Animals, and Ecosystems. LaRoe, E. T., et al. (Eds.), U.S. 

Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, 

Washington, DC. 
Howard, F. W., Nakahara, S. and Williams, D. S., 1995. 

Thysanoptera as Apparent Pollinators of West Indies 

Mahogany, Suieetema mahagoni (Meliaceae). Ann. Set. For. 

52: 283-286. 
Krombein, K. V. 1994. A New Anachrysis from South Africa 

(Hymenoptera: Chrysididae: Amiseginae). Proceedings of the 

Entomological Society of Washington. 96(2): 339-341 [2 figs.]. 
1994- Reminescences of Dr. Katsuji Tsuneki. Sphecos. 

27: 6-7. 
and Pulawski, W. J. 1994. Biosystematic Studies of 



Ceylonese Wasps, XX: A Revision of Tachysphex Kohl, 1883, 
with Notes on other Oriental Species (Hymenoptera: 
Sphecidae: Larnnae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 
552: 1-106 [257 figs.]. 
'995- Systematic Notes on some Sri Lankan Scolndae 



(Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington. 97(1): 77-85 [8 figs.]. 
and Norden, B. B. 1995. Notes on the Behavior and 



Taxonomy of Megachile (Xeromegachile) brimleyi Mitchell and 
its Probable Cleptoparasite, Coelioxys (Xerocoelioxys) galactiae 
Mitchell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington. 97(1): 86—89 f 2 fig s -; 2 
tables]. 
1995- Remiscences of Dr. Kunio Iwata. Sphecos. 29: 



4-5 [I fig.]. 

Labandeira, C. C, Dilcher, D. L., Davis, D. R. and Wagner, 
D. L. 1994. Ninety-Seven Million Years of 
Angiosperm-Insect Association: Paleobiological Insights 
into the Meaning of Coevolution. Proceedings of the National 
Academy of Science. 91: 12278-12282 [2 figs.]. 

Lanviere, M. C. and Froeschner, R. C. 1994. Chilocoris 

neozelandicus, a New Species of Burrowing Bug from New 



Zealand (Heteroptera: Cydnidae). Neu Zealand Journal of 

Zoology, 21: 245-248 [5 figs.]. 
LaSalle, J. and Schauff, M. E., 1994. Systematics of the tribe 

Euderomphalim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): parasitoids of 

whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Systematic Entomology. 

19: 235-258. 
Lawrence, J. F., lipiski, and Pakaluk, J., 1995. From Latreille 

to Crowson: a history of the higher-level classification of 

beetles. Biology. Phylogeny. and Classification of Coleoptera. 

86-154. 
Mathis, W. N. and and Freidberg, A. 1994. A Revision of the 

Neartic Aulacigaster MacQuart with Notes on A. Leucopeze 

(Meigen) from the Paleartic Region (Diptera: Aulacigas- 

tridae). Proceedings oj the Entomological Society of Washington. 

96(4): 583-598. 
1995- Studies of Gymnomyzinae (Diptera: 

Ephydndae), VI: A Revision of the Genus Glenathe Haliday 

from the New World. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 

567: I-26 [59 figs.]. 
Nakahara, S., 1995. Taxonomic studies of the Genus 

Tetraleurodes (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Insecta Mundi. 

9(1-2): 105-150. 
Norden, B. B., Krombein, K. V. and Batra, S. W. T 1994. 

Nests and Enemies of Exomalopsis (Phanamalopsis) solani 

Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Mutillidae; Diptera: 

Asilidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 

Washington. 96(2): 350-356 [4 figs.]. 
Pakaluk, J., 1993. Review of the Immature Stages of Baridinae I: 

Nertinini (Coleoptera: Curcuoiomdae). Elytron. 7: 165—170. 
, 1994. [Review] Beetle larvae of the world, by 

Lawrence, J., et. al.. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 

Washington 96(4): 765-766. 
, Lipiski, S. A., and Lawrence, J. F, 1994. Current 



Classification and Family-group Names in Cucujoidea 
(Coleoptera). Genus. 5(4): 223-268. 
, 1994. Review of the immature stages of Baridinae II: 



Madarim (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Annales Zoologici. 45: 
1-14. 
and Carlow, T A., 1994. Description of the Larva of 



an Unidentified Species of Ceratophus Schoenherr, with 

comments on Plant Associations in Ceratopodinae 

(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal oj the New York 

Entomological Society, 102(3): 350—354. 
Perich, M. J., Stnckman, D., Wirtz, R. A., Stockwell, S. A., 

Glick, J. I., Burge, R., Hunt, G and Lawyer, P. G. 1995. 

Field Evaluation of Four Repellents against Leptoconops 

americanus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges. 

Journal of Medical Entomology, 32: 306—309. 
Peterson, B. V. and Kondratieft, B. C, 1994. The Black Flies 

(Diptera: Simulndae) of Colorado: an Annotated list with 

Keys, Illustrations and Descriptions of Three New Species. 

Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. 42: I— 121. 
Polaszek, A. and Krombein, K. V. 1994. The Genera of 

Bethylinae (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Journal of 

Hymenoptera Research. 3: 91— 105 [26 figs.]. 



169 



Polhemus, J. T. and Spangler, P. J. 1995. A Review of the 
Genus Stridulivelia Hungerford and Two New Species 
(Heteroptera: Veliidae) from South America. Proceedings of 
the Entomological Society of Washington. 97(1): 128-152 
[20 figs.]. 

Poole, R. W., 1995. Noctuoidea, Noctuidae (part); 

Cuculliinae, Stiriinae, Psaphidinae (part), in: The Moths of 
America North of Mexico. 249 pages with 23 black and white 
plates and 5 color plates. 

Rees, B. E., Anderson, D. M., Bouk, D. and Gordon, R. D., 
1994. Larval Key to Genera and Selected Species of North 
American Coccinellidae (Coleoptera). Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington. 96(3): 387-412. 

Russell, L. M., 1994. Notes on the Genus P araleurolobus: 
Redescription of the Genus and its Type Species and 
Description of a New Species (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 96(3): 

537-547- 
Schauff, M. E., Yoshimoto, C. M. and Hansson, C, 1994. A 

New Genus and Species of Entedoninae (Hymenoptera: 

Eulophidae) from North and Central America. Proceedings of 

the Entomological Society of Washington. 607-611. 
Shaffer, J. C. and Solis, M. A., 1994. Pyralidae of Aldabra 

Atoll 2. Epipaschnnae: hepipaschia gen. n., with a New 

Species from Aldabra and Another from Burkina Faso, 

West Africa. Entomologica Scandmavica. 25(3): 311—320. 
and Solis, M. A., 1995. Pyralinae, pgs 80-81. in: Atlas 

of Neotropical Lepidoptera Checklist: Part 2 Heppner, J. B., 

(Ed.), Vol. 3. 
Smiley, R. L. and Gerson, U., 1995. A review of the 

Tenuipalpidae (Acari: Prostigmata) of Australia with 

Descriptions of Two New Genera and Four New Species. 

International Journal of Acarology. 21(1): 33-45. 
and Baker, E. W., 1995. A report on some Tetranychid 

mites (Acari: Prostigmata) from Yemen. International 

Journal of Acarology. 21(3): 135-164. 
Smith, D. R., 1994. The Female of Haymatus blassus 

(Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Entomological Neus. 105(5): 

257-258. 
and Naito, T, 1995. A new Species of Strongylogaster 

(Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) from North America. 

Entomological Neu^s. 106(2): 57-60. 
, 1995. The Elm Leafminer, Kaltojenusa ulmi 



-, Becker, V. O. and Munroe, E. G., 1995. 



(Sundevall) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in Virginia, 

and Summary of Host Records. Bamsteria. 5: 39-41. 
Solis, M. A., 1994. Corrections to "Check List of the Old 

World Epipasciinae and the Related New World Genera 

Macalla and Epipaschia (Pyralidae)". Journal of the 

Lepidopterists' Society. 48(4): 393-394- 
, 1995. [Review] Tineid Genera of Australian 

Lepidoptera, by Robinson, G. S. and Nielsen, E. S.. 

Quarterly Review of Biology. 70: 86-87. 
, 1995. Epipaschiinae, pgs. 89—93. in: Atlas of 



Chrysauginae, pgs 81-88. in: Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera 
Checklist: Part 2. Heppner, J. B., (Ed.), Vol. 3. 

Spangler, P. J. 1995. A Review and Two New Species of the 
Genus Pseudeucinetus Heller from Southeast Asia and a 
World Checklist of the Thaumastodinae (Coleoptera, 
Limnichidae). Special Bulletin of the Japanese Society of 
Coleopterology. Tokyo, 4: 395-405 [35 figs.]. 

Stockwell, S. A., Pecor, J. E. and Glick, J. I. 1994. Mosquito 
Genera of North America: An INTKEY Package for 
Automated Identification and Information Retrieval of 
Data including Morphology, Anatomy, Classification, 
Bionomics, Medical Importance and North American 
Distribution. Available on disk or via internet at URL 
ftp://wrbu.si.edu/psyloke/public. 

Strickman, D., Wirtz, R„ Lawyer, P., Glick, J., Stockwell, S. 
and Perich, M. 1995. Meteorological Effects on the Biting 
Activity of Leptoconops amencanus (Diptera: Ceratopogo- 
nidae). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 
11: 15-20. 

Tang, Y and Marsh, P. M., 1994. A Taxonomic Study of the 
Genus Ascogaster in China (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: 
Cheloninae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research. 3: 279—302. 

Wilkerson, R. C, Hnbar, L. J., Milstrey, E. G. and Falero, G. 
C. 1995. The Identification of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) 
rondoni (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil: 
An Analysis of Key Character Variability. Mem. Inst. 
Osualdo Cruz. Rio de J. 90: 575-582. 



Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Ahearn, C.G., 1994. Family Posildae: New distribution 
records from the Antarctic. In: B. David. A. Guille. J.P. 
Feral & M. Roux (eds.). Proceedings 8th Int'l Echmoderm Conf. 
Dijon/France. Sept.ipps- Echinoderms through Time. Balkema. 
Rotterdam. Abstract. ^03. 

Ahearn, C.G., 1995. Catalog of the rype specimens of seastars 
(Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the National Museum of 
Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology 572:1-59, appx. 1. 

Aronson, R.B., P.J. Edmunds, WF. Precht, D.W. Swanson & 
D.R., 1994. Large-scale, long-term monitoring of 
Caribbean coral reefs: Simple, quick, inexpensive 
techniques. Atoll Research Bulletin 421:1-19. 

Bayer, F.M., 1995. Two new species of the Aicyonacean genus 
Protodendron (Octocorallia: Alcyoniidae) from the Indian 
Ocean off Natal. Bulletin of Marine Science 57(2):30I-3I2. 

. 1995. Two new species of the gorgonacean genus 

Ctenocella (Coelenterata: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from deep 
reefs in the western Atlantic. Bulletin of Marine Science 
56(2)597-624, figs. 1-23. 

. 1995. A new species of the gorgonacean Genus 



Neotropical Lepidoptera Checklist Part 2. Heppner, J. B., (Ed.), 
Vol. 3. 



Narella (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from Hawaiian waters. 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
io8(i):i47-i52, fig. 1-3. 



170 



. 1995- A new genus of alcyonacean coral (Anthozoa: 

Octocorallia) from Caribbean warers. Bulletin of Marine 
Science $6(z):6zo-6z4, fig. 1-2. 

. 1994. A new species of rhe gorgonacean genus Bebryce 



(Coelenterata: Ocrocorallia) from Papua-New Guinea. 

Bulletin of /Marine Science 54<2):540A553, figs. 1-4. 
Bayer, EM. & M. Grasshoff, 1994. The genus group taxa of the 

family Ellisellidae, with clarification of the genera 

established by J.E. Gray (Cnidaria; Octocorallia). 

Senckenbergiana Biologtca 74(l-2):2I— 455 . 
Bowman, T.E., 1994. Mictacea. In: C.Juberthie (ed.). 

Encyclopaedia Biospeologia. vol.i 880pp. 1:121-122. 
Cairns, S.D., 1995. New records of azooxanthellate stony corals 

(Cnidaria: Scleractinia and Stylasteridae) from the Neogene 

of Panama and Costa Rica. Proceedings of the Biological Society 

of Washington io8(3):533-550. 
. 1995. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Scleractinia 

(Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Neu- Zealand ' Oceanographic Institute 

Memoir 103: 139 pp., 44 pis. 
. 1994. Scleractinia of the temperate North Pacific. 



Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 557:150 pp., 42 plates, 3 

figs. 
Cairns, S.D., D.M. Opresko, T.S. Hopkins, & W.W. 

Schroeder, 1994. New records of Deep- Water Cnidaria 

(Scleractinia & Antipatharia) from the Gulf of Mexico. 

Northeast Gulf Science 13(1): I-II, I fig. 
Cappola, V. & R.B. Manning, 1994. Research on the coast of 

Somalia. Crustacea Stomatopod. Tropical Zoology 7(2): 

271-291, figs. 1-6. 
Child, C.A., 1994. Antarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida, I. 

The Family Ammotheidae. Antarctic Research Series. 6}. 

Biology of the Antarctic Seas XXIII:i-48, 5 figs. 
. 1994. Anrarctic and Subantarctic Pycnogonida. II. 

The Family Austrodecidae. Antarctic Research Series, 6} 

Biology of the Antarctic Seas XXIII:49-99,I7 figs. 
. 1995. Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, 



XI: Collelctions from the Aleutians and other Bering Sea 

Islands, Alaska. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 

569:1-29, figs.i-10. 
Collette, B.B. & M. Vecchione, 1995. Interactions between 

fisheries and systematics. Fisheries 2o(l):20— 25, fig. 1-2. 
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Necronectes (Decapoda,) from the Upper Oligocene of 

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Integration of morphological and ribosomal RNA data on 
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Fredencq, S., M.H. Hommersand, and D.W. Freshwater. 1995. 
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Heulsenbeck, J.P., D.L. Swofford, C.W. Cunningham, J.J. 
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Lewis, P.O. and D.J. Crawford. 1995. Pleistocene refugium 
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Pryer, K.M., A.R. Smith and J.E. Skog. 1995. Phylogenetic 
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Mitochondrial DNA analysis of gene flow between New 
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Smith, D.R. and T.C. Glenn. 1995. Allozyme polymorphisms 
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Wen, J. 1994. New taxa and nomenclatural changes in Aralia 
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Zechman, F.M., E.A. Zimmer and E.C. Theriot. Use of 
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Wen, J. and R.K.Jensen. 1995. Morphological and molecular 
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Multiple-population versus heirarchical conifer breeding 
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Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port 

Ballantine, David. L. and James N. Norris. 1994. Verdigellas, A 
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the tropical Western Atlantic. Cryptogamic Botany. 4: 
368-372. 

Bieler, Riidiger. 1995. Vermetid Gastropods from Sao Miguel, 
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Boucaud-Camou, Eve and Clyde F. E. Roper. 1995. Digestive 
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Cappola, V. and R. B. Manning. 1994. Research on the coast of 
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Felder, Darryl L. and Raymond B. Manning. 1995. 

Neocallichirus cacahuate, a new species ghost shrimp from 
the Atlantic Coast of Florida, with reexamination of N. 
Grandimana and N. Lemaitrei (Crustacea: Decapoda: 
Callianassidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington. 108(3): 477-490. 

Goodfriend, Glenn A., Michaele Kashgarian, and M. G. 
Harasewych. 1995. Use of aspartic acid racemization and 
post-bomb '"C to reconstruct growth rate and longevity of 
the deep-water slit shell Entemnotrochus adansomanus. 
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Hendler, G., J. E. Miller, D. L. Pawson, P. M. Kier. 1995. 
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the Caribbean. Smithsonian Press. 390 pages. 

Jaeckle, William B. 1995. Variation in the Size, Energy 
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Kensley, Brian, Walter G. Nelson, Marilyn J. Schotte. 1995. 
Marine Isopod Biodiversity of the Indian River Lagoon, 
Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 57(1): 136—142. 

Littler, Mark M. and Diane S. Littler. 1995. Impact of CLOD 
Pathogen on Pacific Coral Reefs. Science. 267: 1356— 1360. 

Littler, Mark M., Diane S. Littler and Phillip R. Taylor. 1995. 
Selective Herbivore Increases Biomass of its Prey: A 
Chiton-Coralline Reef-Building Association. Ecology. 76(5): 
1666-1681. 



Manning, Raymond B. and Darryl L. Felder. 1995. Description 
of the ghost shrimp Sergio mericeae, a new species from south 
Florida, with Reexamination of S. guassutinga (Crustacea: 
Decapoda: Callianassidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington. 108(2): 266-180. 

McLean, James H. and M. G. Harasewych. 1995. Revision of 
Wesrern Atlantic Species of Cocculinid and 
Pseudococculinid limpets, with Descriptions of New 
Species (Archaeogastropoda: Coccuhniformia). Contributions 
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1—33- 

Norns, James N. and David L. Ballantine. 1995. Two new 
species of the red alga Chrysymema J. Agardh 
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western Atlantic. Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington. 108(1): 153—165. 

Rice, Mary E., Julianne Piraino, and Hugh F. Reichardt. 1995. 
A Survey of the Sipuncula of the Indian River Lagoon. 
Bulletin of Marine Science. 57(1): 128-135. 

Ruppert, Edward E. 1994. Evolution Origin of the Vertebrate 
Nephron. American Zoologist. 34: 542—553. 

Ruppert, Edward E. and Mary E. Rice. 1995. Functional 
organization of dermal coelomic canals in Sipunculus nudus 
(Sipuncula) with a discussion of respiratory designs in 
sipunculans. Invertebrate Biology. 114(1): 51—63. 

Staton, Joseph L. and Darryl L. Felder. 1995. Genetic Variation 
in Populations of the Ghost Shrimp Genus Callichtrus 
(Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinoidea) in the Western 
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science. 
56(2): 513-536. 

Thomas, Mary Beth, Nancy C. Edwards, and Robert P. 
Higgins. 1995. Cryptohydra thieli n. gen., n. sp.: a 
meiofaunal marine hydroid (Hydroida, Athecata, Capitata). 
Invertebrate Biology. 114(2): 107-118. 



Smithsonian Marine Station at Link Port 

Ballantine, David. L. and James N. Norris. 1994. Verdigellas, A 
New Deep-Water Genus (Tetrasporales, Chlorophyta) From 
the tropical Western Atlantic. Cryptogamic Botany. 4: 
368-372. 

Bieler, Riidiger. 1995. Vermetid Gastropods from Sao Miguel, 
Azores: Comparative Anatomy, Systematic Position and 
Biogeographic Affiliation. Acoreana. Supplement 173:192. 

Boucaud-Camou, Eve and Clyde F. E. Roper. 1995. Digestive 
Enzymes in Paralarval Cephalapods. Bulletin of Marine 
Science. 57(2): 313-32.7. 

Cappola, V and R. B. Manning. 1994. Research on the coast of 
Somalia. Crustacea Stomatopoda. Tropical Zoology. 7: 
271-291. 

Felder, Darryl L. and Raymond B. Manning. 1995. 

Neocallichtrus cacahuate, a new species ghost shrimp from 
the Atlantic Coast of Florida, with reexamination of N. 
Grandimana and N. Lemaitrei (Crustacea: Decapoda: 



182 



Callianassidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington. 108(3): 477-490. 
Goodfriend, Glenn A., Michaele Kashganan, and M. G. 
Harasewych. 1995. Use of aspartic acid racemization and 
post-bomb l4 C to reconstruct growth rate and longevity of 
the deep-water slit shell Entemnotrochus adansomanus. 
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta., 59(6): II25-II29. 
Hendler, G., J. E. Miller, D. L. Pawson, P. M. Kier. 1995. 
Starfish, sea urchins and allies: echinoderms of Florida and 
the Caribbean. Smithsonian Press. 390 pages. 
Jaeckle, William B. 1995. Variation in the Size, Energy 
Content, and Biochemical Composition of Invertebrate 
Eggs: Correlates to the Mode of Larval Development. IN: 
Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Editor, Larry 
McEdward, CRC Press, Marine Science Series. 49-77. 
Kensley, Brian, Walter G. Nelson, Marilyn J. Schotte. 1995. 
Marine Isopod Biodiversity of the Indian River Lagoon, 
Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science. 57(1): 136—142. 
Littler, Mark M. and Diane S. Littler. 1995. Impact of CLOD 

Pathogen on Pacific Coral Reefs. Science. 267: 1356— 1360. 
Littler, Mark M., Diane S. Littler and Phillip R. Taylor. 1995. 
Selective Herbivore Increases Biomass of its Prey: A 
Chiton-Coralline Reef-Building Association. Ecology. 76(5): 
1666-1681. 
Manning, Raymond B. and Darryl L. Felder. 1995. 

Description of the +ghost shrimp Sergio mericeae, a new 
species from south Florida, with Reexamination of S. 
guassutinga (Crustacea: Decapoda: Callianassidae). 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 108(2): 
266-180. 
McLean, James H. and M. G. Harasewych. 1995. Revision of 
Western Atlantic Species of Cocculinid and 
Pseudococculinid limpets, with Descriptions of New 
Species (Archaeogastropoda: Cocculiniformia). Contributions 
in Science. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 
1-33- 
Norris, James N. and David L. Ballantine. 1995. Two new 
species of the red alga Chrysymenia J. Agardh 
(Rhodymeniales: Rhodymeniaceae) from the tropical 
western Atlantic. Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington. 108(1): 153-165. 
Rice, Mary E., Julianne Piraino, and Hugh F. Reichardt. 1995. 
A Survey of the Sipuncula of the Indian River Lagoon. 
Bulletin of Marine Science, 57(1): 128— 135. 
Ruppert, Edward E. 1994. Evolution Origin of the Vertebrate 

Nephron. American Zoologist. 34: 542-553. 
Ruppert, Edward E. and Mary E. Rice. 1995. Functional 
organization of dermal coelomic canals in Sipunculus nudus 
(Sipuncula) with a discussion of respiratory designs in 
sipunculans. Invertebrate Biology. 114(1): 51-63. 
Staton, Joseph L. and Darryl L. Felder. 1995. Genetic Variation 
in Populations of the Ghost Shrimp Genus Callichirus ( 
Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinoidea) in the Western 
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science. 
56(2): 513-536. 



Thomas, Mary Beth, Nancy C. Edwards, and Robert P. 
Higgins. 1995. Cryptohydra thieli n. gen., n. sp.: a 
meiofaunal marine hydroid (Hydroida, Athecata, Capitata). 
Invertebrate Biology. 114(2): 107-118. 



National Zoological Park 



Allen, M.E. an O.T Oftedal. 1994. The nutrition of 

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emerging morbillivirus diseases in exotic species. 

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Washington, D.C. 
1995- Inbreeding depression and outbreeding 

depression in captive populations. Ph.D. Dissertation, 

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Dein, F.J., A. Wilson, D. Fischer, and P. Langenberg. 1994. 
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, M.C. Craig-Schmidt, and R.T. Lovell. 1994. Effect of 

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Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center 



Azcon-Bieto, J., Gonzalez-Meier, M.A., Doherty, W., and 
Drake, B.G. (1994). Acclimation of respiratory ; uptake in 
green tissues of field-grown native species after long-term 
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Brown, M.J. and Parker, GG. (1994). Canopy light 
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Brown, M.J., Parker, G.G, and Posner, N.E. (1994). A survey 
of ultraviolet-B radiation in forests. J. Ecology 82:843-854. 

Boesch, D.F., Altalo, M.G., Correll, D.L., Dagg, M.J., Dean, 
J.M., Farnngton, J.W., Goldberg, E.D., Howarth, R.W., 
Jesselyn, M.N., Kemp, W.M., Oltman-Shay, J, and Royer, 
T.C. (1994). Priorities for Coastal Ecosystem Science. National 
Research Council, Natl. Acad. Press, Wash., D.C. 

Cipollini, M.L., Wallace-Senft, D., and Whigham, D.F. 
(1994). A model of patch dynamics, seed dispersal, and sex 
ratio in the dioecious shrub Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae)._/. 
Ecol. 82:621-633. 

Coats, D.W. and Bockstahler, K.R. (1994). Occurrence of 
parasitic dioflagellate Amoebophrya ceratii in Chesapeake Bay 
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Correll, D.L. (1994). Whither the watershed? The World & I 
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Correll, D.L., Jordan, T.E., and Weller, D.E. (1995). Livestock 
and pasture land effects on the water quality of Chesapeake 
Bay watershed streams. Pp. 107-117, In: K. Steele (ed.), 



Animal Waste and the Land-Water Interface. Lewis Press, New 
York. 

Correll, D.L., Jordan, T.E., and Weller, D.E. (1995). The 
Chesapeake Bay watershed: Effects of land use and geology 
on dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Pp. 639—648 In: P. 
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Correll, D.L.Jordan, T.E., and Weller, D.E. (1995). 
Long-term nitrogen deposition on the Rhode River 
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Cullen, J.J. and Neale, PJ. (1994). Ultraviolet radiation, ozone 
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Dillenburg, L.R., Teramura, A.H., Foreseth, I.N., and 
Whigham, D.F. (1995). Photosynthetic and biomass 
allocation responses of Liquidambar styraciflua 
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82:454-461. 

Ferreyra, G.A., Schloss, I.R., Demers, S., and Neale, P.J. 
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experimental approach. Antarctic J. United States 
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Grosholz, E.D. and Ruiz, G.M. (1995). Spread and potential 
impact of the recently introduced European green crab, 
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122:239-247. 

Grosholz, E.D. and Ruiz, G.M. (1995). Does spatial 

heterogeneity and genetic variation in populations of the 
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prevalence of an introduced parasitic castrator?_/. Exper. 
Mar. Biol. Ecol. 187:129-145. 

Hmes, A.H. and Ruiz, G.M. (1995). Temporal variation in 
juvenile blue crab mortality: nearshore shallows and 
cannibalism in Chesapeake Bay. Bull. Alar. Sci. 57:885—902. 

Hines, A.H., Wolcott, T.G., Gonzalez-Gurnaran, E., 
Golzalez-Escalante, J.L., and Freire, J. (1995). Movement 
patterns and migrations in crabs: Telemetry of juvenile and 
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Jacob, J., Greitner, C, and Drake, B.G. (1995). Acclimation of 
photosynthesis in relation to Rubisco and non-structural 
carbohydrate contents and in situ carboxylase activity in 
Sctrpus olneyi grown at elevated CO, in the field. Plant Cell 
Environ. 18:875-884. 

Lowman, M., Halle, F, Bouricius, B., Coley, P., Nadkarni, N., 
Parker, G., Saterson, K., and Wright, S.J. (1995). What's 
up? Perspectives from the first international forest canopy 
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Robinson, J.L., Brinsfield, R.B., Staver, K.W., Lucas, W., 
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Lynch, J.R, Carmen, W.J., Saunders, D.A. and Cale, P. (1995). 
Use of vegetated road verges and habitat patches by four 
bird species in the central wheatbelt of Western Australia. 
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Conservation 4: the Role of Networks. Surrey, Beatty and Sons, 
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Lynch, J.R and Whigham, D.R (1995). The role of habitat 
disturbance in the ecology of overwintering migratory 
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S. Sader, and M. Wilson (eds.), Conservation of Neotropical 
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Neale, P.J. and Priscu, J.C. (1995). The photosynthetic 

apparatus of phytoplankton from a perennially ice-covered 
Antarctic lake: Acclimation to an extreme shade 
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Neale, P.J and Spector, A.C. (1995). UV-absorbance by diatom 
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J. United States. 29:266—267. 

Parker, G.G. (1994). Soil fertility, nutrient acquisition, and 
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Parker, G.G. (1995). Structure and microclimate of forest 
canopies. Pp. 73—106 In: M. Lowman and N. Nadkarni 
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Frontier. Academic Press, New York. 

Rasmussen, H.N. (1994). The roles of fungi in orchid life 
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Shore, L.S., Correll, D.L., and Chakraborty, P.K. (1995). 
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physiologically significant concentrations of estrogens in 
small streams. Pp. 155-162 In: K. Steele (ed.), Animal Waste 
and the Land-Water Interface. Lewis Press, New York. 

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profiles at the Weddell-Scotia confluence during the 1993 
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Sikorski, R.J., Sigleo, A.C, and Neale, P.J. (1995). Spectral 
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Smith, L.D. (1995). Effects oflimb autotomy and tethering on 
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Sniezek, J.H., Coats, D.W., and Small, E.B. (1995). Kyarotkeus 
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Steele, K., Correll, D.L., Collins, E., Dillaha, T, Gilliam, 
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Lewis Press, New York. 

Verhoeven, J.T.A., Whigham, D.F., van Kerkoven, M., 
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nutrient-related processes in geographically separated 
wetlands: towards a science base for functional assessment 
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Larry Baukin. Laughing Souls and Other Bizarre Visitations 
(Minneapolis, Minn: Thaumysta Publishing Co. 1995). 

William E. Baxter. "American Psychiatry Celebrates 150 Years 
of Caring." Psychiatric Clinics of North America XVII (3): 
683-93. 

Martin R. Kalfatovic. "Planning Basics for a Library FTP Site: 
The 'Increase and Diffusion of Knowledge' at Smithsonian 
Institituion Libraries," pp. 37-44 in The Internet Library: 
Case Studies of Library Internet Management and Use edited by 
Julie Still. Westport, CT: Mecklermedia, 1994. 

. "A Note on Milton's Lycidas." ANQ: A Quarterly 

Journal of Short Articles. Notes, and Reviews 7(4): 208-09, 
October 1994. 

. "Smithsonian Institution Libraries: Providing World 



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Smith and Anne Gifford. Poster Session, Presented at the 
1995 American Library Association Conference, Chicago, 
IL, June 25, 1994. Poster Session Abstracts (1995): 29. 
. Review. "Edward Hopper: An Intimate Biography" 



(1995) by Gail Levin. Library Journal 120(14) (September I, 
1995): 171-72. 
. Review. "Surrealism in Exile" (1995) by Martica 



Sawin. Library Journal 120(13) (August 1995): 73. 
. Review. "Encyclopedia of Traditional Epics" (1994) by 



Guida M. Jackson. RQ 34 (4): 517, (Summer 1995). 
. Review. "Art & Money" (1995) by Marc Shell. Library 



Journal 120 (II): 69, June 15, 1995. 
. Review. "The National Jobhne Directory" (1994) by 



Robert Schmidt. RQ 34 (3): 401, Spring 1995. 
. Review. "John Sloan: Painter and Rebel" (1995) by John 



Loughery. Library Journal 120 (9): 68, May 15, 1995. 
. Review. "Gustave Klimpt: Painter of Women by Susanna 



Partsch, Monet at Gwerny by Kann Sagner-Duchting, and 



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Auguste Rodin and Camille Claudel by J. A. gen. Eisenwerth 

Schmoll" (1994)- Library Journal 120 (6): 92, April I, 1995. 

. Review. "Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and 



Intellect at the End of the Twentieth Century" (1995) by Hilton 
Kramer, ed. Library Journal 120 (4): 68, March 1, 1995. 
. Review. "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" (1994) by William 



Rubin, et al. Library Journal 120 (2) : 74, February I, 1995. 
. Review. "Walkthroughs and Flybys CD" (1993) by Phil 



Shatz. CD-ROM Professionals (1): 108-09, January 1995. 
. Review. "Cy Tuombly: A Retrospective" (1994) by Kirk 



Varnedoe. Library Journal 120 (i): 99, January 1995. 
. Review. "Critical Approaches to Information Technology 



in Librarianship: Foundations and Applications" (1993) John 
Buschman, ed. Technology and Culture 36 (1): 199—200, 
January 1995. 
. Review. "Holidays. Festivals, and Celebrations of the 



World Dictionary" (1994) by Sue Ellen Thompson and 
Barbara W. Carlson, comps. RQ 34 (2): 243-44, Winter 1994. 
. Review. "Realizing the Information Future: The Internet 



and Beyond" (1994) by National Research Council, et al. 
LIBRES: Library and Information Science Research Electronic 
Journal 4(4), December 1994. 
. Review. "Secret Lives in Art: Essays" (1994) by Jill 



Johnston. Library Journal 119 (18) : 82 November I, 1994. 
. Review. "Fernand Le'ger 1911—1924: The Rhythm of 



Modern Life" (1994) by Dorothy Kosinski, ed. Library 

Journal 119 (16): 76, October I, 1994. 
Kay A. Kenyon, compiler. Directory of Zoo and Aquarium 

Libraries 5th edition (1994). 
. Recommended List of Books and Other Information 

Resources for Zoos and Aquarium Libraries 3rd edition (1995). 
Sheila M. Riley. Review. Aloha: a novel by Mark Chrisrensen. 

Library Journal 119 (12): 125. July 1994. 
.Review. The Junky's Christmas and other stories edited 

by Elisa Segrave. Library Journal 119 (21): 136, December 

1994. 
.Review. Novel Without a Name by Duong Thu Huong. 



Library Journal 120 (1): 136, January 1995. 
.Review. Banana Rose by Natalie Goldberg. Library 



Journal 120 (3): 180, February 15, 1995. 
.Review. Rocket City by Cathryn Alpert. Library 



Journal 120 (7): in, April 15, 1995. 
.Review. Skins by Adrian C. Louis. Library Journal 120 



(10): 164, June I, 1995. 
Ruth Schallert. Review. The poet's delay: A collection of poetry by 
America's greatest observer oj nature, by H. D. Thoreau (Boston 
and New York: 1992). Archives of Natural History 21 (3): 431, 

1994- 
Diane Shaw. Review. Margins and Marginality: The Printed 

Page in Early Modem England by Evelyn B. Tribble. 

Charloctesville and London: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1993. 

Rare Books & Manuscripts Librarianship 10 (I): 49—51, 1995. 
Janet M. Stanley. Review. The Art of the Weya Women by Use 

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181, 1994. 



Mary Augusta Thomas. "Dance Magazines" in Magazines for 
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Burd, M. "Butterfly Wing Colour Patterns and Flying 
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Condit, Richard, Perez, Rolando and Aguilar, Salomon. 
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Cooke, Richard and Ruiz-Guevara, Argelis. "Salvaging, 
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Cooke, Richard and Tapia Rodriguez, Gonzalo. "Marine and 
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Dalling, James W., Swaine, M.D. and Garwood, N.C. "Effect 
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Eberhard, William G. "Evidence for Widespread Courtship 
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Hattori, M., Nakabayashi, T, Lim, Ya, Miyashiro, H, 
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